The really catastrophic side effects are those                Origins of Rich Picture...
D The employees that work in it;                                         The three most important components of a
D The cu...
Table 1. Elements of an Effective Rich Picture                                            put on her to reduce the number ...
== different roles influence one another
                                  Figure 2 Rich Picture of Web Design Consultancy...
D Brainstorming: Brainstorming is often                         Using a rich picture does not, in itself, solve
include Monk et al.’s simplified user testing               designer can develop common ground by
procedure Cooperative Ev...
work context that will be required. He sug-                  middle of a large sheet of paper some figure
operator : SO us...
this reason one should not be afraid to throw                    al interviews, “train me” sessions, work log-
away an ear...
blinders and making a genuine attempt to see                      London, 1992.
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The Rich Picture A Tool For Reasoning About Work Context


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The Rich Picture A Tool For Reasoning About Work Context

  1. 1. R33 ANDREW MONK AND STEVE HOWARD methods & tools Rich Picture: 10.1-P101, Root Definitions: 10.2 The Rich Picture: A Tool for consider logically Reasoning About Work Context T The Importance of Concerns Have you ever observed the following situation? A computer system is built to satisfy well-specified requirements. The requirements clearly describe the task to be supported, and the system express complete disapproval of satisfies them. Despite all this care and attention, the system is universally condemned by management and users. Why does this happen? Surprisingly often, the task supported is not one that users actually perform. More likely, the model of work underlying the computer system interferes with other tasks the user wants to perform. i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8 21
  2. 2. terrible The really catastrophic side effects are those Origins of Rich Pictures that prevent other people from doing their Rich pictures originated in the Soft Systems work. If the chief accountant can no longer get Methodology (SSM) [4, 3, 18]. SSM, in turn, the figures she needs, the system will never see had its origins in sociotechnical approaches to the light of day! system design [15]. Within this tradition, Andrew Monk A new computer system will affect the way identifying multiple viewpoints of a work sit- repeated Department of people work; if it does not there is no point in uation is a recurrent problem. SSM was devel- Psychology introducing it in the first place. These effects oped during the 1960s and 1970s by Peter harmful University of York will be deleterious if the developers do not Checkland and his students at Lancaster consequence York, Y01 5DD consider the implications for both the system’s University. At the core of SSM is a desire to United Kingdom users and other people who may be affected by understand human activity systems in a way AM1@york.ac.uk use of the system. All work has numerous, and that is meaningful to the actors in that system. sometimes competing, objectives. A single SSM consists of seven main stages that pro- express Steve Howard user may have the objectives “to complete a ceed from articulating the problem situation, Swinburne CHI job well” and “to get home soon.” through building alternative systems models, Laboratory (SCHIL) Management may have the objectives “to cut to making recommendations for action. Swinburne University the head count in this department” and to Checkland proposes the rich picture as a rep- of Technology “minimize the transaction times for cus- resentation to be used at the beginning of this PO Box 218, tomers.” We call these objectives “concerns.” process. Hawthorn, 3122 Concerns are the high-level objectives that sig- Rich pictures are generally constructed by Australia nificantly constrain the way work is done. interviewing people. The ideal interview SHoward@swin.edu.au Effective systems can be designed only by tak- should take place at the workplace because the different tool ing into account the divergent concerns of artifacts people use to do their work will be stakeholders. A designer may think she is tak- close at hand. They will be able to show you ing an “impersonal view of the problem,” but documents and products, and you may even exact the very act of identifying the problem implies be able to observe them doing their work. The a particular viewpoint. rich picture serves to organize and reason How is a designer therefore to reason about about all the information that users provide. these divergent concerns that motivate the Drawing