Chapter 11


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Chapter 11

  1. 1. Endocrine System Chapter 11 Kristin Tomey Vallaly
  2. 2. The Endocrine System Brief Overview <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete hormones that regulate many body activities (ie., metabolic rate, water and mineral balance, immune system reactions and sexual functioning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs involved: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adrenal glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ovaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pancreas (islets of Langerhans) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parathyroid glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pineal gland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>testes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thymus gland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thyroid gland </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Anatomy & Physiology of the Endocrine System <ul><li>collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>hormones are chemicals that act on their target organs to either increase or decrease activity levels </li></ul><ul><li>two distinct types of glands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>endocrine glands: release hormones directly into blood stream (ductless glands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exocrine glands: release secretions into a duct that carries them to outside of the body </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Anatomy & Physiology of the Endocrine System (continued) <ul><li>Glands in the Endocrine System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 adrenal glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ovaries (female) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 parathyroid glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pineal gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 testes (male) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thymus gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thyroid </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Glands of the Endocrine System & their hormones <ul><li>Adrenal Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 located above kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each consists of 2 sections that secrete various hormones: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal cortex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glucocorticoids cortisol : regulates carbohydrate levels in the body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mineralocorticoids aldosterone : regulates electrolytes and fluid volume in the body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>steroid sex hormones (androgen, estrogen, progesterone ): responsible for reproduction and secondary sexual characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal Medulla </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>epinephrine (adrenaline) : intensifies response during stress: “fight or flight” response </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>norepinephreine : chiefly a vasoconstrictor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Glands of Endocrine System <ul><li>Ovaries (female) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 located in the lower abdominopelvic cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>female gonads (produce gamates or reproductive sex cells) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also produce hormones: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>estrogen : stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>progesterone : prepares for conditions of pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Glands of Endocrine System <ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>located along lower curvature of stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only organ in body with both endocrine and exocrine functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exocrine portion secretes digestive enzymes through a duct into duodenum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>endocrine portion (islets of Langerhans) produce 2 hormones: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glucagon : stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>insulin : regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Glands of Endocrine System <ul><li>Parathyroid Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 tiny glands located on the dorsal surface of thyroid gland: produces one type of hormone: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parathyroid hormone (PTH): stimulates bone breakdown; regulates calcium leve in the blood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Glands of the Endocrine System <ul><li>Pineal Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small, pinecone-shaped gland that is part of the thalamus region of brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secretes melatonin that regulates the body's circadian rhythm (sleep-wake cycle) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Glands of the Endocrine System <ul><li>Pituitary Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>located underneath the brain, small, marble-shaped gland divided into two lobes that are controlled by the hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior lobe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Andrenocorticotropine Hormone (ACTH) : regulates function of adrenal cortex </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) : stimulates growth of eggs in female and sperm in males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Hormone (GH) : stimulates growth of the body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Luteinizing Hormone (LH) : Regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH) : stimulates pigment in skin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prolactin : stimulates milk production </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) : regulates function of thyroid gland </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Glands of the Endocrine System <ul><li>Pituitary Gland (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior Lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) : stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin : stimulates uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Glands of the Endocrine System <ul><li>Testes (male) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2, oval glands located in the scotal sac of the male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>male gonads that produce male gametes (sperm), produces male sex hormone: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>testosterone : promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Glands of Endocrine System <ul><li>Thymus Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>located in mediastinal cavity anterior and superior to the heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>present at birth and grows to largest size during puberty then begins to shrink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plays a part in the immune system, but is also part of endocrine system because it secretes the hormone: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thymosin : promotes development of cells in immune system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Glands of Endocrine System <ul><li>Thyroid Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>resembles a butterfly in shape with right and left lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>located on either side of trachea and larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces 3 hormones: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>calcitonin : stimulates deposition of calcium into bone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thyroxine (T 4 ) : stimulates metabolism in cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triiodothyonine (T 3 ) : stimulates metabolism in cells </li></ul></ul></ul>