Hope and Despair in Environmental Issues
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  • 1. Hope and Despair in Environmental Topics Why is despair chasing us? Where can we find hope? Elizabeth K. Andre, MAEE Conference, March 13, 2010 Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 2. Why is it important to talk about despair? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 3. Why is it important to talk about despair? Dirty little secret of the Environmental Movement Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 4. Why is it important to talk about despair? Dirty little secret of the Environmental Movement We may be unprepared to deal with it. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 5. Why is it important to talk about despair? Dirty little secret of the Environmental Movement We may be unprepared to deal with it. Hope is a necessary component of environmental and social change. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 6. Why is it important to talk about despair? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 7. Why is it important to talk about despair? Source: Pew Research Center, October 22, 2009 Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 8. Why is it important to talk about despair? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 9. Why is it important to talk about despair? Source: Norgaard, K. M. (2006) People want to protect themselves a little bit: Emotions, denial, and social movement nonparticipation, Sociological Inquiry, 76(3): 372 - 396. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 10. Why is it important to talk about despair? When will people begin to react to global warming? Emotion and conversation norms shift Individuals have a different relationship with emotions of powerlessness, fear, & guilt. Source: Norgaard, K. M. (2006) People want to protect themselves a little bit: Emotions, denial, and social movement nonparticipation, Sociological Inquiry, 76(3): 372 - 396. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 11. Why is there so much despair in Environmental circles? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 12. Why is there so much despair in Environmental circles? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 13. The Environmental Behavior Model Hungerford and Volk, 1990 Entry Level Variables Sensitivity, Knowledge of Ecology, Attitudes towards pollution, technology and economics Ownership Variables In-depth knowledge about issues, Personal investment in the issues and the environment, Knowledge of consequences of behavior, A personal commitment to issue resolution Empowerment Variables Knowledge of and skill in using environmental action strategies, Locus of control Citizenship Behavior Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 14. The Environmental Behavior Model Hungerford and Volk, 1990 Entry Level Variables Sensitivity, Knowledge of Ecology, Attitudes towards pollution, technology and economics Ownership Variables In-depth knowledge about issues, Personal investment in the issues and the environment, Knowledge of consequences of behavior, A personal commitment to issue resolution Empowerment Variables Knowledge of and skill in using environmental action strategies, Locus of control Citizenship Behavior Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 15. Environmental Sensitivity An empathetic connection Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 16. Aldo Leopold, 1949 Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 17. “We grieve only for what we know. The erasure of Silphium from western Dane County is no cause for grief if one knows it only as a name in a botany book” Aldo Leopold, 1949 Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 18. “We grieve only for what we know. The erasure of Silphium from western Dane County is no cause for grief if one knows it only as a name in a botany book” Aldo Leopold, 1949 Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 19. Golden Toad--Costa Rica Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 20. Golden Toad--Costa Rica Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 21. Great Barrier Reef Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 22. Great Barrier Reef Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 23. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 24. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 25. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 26. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 27. Aldo Leopold Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 28. “One of the penalties of an ecological education is that one lives alone in a world of wounds.” Aldo Leopold Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 29. “One of the penalties of an ecological education is that one lives alone in a world of wounds.” Aldo Leopold Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 30. Why do we feel despair? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 31. Why do we feel despair? We are sensitive beings. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 32. Why do we feel despair? We are sensitive beings. We feel connections to other living things. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 33. Why do we feel despair? We are sensitive beings. We feel connections to other living things. They are dying. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 34. Why do we feel despair? We are sensitive beings. We feel connections to other living things. They are dying. Many environmental messages highlight loss. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 35. Why do we feel despair? We are sensitive beings. We feel connections to other living things. They are dying. Many environmental messages highlight loss. But wait...There’s more!!! Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 36. Things are complex. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 37. Things are complex. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 38. Things are complex. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 39. Things are complex. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 40. Things are complex. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 41. Things are complex. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 42. Things are complex. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 43. Things are complex. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 44. Things are complex. Disempowering Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 45. Things are complex. Disempowering Environmental Behavior Model Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 46. Things are complex. Disempowering Environmental Behavior Model •Ownership Variables Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 47. Things are complex. Disempowering Environmental Behavior Model •Ownership Variables • In-depth knowledge of issues Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 48. Things are complex. Disempowering Environmental Behavior Model •Ownership Variables • In-depth knowledge of issues • Knowledge of consequences of personal behavior Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 49. Things are complex. Disempowering Environmental Behavior Model •Ownership Variables • In-depth knowledge of issues • Knowledge of consequences of personal behavior • Empowerment Variables Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 50. Things are complex. Disempowering Environmental Behavior Model •Ownership Variables • In-depth knowledge of issues • Knowledge of consequences of personal behavior • Empowerment Variables • Locus of Control Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 51. Possible sources of despair: Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 52. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 53. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 54. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. But wait...There’s more!!! Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 55. Dominant paradigms in Environmental Philosophy Eco Marxism Ecological Modernization Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 56. Eco Marxism Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 57. Eco Marxism Captialist States: Contribute to environmental decline. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 58. Eco Marxism Captialist States: Contribute to environmental decline. Are limited in ability to promote substantive environmental improvements, because... Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 59. Eco Marxism Captialist States: Contribute to environmental decline. Are limited in ability to promote substantive environmental improvements, because... Must support the treadmill of production. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 60. Eco Marxism “Everyone is on the treadmill and unable or unwilling to get off.” Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 61. Eco Marxism Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 62. Eco Marxism Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 63. Eco Marxism Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 64. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 65. "This culture will not undergo any sort of voluntary transformation to a sane and sustainable way of living... [c]ivilization needs to be brought down now." Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 66. Eco Marxist Philosophies Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 67. Eco Marxist Philosophies The solution to our environmental crisis requires radical changes. Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 68. Eco Marxist Philosophies The solution to our environmental crisis requires radical changes. Radical change is the best way society has to deal with these challenges Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 69. Resonates with Young People Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 70. change is difficult and slow Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 71. change is difficult and slow many environmental proposals are ineffective Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 72. change is difficult and slow many environmental proposals are ineffective revolution is unlikely Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 73. change is difficult and slow many environmental proposals are ineffective revolution is unlikely actions seen as unable to significantly impact overall situation Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 74. change is difficult and slow • anger many environmental proposals are ineffective • hopelessness revolution is unlikely • apathy actions seen as unable to significantly impact overall situation • pessimism Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 75. Pessimism has a tendency to reinforce itself. Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 76. Pessimism has a tendency to reinforce itself. Hopelessness Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 77. Pessimism has a tendency to reinforce itself. Apathy sets in Hopelessness Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 78. Pessimism has a tendency to reinforce itself. Problems Apathy sets in increase Hopelessness Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 79. Pessimism has a tendency to reinforce itself. Problems Apathy sets in increase Hopelessness “A vicious downward spiral” Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 80. Possible sources of despair: Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 81. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 82. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 83. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 84. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. But wait, there’s more... Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 85. Academia Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 86. Academia “Blind pessimism is too often seen as a realistic, sophisticated, and intellectually refined view of the world among many academics. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 87. Academia “Blind pessimism is too often seen as a realistic, sophisticated, and intellectually refined view of the world among many academics. Hope is often seen as quaint, religious, and naïve.” Johnson, B. (2005) Overcoming “Doom and Gloom”: Empowering students in courses on social problems, injustice, and inequity. Teaching Sociology, 33: 44 – 58. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 88. Possible sources of despair: Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 89. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 90. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 91. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 92. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Culture of pessimism in the Academy. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 93. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Culture of pessimism in the Academy. There’ll be more later... Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 94. What do we need to counter despair? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 95. What do we need to counter despair? Optimism? Hope? Utopian visions? Drugs? Other? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 96. What is optimism? Optimism: a stable predisposition to “believe that good rather than bad things will happen” Source: Scheier & Carver, 1985; cited in Bryant, F. B. & Cvengros, J. A. (2004) Distinguishing hope and optimism: Two sides of a coin, or two separate coins? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(2), 273 – 302. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 97. What is optimism? Optimism: a stable predisposition to “believe that good rather than bad things will happen” Source: Scheier & Carver, 1985; cited in Bryant, F. B. & Cvengros, J. A. (2004) Distinguishing hope and optimism: Two sides of a coin, or two separate coins? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(2), 273 – 302. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 98. What is optimism? Optimism: a stable predisposition to “believe that good rather than bad things will happen” James Hansen et al:“if humanity wishes to preserve a planet similar to that on which civilization developed and to which life on Earth is adapted...” Source: Scheier & Carver, 1985; cited in Bryant, F. B. & Cvengros, J. A. (2004) Distinguishing hope and optimism: Two sides of a coin, or two separate coins? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(2), 273 – 302. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 99. What is optimism? Optimism: a stable predisposition to “believe that good rather than bad things will happen” “Improbable” < 650 ppm Source: Scheier & Carver, 1985; cited in Bryant, F. B. & Cvengros, J. A. (2004) Distinguishing hope and optimism: Two sides of a coin, or two separate coins? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(2), 273 – 302. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 100. What motivates 350.org? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 101. What motivates 350.org? Naive optimism? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 102. What motivates 350.org? Naive optimism? They haven’t read the data and don’t understand the improbability of success? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 103. What motivates 350.org? Naive optimism? They haven’t read the data and don’t understand the improbability of success? other? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 104. What motivates 350.org? Naive optimism? They haven’t read the data and don’t understand the improbability of success? other? Let’s turn to a philosopher for insight... Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 105. Orr, D. W. (2004) Hope in hard times. Conservation Biology 18(2), 295 – 298. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 106. “There are legitimate grounds for hope in hard times, but not one speck of ground for wishful thinking of any kind. We won’t be rescued by more research, hypertechnology, or some deus ex machina… Orr, D. W. (2004) Hope in hard times. Conservation Biology 18(2), 295 – 298. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 107. “There are legitimate grounds for hope in hard times, but not one speck of ground for wishful thinking of any kind. We won’t be rescued by more research, hypertechnology, or some deus ex machina… In our situation, hope is definitely not the same thing as optimism. It is not the conviction that something will turn out well, but the certainty that something makes sense, regardless of how it turns out (Havel 1991:181). Orr, D. W. (2004) Hope in hard times. Conservation Biology 18(2), 295 – 298. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 108. “There are legitimate grounds for hope in hard times, but not one speck of ground for wishful thinking of any kind. We won’t be rescued by more research, hypertechnology, or some deus ex machina… In our situation, hope is definitely not the same thing as optimism. It is not the conviction that something will turn out well, but the certainty that something makes sense, regardless of how it turns out (Havel 1991:181). Optimism cannot be commanded, as [Auschwitz survivor Viktor] Frankl observes, but hope can be nurtured by good work, openness to life, and rising above our lesser selves. Orr, D. W. (2004) Hope in hard times. Conservation Biology 18(2), 295 – 298. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 109. “There are legitimate grounds for hope in hard times, but not one speck of ground for wishful thinking of any kind. We won’t be rescued by more research, hypertechnology, or some deus ex machina… In our situation, hope is definitely not the same thing as optimism. It is not the conviction that something will turn out well, but the certainty that something makes sense, regardless of how it turns out (Havel 1991:181). Optimism cannot be commanded, as [Auschwitz survivor Viktor] Frankl observes, but hope can be nurtured by good work, openness to life, and rising above our lesser selves. Hope, real hope, comes from doing the things before us that need to be done in the spirit of thankfulness and celebration, without worrying about whether we will win or lose.” Orr, D. W. (2004) Hope in hard times. Conservation Biology 18(2), 295 – 298. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 110. Orr is a Philosopher Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 111. Orr is a Philosopher ... What do Cognitive Psychologists have to say about hope? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 112. Hope Theory Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 113. Hope Theory Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 114. Hope Theory Hope is “the perceived capability to derive pathways to desired goals, and motivate oneself via agency thinking to use those pathways” Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 115. Hope Theory Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 116. Hope Theory Based on premise that people are likely to think in terms of GOALS. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 117. Hope Theory Based on premise that people are likely to think in terms of GOALS. Goals provide Targets of Mental Action Sequences. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 118. Hope Theory Based on premise that people are likely to think in terms of GOALS. Goals provide Targets of Mental Action Sequences. People approach goal pursuits by thinking about how to make a useable PATHWAY from Point A to B. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 119. Hope Theory Based on premise that people are likely to think in terms of GOALS. Goals provide Targets of Mental Action Sequences. People approach goal pursuits by thinking about how to make a useable PATHWAY from Point A to B. The purpose of the human brain is to anticipate these sequences. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 120. Hope Theory Based on premise that people are likely to think in terms of GOALS. Goals provide Targets of Mental Action Sequences. People approach goal pursuits by thinking about how to make a useable PATHWAY from Point A to B. The purpose of the human brain is to anticipate these sequences. The motivation component is agency thinking—“the perceived capacity to use one’s pathways to reach desired goals.” Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 121. Hope Theory Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 122. Hope Theory A cognitive model, not an emotional one. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 123. Hope Theory A cognitive model, not an emotional one. However, emotions do play a role: Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 124. Hope Theory A cognitive model, not an emotional one. However, emotions do play a role: A person’s perceptions of success influence subsequent emotions. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 125. Hope Theory A cognitive model, not an emotional one. However, emotions do play a role: A person’s perceptions of success influence subsequent emotions. People experience negative emotions when blocked from achieving goals. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 126. Hope Theory A cognitive model, not an emotional one. However, emotions do play a role: A person’s perceptions of success influence subsequent emotions. People experience negative emotions when blocked from achieving goals. Lack of progress results in reduction in well-being (not the other way around). Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 127. Hope Theory Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 128. Hope Theory When attainment of a goal is threatened, a person experiences stress. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 129. Hope Theory When attainment of a goal is threatened, a person experiences stress. As a person begins to realize the “imperviousness of the barrier,” stress gives way to negative emotions. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 130. Hope Theory Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 131. Hope Theory False hope is “the state of having a desired goal and the requisite motivation (i.e. agency), but not having the plans to reach the goal” Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 132. Hope Theory Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 133. Hope Theory Hope theory suggests that the most appropriate goals for hope are ones that are not so easy to attain that achieving them is a “given” but that are not so lofty as to be unrealistic. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 134. Hope Theory Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 135. Hope Theory Hope theory does, however, explore certain cases where people may pursue unattainable goals with the knowledge that the goal will not be met, but that the pursuit in itself will be satisfying. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 136. Hope Theory Hope theory does, however, explore certain cases where people may pursue unattainable goals with the knowledge that the goal will not be met, but that the pursuit in itself will be satisfying. Snyder offers an example in Christians who try to emulate the perfection of Christ. Snyder, C. R. (2002) Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249 – 275. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 137. Dominant paradigms in Environmental Philosophy Eco Marxism Ecological Modernization Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 138. Ecological Modernization Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 139. Ecological Modernization Most important political ideology today. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 140. Ecological Modernization Most important political ideology today. Often called “optimistic” Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 141. Ecological Modernization Most important political ideology today. Often called “optimistic” Works within Capitalism Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 142. Ecological Modernization Most important political ideology today. Often called “optimistic” Works within Capitalism Develop new technologies to “green” industry Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 143. Ecological Modernization Most important political ideology today. Often called “optimistic” Works within Capitalism Develop new technologies to “green” industry Asks what change is needed within current institutions to create more sustainable societies. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 144. Ecological Modernization Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 145. Ecological Modernization Offers society the solution of technology. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 146. Ecological Modernization Offers society the solution of technology. Solutions will arise as developments in technology become available. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 147. Ecological Modernization Offers society the solution of technology. Solutions will arise as developments in technology become available. Dependent on eventual realization by industrialism that its methods of production are not sustainable. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 148. Ecological Modernization Offers society the solution of technology. Solutions will arise as developments in technology become available. Dependent on eventual realization by industrialism that its methods of production are not sustainable. Government plays little role in restructuring. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 149. Ecological Modernization Offers society the solution of technology. Solutions will arise as developments in technology become available. Dependent on eventual realization by industrialism that its methods of production are not sustainable. Government plays little role in restructuring. Self-regulating free market realizes its own faults. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 150. Ecological Modernization Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 151. Ecological Modernization Is true hope possible? Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 152. Ecological Modernization Is true hope possible? Remember, hope is a rational response; optimism is irrational, belief-centered. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 153. Ecological Modernization Is true hope possible? Remember, hope is a rational response; optimism is irrational, belief-centered. Optimism, as offered by E. M. removes most of the agentic powers of individuals & places the desired outcome in the hands of technology. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 154. Ecological Modernization Is true hope possible? Remember, hope is a rational response; optimism is irrational, belief-centered. Optimism, as offered by E. M. removes most of the agentic powers of individuals & places the desired outcome in the hands of technology. Similar to false hope: “I hope it doesn’t snow today!” Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 155. Ecological Modernization “The risk of hoping, but not being the agent bearing the responsibility for the fulfillment of that hope, is that it is difficult to evaluate progress toward the hoped-for goal or indeed whether it remains a realistic goal.” Source: Drahos, P. (2004). Trading in public hope. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 592, 18. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 156. Ecological Modernization Source: Drahos, P. (2004). Trading in public hope. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 592, 18. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 157. Ecological Modernization E. M. principles can then be used as a tool to manipulate society, preventing any challenges to current policies. Source: Drahos, P. (2004). Trading in public hope. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 592, 18. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 158. Ecological Modernization E. M. principles can then be used as a tool to manipulate society, preventing any challenges to current policies. There is no hope or cooperation in E. M. due to the overemphasis on technological developments to solve society’s problems. Source: Drahos, P. (2004). Trading in public hope. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 592, 18. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 159. Possible sources of despair: Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 160. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 161. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 162. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 163. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Culture of pessimism in the Academy. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 164. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Culture of pessimism in the Academy. Ecological Modernization does not allow for true hope. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 165. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Culture of pessimism in the Academy. Ecological Modernization does not allow for true hope. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 166. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Culture of pessimism in the Academy. Ecological Modernization does not allow for true hope. There’ll be more later... Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 167. What do we need to counter despair? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 168. What do we need to counter despair? Optimism? Hope? Utopian visions? Other? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 169. Utopian Visions Source: Pepper, D. (2005). Utopianism and environmentalism. Environmental Politics, 14(1), 3. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 170. Utopian Visions All Environmentalism contains utopia as an end goal. Source: Pepper, D. (2005). Utopianism and environmentalism. Environmental Politics, 14(1), 3. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 171. Utopian Visions All Environmentalism contains utopia as an end goal. Utopianism is utilized in the environmental movement to “inspire hope” Source: Pepper, D. (2005). Utopianism and environmentalism. Environmental Politics, 14(1), 3. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 172. Utopian Visions All Environmentalism contains utopia as an end goal. Utopianism is utilized in the environmental movement to “inspire hope” Yet hope surrounds an attainable goal that can be reached by planning and realistic assessments. Source: Pepper, D. (2005). Utopianism and environmentalism. Environmental Politics, 14(1), 3. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 173. Utopian Visions All Environmentalism contains utopia as an end goal. Utopianism is utilized in the environmental movement to “inspire hope” Yet hope surrounds an attainable goal that can be reached by planning and realistic assessments. Utopianism as offered by environmentalists undermines the true power of hope as a social change mechanism. Source: Pepper, D. (2005). Utopianism and environmentalism. Environmental Politics, 14(1), 3. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 174. Utopian Visions All Environmentalism contains utopia as an end goal. Utopianism is utilized in the environmental movement to “inspire hope” Yet hope surrounds an attainable goal that can be reached by planning and realistic assessments. Utopianism as offered by environmentalists undermines the true power of hope as a social change mechanism. Utopias as fantasy are devoid of social change potential.s Source: Pepper, D. (2005). Utopianism and environmentalism. Environmental Politics, 14(1), 3. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 175. Source: Breyman, S. (1997). Social studies of science and activism: STS as campus greening movement. Philosophy and Social Action, 23(1), 5. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 176. To be truly involved in the environmental movement for the duration that is required to create valuable change, the belief in utopia is contradictory. Source: Breyman, S. (1997). Social studies of science and activism: STS as campus greening movement. Philosophy and Social Action, 23(1), 5. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 177. To be truly involved in the environmental movement for the duration that is required to create valuable change, the belief in utopia is contradictory. An honest assessment of the obstacles as required by substantial hope prevents both unrealistic expectations and burn-out. Source: Breyman, S. (1997). Social studies of science and activism: STS as campus greening movement. Philosophy and Social Action, 23(1), 5. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 178. Possible sources of despair: Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 179. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 180. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 181. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 182. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Culture of pessimism in the Academy. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 183. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Culture of pessimism in the Academy. Ecological Modernization does not allow for true hope. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 184. Possible sources of despair: We are sensitive and things are dying. Issues are complex and we become disempowered. Eco Marxism encourages unrealistic goals, and we fail to reach them. Culture of pessimism in the Academy. Ecological Modernization does not allow for true hope. Utopian visions cannot inspire true hope. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 185. So... How can we respond? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 186. One possible strategy: Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 187. One possible strategy: “making this choice cheats students of what they enter into a college classroom for in the first place—namely, frank, honest, and critical discussions of pressing issues” Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 188. Meliorism William James, John Dewey Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 189. Meliorism William James, John Dewey The world is neither good nor bad in itself; it is only good or bad and only gets better or worse as a result of human intervention and action. Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 190. Meliorism William James, John Dewey The world is neither good nor bad in itself; it is only good or bad and only gets better or worse as a result of human intervention and action. Focused on action and incremental change Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 191. Meliorism William James, John Dewey The world is neither good nor bad in itself; it is only good or bad and only gets better or worse as a result of human intervention and action. Focused on action and incremental change De-emphasizes the false dualism of optimism and pessimism Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 192. Meliorism William James, John Dewey The world is neither good nor bad in itself; it is only good or bad and only gets better or worse as a result of human intervention and action. Focused on action and incremental change De-emphasizes the false dualism of optimism and pessimism Allows us to remain grounded and realistically cognizant of the depth and breadth of challenges and at the same time keep hope. Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 193. “Melior ism tends to undercut the defeatist, alarmist, and generally depressing appraisals of the future by encouraging us to invest in the possibility of possibility” Source: Sheppard, J. W. (2004) Reducing pessimism’s sway in the environmental ethics classroom. Worldviews, 8(2 – 3), 213 – 226. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 194. the possibility of possibility Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 195. Meliorism Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 196. Meliorism Utopian ideal is peripheral to a sound perspective of smaller goals that are visibly achievable by individuals and groups. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 197. Meliorism Utopian ideal is peripheral to a sound perspective of smaller goals that are visibly achievable by individuals and groups. Challenges pessimism and optimism as well as Eco Marxism and E. M. by replacing defeatism and utopianism with opportunity. Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 198. Meliorism Utopian ideal is peripheral to a sound perspective of smaller goals that are visibly achievable by individuals and groups. Challenges pessimism and optimism as well as Eco Marxism and E. M. by replacing defeatism and utopianism with opportunity. Can be a mechanism of providing hope: Awareness of obstacles Ability to see reward in small changes Attentiveness to larger goal Source: Lueck, M. A. M. (2007). Hope for a cause as cause for hope: The need for hope in environmental sociology. American Sociology, 38: 250 – 261. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 199. What do we need to counter despair? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 200. What do we need to counter despair? Hope Meliorism Humor Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 201. Tragedy vs. Comedy Orr, D. W. (2004) Hope in hard times. Conservation Biology 18(2), 295 – 298. Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 202. What do we need to counter despair? Saturday, March 13, 2010
  • 203. What do we need to counter despair? Hope Meliorism Humor Other? Saturday, March 13, 2010