the picture will point to places where way different stakeholders view the system you need to find out more or to apparent con- inconsistency, conflict they are designing? This paper discusses a sim- tradictions in the conclusions you have drawn. ple graphical device, called a rich picture, that In the latter case you will need to go back to has been found to be useful in this respect. A your informants and then make changes based rich picture is a cartoon-like representation on what they tell you. Drawing a rich picture that identifies all the stakeholders, their con- then is an iterative process of understanding cerns, and some of the structure underlying and refining that understanding. the work context. A rich picture is a tool for What does a rich picture look like? The recording and reasoning about these aspects of rich picture depicts the primary stakeholders, the work context, in particular, how they their interrelationships, and their concerns. It should affect the design. It is a tool in the is intended to be a broad, high-grained view sense that a notation or representation is a of the problem situation. There is no single tool. Rich pictures have been used as an ele- best way of producing a rich picture; the same ment of various methods. The next section analyst will use different styles under different briefly explains the origin of rich pictures in circumstances. To illustrate this, Figures 1 and the Soft Systems Methodology and how they 2 present rich pictures of contrasting styles. afterwards draw look. The sections thereafter sketch some They depict a pub and a Web design compa- examples of how they may be used in HCI. A ny, respectively. Figure 1 is intended to cap- rich picture is a small but effective idea. It can ture the viewpoints of beer factory be incorporated into any design process. D The brewery owning and supplying the Perhaps it would be useful in yours. pub; 22 i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8
  3. 3. D The employees that work in it; The three most important components of a D The customers that frequent it; and rich picture are structure, process, and con- D Indirectly involved stakeholders such as cerns. the community, the police, and other D Structure refers to aspects of the work nearby area pubs in the vicinity. context that are slow to change. These Contrast this with Figure 2, which is might be things such as the organizational place intended to capture the internal structure of hierarchy of a firm, geographic localities, the Web design company and viewpoints of physical equipment, and so on. Most the roles within it, as well as the viewpoints of important, it includes all the people who human imaginably external bodies such as clients. Figure 1 will use or could conceivably be affected emphasizes the flow of goods and services by the introduction of the new system. In from supplier to customer, whereas Figure 2 Figure 1 the structure described is a brew- emphasizes the flow of influence. So, for ery, owning a pub, having a landlord and example, the Professional Society of Web customers, and situated in a community. Designers influences the company through In Figure 2 the structure includes the expectations and standards. The director boundaries between the company and the influences the work of the analyst and the world in general and those of a given pro- coder through strategy documents, and so on. ject within the company. The analysts Figure 1 Rich Picture of a Pub Profit? Am I earning Concern enough? Capital Investment || zz yyy ,,, Management The Landlord The Employee ||| zzz yy ,, Goals Transformation The Brewery Stackholder Profits Value for Money Quality of Facilities Image ||| Enjoyment Goods Noise? Disturbance? Cash Convenience? The Customers The Pub tension, conflict The Community Competition Closing time? Drunk driving? Other Pubs The Police Based on Patching, 1995 i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8 23
  4. 4. Table 1. Elements of an Effective Rich Picture put on her to reduce the number of staff Element Comment in her department. Someone in that 1. Include structure Include only enough structure to allow department may have a concern that his downgrade you to record the process and con- job may be de-skilled or that he may be fire cerns. The latter requires that all the laid off. The thought bubbles coding con- people who will use or could con- cerns in Figure 1 make it clear that the ceivably be affected by the introduc- brewery, the employees of the pub, and tion of the new system be included. the customers each have very different complexdetails perspectives on what the pub is for. 2. Include process Do not attempt to record all the intri- Finally, tensions between stakeholders can very general and without many details cacies of process; a broad brush be highlighted. The “crossed swords” icon approach is usually all that is needed serves this purpose. In Figure 1 the pub is draw shown to be in tension with other pubs, pre- 3. Include concerns Caricature the concern in a thought seemingly sumably through their competition for a lim- bubble (see Figures 1–3 for exam- collection ited pool of customers. Identifying tensions ples). A fuller explanation may be with crossed swords is a useful preliminary provided in a supplementary docu- step to precisely identifying the conflicting ment concerns and how they may be resolved. 4. Use the language of This will make the rich picture com- Table 1 lists some of the features that make the people depicted in it prehensible to your informants for an effective rich picture. The first three serve to prevent the rich picture from becom- 5. Use any pictorial or textual There is no correct way of drawing a ing overloaded with detail. The advantage of device that suits your purpose rich picture. There are as many styles having a rich picture that is comprehensible to as analysts and the same analyst will the people who have given you the informa- find different styles useful in differ- tion (Item 4 in Table 1) is that you can take it ent situations back to them for review. In this way you can obtain elicit new information and correct mistakes of drawing the rich picture are included in interpretation. The discipline of using the lan- this structure to remind themselves that guage of the work context may also help pre- they too have a separate viewpoint, con- vent the inclusion of structure, process, and cerns, and possible bias. (preference) concerns that are not real but that the analyst D Process refers to the transformations that thinks should be there. The last point in Table occur in the process of the work. These 1 is that work context analysis requires imagi- transformations might be part of a flow of nation and creativity, just like design itself. goods, documents, or data. In Figure 1 the Examining the examples given here and in the processes depicted are transformations of references should provide plenty of ideas for goods, money, and enjoyment. In Figure 2 potential users of this technique. the emphasis is more on the process by The remainder of this article illustrates the which different roles influence one another. role that rich pictures can play in two related D Concerns is the most useful component, contexts: participatory design and lightweight for the purposes of this paper. Checkland usability engineering. calls them “issues.” We prefer the word “concern” because it captures more clearly Uses of Rich Pictures the idea of a particular individual’s moti- Rich Pictures in Participatory Design Participatory design is an approach to vation for using the system. These differ- Drawing a rich picture requires that the analyst design that attempts to actively involve ent motivations give rise to the different work closely with the stakeholders so that the the end users in the design process to help ensure that the product designed perspectives each person has. Each of the pictures capture the situation and related con- meets their needs and is usable. people captured in the rich picture will cerns from the stakeholders’ points of view. have concerns. A manager might have a Stakeholders participate in the process by concern arising from the pressure being working with the analyst to identify structures, 24 i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8
  5. 5. == different roles influence one another Figure 2 Rich Picture of Web Design Consultancy Fishy Web Inc. FISHY WEB INC. Professional Society of Web Designer Project Team Profit? Long term reputation? Expectations Standards boundary Director Resources Need more Data time Potential Clients Strategy Documents Market Research Administration Marketing boundary I don’t have Work enough time to talk to the user If only I had more powerful Web Analyst tools Competitor Concepts Companies Problems Solutions HTML Coder Marketing Good job done dirt cheap Focus? Bias? preference Current Clients Analysts processes, and concerns significant to them. that identifies the stakeholders and the work environment SSM’s focus on the stakeholders’ viewpoint setting. Figures 1–3 are examples of this type shares much with various participatory design of rich picture. | Additionally, a rich picture of methods [e.g., 7]. There is, however, an impor- the participatory design team itself can be tant difference between participatory design used to identify the necessary managers, involving active participation and SSM: the role of the user in the design hands-on users, beneficial users, analysts, process. In participatory design the user takes designers, and other participants. This type of an active role in the analysis and design rich picture can be useful in “designing process; in SSM this is often not the case. design,” in composing the stakeholder meet- Rich pictures can be used to record, reason ings, and in reasoning about design processes. about, communicate, and negotiate signifi- Comparing the work-context rich picture cant issues as they arise during or after partic- with the design-context rich picture provides a ipatory design. Essentially the role of the rich way of checking whether there is appropriate picture is to make explicit the stakeholders, stakeholder representation on the design their interrelationships, and their concerns. team. Consider the use of rich pictures with Interestingly, this can be done at two levels. A the following techniques seen frequently in rich picture of the work context can be drawn approaches to participatory design. i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8 25
  6. 6. D Brainstorming: Brainstorming is often Using a rich picture does not, in itself, solve skilful used to generate ideas about the problems any of the delicate problems encountered in and potential solutions of the work situa- participatory design: how to deal with private tion. Because rich pictures can be drawn or confidential concerns, how to bring togeth- “on the fly” during a brainstorming ses- er different constituencies that have very dif- Unduly: more than is normal or reasonable sion, ideas can be captured without unduly ferent ways of describing the work context, or disrupting or constraining a necessarily cre- how to deal with minorities within a con- ative, unstructured process. Rich pictures stituency. However, constructing a rich pic- mamy here present an alternative to the multitude ture with the help of the relevant stakeholders Sketch: preliminary drawing Doodle: to draw shapes, lines, or patterns without of sketches and doodles that participants will make the concerns apparent, and identi- really thinking about what you are doing often walk away with from brainstorming fying a problem is an important first step in sessions. A rich picture helps everyone solving it. involved in its construction to take a con- sistent view of the problem situation with- Rich Pictures in Lightweight out demanding that they all agree on what Usability Methods the problem is. Multiple conflicting con- When people think of user interface design cerns can be captured in the pictures as they usually think of large, high-profile pro- shown in Figures 1–3. jects, such as word processors or military com- D Storyboarding: Storyboarding is often mand and control systems. The majority of used to describe the flow of, for example, user interface design projects are in fact very the users’ activities so that they can be small: perhaps, for example, someone has reviewed and evaluated by both designers requested a Windows 95 interface for some and users. Rich pictures can provide an small part of the company database. Another elegant adjunct to a connected series of example is the design of a Web page. The one storyboards by representing, in a single or two developers given the task probably do abstract summary, the major structures not even consider themselves user interface increasing and flows, at an organizational level, rele- designers; yet cumulatively these small pro- vant to a work situation. Rich pictures jects significantly affect the productivity of an here present a supplement to the flow organization. charts and procedural descriptions often On a large project one can afford to recruit used to connect the separate episodes of a or train developers in specialized techniques; story. indeed, an elaborate, well-specified design Mock-up: a full-size model of something large that has not yet been built, which shows how it will look or operate, D Paper-Based Prototyping: Many partici- methodology may be necessary just to manage or which is used when the real thing is not needed patory design techniques use paper-based the large number of personnel involved [11]. mock-ups and prototypes to repre- On a small project the techniques used must sent design ideas early in the be “lightweight,” that is, the costs to the orga- development process [e.g., nization must be minimal. Nielsen [16] has name 14]. Such techniques pro- dubbed these techniques “discount.” They vide a way for stakehold- may only achieve 90 percent of what is possi- ers to comment on the ble with more elaborate methods, but they do details of the design and so for very much less than 90 percent of the the extent to which it cost. Costs here are measured in training and meets the user’s charac- in the time it takes to apply the technique; teristics and needs. In therefore, lightweight techniques have to be capturing the primary easy to learn and quick to apply. If a project is concerns of the users assigned only 4 person-weeks of effort, a tech- and, potentially, the major information nique for improving some aspect of the quali- flows likely to affect the system, the rich ty of a user interface is unlikely to justify more picture places the emerging design in its than 1 day of training and 2 or 3 days of appli- overall social and technical context. cation. Examples of lightweight techniques i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8
  7. 7. include Monk et al.’s simplified user testing designer can develop common ground by procedure Cooperative Evaluation [13] and focusing on actions and tasks. A rich picture Nielsen’s simplified usability inspection tech- can serve a similar communicative function nique, Heuristic Evaluation [17]. With these much earlier in design when one is thinking techniques, prototypes and scenarios are cru- about the general work context and the con- cial parts of communication between designer straints this imposes. and user. Without these concrete representa- Monk [12] describes how a rich picture can tions of the design, little communication can be used as the first step in a lightweight design occur. With them, however, both user and process, to reason about the redesign of the too many people P Figure 3. Rich Picture of a Cold Storage Warehouse i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8 27
  8. 8. work context that will be required. He sug- middle of a large sheet of paper some figure operator : SO use and control a machine or vehicle gests that “before” and ”after” rich pictures be who represents the primary user or operator. developed. The former records critical aspects Monk’s lightweight technique is to encourage of the work context as it now exists, and the user centered-design and to avoid the natural latter illustrates how the context tendency for developers to take a system-ori- will change when the new sys- ented view. Putting the operator at the center tem is introduced. The before of the picture makes her the focus of atten- picture can be presented to tion. Next, the stakeholders that directly one’s informants to check influence the operator’s work can be pictured that the analysis does not along with the elements of structure needed to misinterpret misconstrue or explain the process of work. Monk illustrates omit crucial fac- his methods with a real example of design for tors. If more than a cold storage warehouse; the rich picture one developer is developed in this process is shown in Figure 3. working on the project, The operator is given a fictitious name, Jenny. the before picture can also be invaluable in Jenny’s job involves taking delivery notes from communication between developers and get- the drivers of vehicles bringing goods into the ting everyone to think on the same wave- warehouse (depicted as stick figures wearing length. As the prototype design is developed caps). Jenny enters the data from the delivery tally: a record or count of a number of items an after picture will emerge. The after picture note into a computer system to provide tally can be presented to management to alert them lists for the deliveries to be checked by the to the implications of the new computer sys- warehouse men (signified by stick figures tem. If they are unhappy it is still early enough wearing black hats). The roles described thus for changes to be made. If they accept the far then are the core stakeholders in the design then they can make appropriate adjust- process of getting the work done. The rich ments, change reporting structures, organize picture also identifies other clerks and a super- external retraining, and so on. visor. Finally, the most peripheral stakeholders The procedure suggested by Monk first are drawn in. In Figure 3 they appear at the involves talking to stakeholders about their top edge of the picture. They are the directors jobs. A rich picture can be a useful way for and computer systems people of the two orga- developers who are not used to this sort of nizations taking part of this operation—the work to focus their thoughts. Normally a des- owners of the cold store and the owners of the intended ignated contact in the user organization will stores supplied. be interviewed first. The people who will end When the major structures and processes up actually using the system should also be have been added, the concerns can be interviewed. It is then a matter of judgment addressed. The thought bubble for Jenny in how many of the additional stakeholders iden- Figure 3 codes the wide variations in workload tified by these initial informants one also she has to put up with. Other concerns needs to talk to. It is always a good idea to included are the need for the drivers to get interview people in their workplace, where away as soon as possible, worries about job they can show you documents, screens, and so security, and so on. Thought bubbles may be secret on. A portable tape recorder may be useful to somewhat cryptic to someone who was not check what was said, and you should always involved in generating a rich picture, so Monk have a prepared list of topics or interview suggests that an additional sheet be added schedule so that you cover all the critical explaining in slightly more detail the concerns points. Clegg et al. [5] give useful and practi- of each stakeholder. The same sheet may cal advice on how to get the best out of your explain the process and specific responsibili- informants. ties not coded on the picture. When drawing a rich picture for this pur- One of the important reasons for drawing pose, you normally start by sketching in the a rich picture is to clarify one’s thoughts. For 28 i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8
  9. 9. this reason one should not be afraid to throw al interviews, “train me” sessions, work log- away an early version and start again. Rich ging, semistructured interviews, scenario pictures can also be presented to informants analysis, model building, wish lists, and (although you may need different versions for assumption challenging. They argue that no METHODS TOOLS a small change, improvement different informants) to make amendments or single technique is capable of capturing full COLUMN EDITORS important radical revision. The rich picture is only the the diversity of the work setting. Michael Muller first step in Monk’s lightweight method. The Dearden and Wright draw an interesting Microsoft Corporation next is to identify work objectives and user distinction between techniques that are situat- One Microsoft Way exceptions, which are then used to develop ed in the work context and those that go Redmond, WA 98052 scenarios that can be used to refine early pro- beyond the immediate situation. The former mullerm@acm.org totype designs and to make sure that the techniques can be used only in the work place. design supports all relevant aspects of the The latter allow the analyst and the user to Finn Kensing work. The rich picture serves as a starting detect issues beyond the range of the observ- Department of point and a context for all these activities. able situation, for example, the organizational Computer Science Readers wishing to know more about this and historical contexts. Dearden and Wright Roskilde University process should consult Monk [12]. assert that different techniques have different Building 20.2 Monk’s lightweight method is a relatively strengths and weaknesses. Observation allows P.O. Box 260 informal technique; that is, it is not precisely one to separate what people say they do from DK 4000 Roskilde specified. This has the advantage of making it what they really do, but it has practical limita- Denmark relatively easy to learn and apply. The disad- tions. With only a limited amount of time in +45-4674-2548 vantage is that different people will apply it in the workplace it may be impossible to see the Fax: +45-4674-3072 different ways. This is not a problem when the full process. Infrequent, but nonetheless kensing@ruc.dk design team is small and coordination is important, problems may not crop up while straightforward. However, when design teams you are actually there. Only by using a variety get larger a much more precisely specified of situated and nonsituated techniques can succeed method is needed, just so that everyone knows the fullest account emerge, given the prevail- what everyone else is doing [11]. Examples of ing practical constraints. The rich picture can more tightly specified procedures that make serve as a representation to motivate all these use of rich pictures are different sources of information about the D TheoryBuilder [10, 19]; work. It can also serve as a representation to D Howard and Smith’s [8] use of rich pic- integrate information regarding the higher tures with Johnson’s [9] Knowledge level work context coming from Analysis of Tasks; and the sources. D Multiview [2]. The versatility of the rich picture arises from its sim- Some Final Comments plicity. We suspect that repeating One recurring theme in this review has been many readers will the value of using more than one technique already have seen ways of when analyzing a work context. We are not incorporating rich pic- suggesting that using a rich picture will solve tures into their own meth- all your problems. It is just one of many small ods and we would encourage but useful ideas that may be applied to any them to do so. The foregoing design problem. The value of using a wide examples of good practice variety of techniques is eloquently discussed should allow you to do this by Dearden and Wright [6]. They report on a effectively. Perhaps one day case study that borrowed from a number of the rich picture will be as familiar methodological traditions to analyze a work a diagram to see at a design meeting as the widespread context. According to this approach an SSM- now ubiquitous data flow diagrams and flow style rich picture is just one of the techniques charts. When that day arrives we will have used. Dearden and Wright also used contextu- moved much further toward removing our i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8 29
  10. 10. blinders and making a genuine attempt to see London, 1992. the other person’s point of view. System design 10. Khushalani, A., Smith, R., and Howard, S. What can only benefit from such a change. happens when designers don’t play by the rules: towards a model of opportunistic behaviour in design. Acknowledgments Australian Journal of Information Systems 1, 2 (1994), Dr. Monk was supported by the ESRC pp. 13–31. Cognitive Engineering Program. Dr. Howard 11. Kraut, R. E., and Streeter, L. A. Coordination in was supported by a grant from Swinburne software development. Communications of the ACM 38, University of Technology, Australia. We 3 (1995), pp. 69–81. would like to thank the editors of this section 12. Monk, A. F. Lightweight techniques to encourage for valuable comments on an earlier manu- innovative user interface design. In L. Wood R. script. Zeno, eds., Bridging the Gap: Transforming User Requirements into User Interface Design. CRC Press, References Boca Raton, 1997. 1. Avison, D. and Fitzgerald, G. Information Systems 13. Monk, A. F., Wright, P., Haber, J., Development: Methodologies, Techniques and and Davenport, L. Improving Tools. Blackwell Scientific Publishers, Oxford, your human-computer 1988. interface: a practical tech- 2. Avison, D. and Wood- nique. BCS Practitioner Harper, T. Multiview Series. Prentice-Hall, Methodology. Blackwell Hemel Hempstead, 1993. Scientific Publishers, 14. Muller, M. J. PICTIVE—An exploration in partici- Oxford, 1990. patory design. In S. P. Robertson, G. M. Olson, and J. 3. Checkland, P. Systems S. Olson, eds., CHI’91 Human Factors in Computer Thinking, Systems Practice. John Systems (New Orleans, 1991). ACM, New York, pp. Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1981. 225–231. 4. Checkland, P. and Scholes, J. Soft 15. Mumford, E. Sociotechnical system design: evolving Systems Methodology in Action. John Wiley and Sons, theory and practice. In G. Bjernes, P. Ehn, and M. Chichester, 1990. Kyng, eds., Computers and Democracy: A Scandinavian 5. Clegg, C., Warr, P., Green, T., Monk, A., Kemp, N., Challenge. Avebury, Aldershot, UK, 1987. Allison, G., and Lansdale, M. People and Computers: 16. Nielsen, J. Usability Engineering at a Discount. In PERMISSION TO MAKE DIGITAL/ HARD How to Evaluate Your Company’s New Technology. Ellis G. Salvendy and M. J. Smith, eds., Proceedings of the COPY OF PART OR ALL OF THIS WORK Horwood, Chichester, UK, 1988. Third International Conference on Human-Computer FOR PERSONAL OR CLASSROOM USE IS 6. Dearden, A. and Wright, P. Experiences Using Interaction, HCI-International ‘89, Boston, September, GRANTED WITHOUT FEE PROVIDED Situated and Non-situated Techniques for Studying Elsevier Science, 1989, pp. 394–401. THAT COPIES ARE NOT MADE OR Work in Context. In S. Howard, J. Hammond, and G. 17. Nielsen, J. and Mohlich, R. Heuristic evaluation of DISTRIBUTED FOR PROFIT OR COM- Lindgaard, eds., Human Computer Interaction—INTER- user interfaces. In J. C. Chew and J. Whiteside, eds., MERCIAL ADVANTAGE, THE COPYRIGHT ACT’97. Chapman and Hall, London, 1997. Human Factors in Computer Systems, CHI’90. CHI ’90, NOTICE, THE TITLE OF THE PUBLICA- 7. Greenbaum, J. and Kyng, M. Design at Work: Seattle, April, ACM, New York, 1990, pp. 249–256. TION AND ITS DATE APPEAR, AND Cooperative Design of Computer Systems. Lawrence 18. Patching, D. Practical Soft Systems Analysis. London, NOTICE IS GIVEN THAT COPYING IS BY Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991. Pitman Publishing, 1990. PERMISSION OF ACM, INC. TO COPY 8. Howard, S. and Smith, R. Using the Soft Systems 19. Smith, R., Howard, S., Sutherland, T., and OTHERWISE, TO REPUBLISH, TO POST Methodology to Front-end Task Analysis. In HCI: A Khushalani, A. TheoryBuilder: A Behavioural Perspective ON SERVERS, OR TO REDISTRIBUTE TO Light Into the Future, Proceedings of OZCHI’95 on Modelling and Improving Systems Development. LISTS REQUIRES PRIOR SPECIFIC PERMIS- (Wollongong, Australia, November 1995), pp. 88–94. Proceedings of First Australian Seminar on Modelling and SION AND/OR A FEE. 9. Johnson, P. Human Computer Interaction: Psychology, Improving Systems Development. School of Information © ACM 1072-5220/98/0300 $3.50 Tasks Analysis and Software Engineering. McGraw-Hill, Technology, Swinburne University, 1994. 30 i n t e r a c t i o n s . . . m a r c h + a p r i l 1 9 9 8