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Chapter 11 Chapter 11 Document Transcript

  • Endocrine System Chapter 11 Kristin Tomey Vallaly
  • The Endocrine System Brief Overview
    • Function
      • Secrete hormones that regulate many body activities (ie., metabolic rate, water and mineral balance, immune system reactions and sexual functioning)
      • Organs involved:
        • adrenal glands
        • ovaries
        • pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
        • parathyroid glands
        • pineal gland
        • testes
        • thymus gland
        • thyroid gland
  • Anatomy & Physiology of the Endocrine System
    • collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
    • hormones are chemicals that act on their target organs to either increase or decrease activity levels
    • two distinct types of glands:
      • endocrine glands: release hormones directly into blood stream (ductless glands)
      • exocrine glands: release secretions into a duct that carries them to outside of the body
  • Anatomy & Physiology of the Endocrine System (continued)
    • Glands in the Endocrine System
      • 2 adrenal glands
      • 2 ovaries (female)
      • 4 parathyroid glands
      • pancreas
      • pineal gland
      • pituitary gland
      • 2 testes (male)
      • thymus gland
      • thyroid
  • Glands of the Endocrine System & their hormones
    • Adrenal Gland
      • 2 located above kidneys
      • each consists of 2 sections that secrete various hormones:
        • Adrenal cortex
          • glucocorticoids cortisol : regulates carbohydrate levels in the body
          • mineralocorticoids aldosterone : regulates electrolytes and fluid volume in the body
          • steroid sex hormones (androgen, estrogen, progesterone ): responsible for reproduction and secondary sexual characteristics
        • Adrenal Medulla
          • epinephrine (adrenaline) : intensifies response during stress: “fight or flight” response
          • norepinephreine : chiefly a vasoconstrictor
  • Glands of Endocrine System
    • Ovaries (female)
      • 2 located in the lower abdominopelvic cavity
      • female gonads (produce gamates or reproductive sex cells)
      • also produce hormones:
        • estrogen : stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle
        • progesterone : prepares for conditions of pregnancy
  • Glands of Endocrine System
    • Pancreas
      • located along lower curvature of stomach
      • only organ in body with both endocrine and exocrine functions
        • exocrine portion secretes digestive enzymes through a duct into duodenum
        • endocrine portion (islets of Langerhans) produce 2 hormones:
          • glucagon : stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood
          • insulin : regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells
  • Glands of Endocrine System
    • Parathyroid Glands
      • 4 tiny glands located on the dorsal surface of thyroid gland: produces one type of hormone:
        • parathyroid hormone (PTH): stimulates bone breakdown; regulates calcium leve in the blood
  • Glands of the Endocrine System
    • Pineal Gland
      • small, pinecone-shaped gland that is part of the thalamus region of brain
      • secretes melatonin that regulates the body's circadian rhythm (sleep-wake cycle)
  • Glands of the Endocrine System
    • Pituitary Gland
      • located underneath the brain, small, marble-shaped gland divided into two lobes that are controlled by the hypothalamus
        • Anterior lobe
          • Andrenocorticotropine Hormone (ACTH) : regulates function of adrenal cortex
          • Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) : stimulates growth of eggs in female and sperm in males
          • Growth Hormone (GH) : stimulates growth of the body
          • Luteinizing Hormone (LH) : Regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females
          • Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH) : stimulates pigment in skin
          • Prolactin : stimulates milk production
          • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) : regulates function of thyroid gland
  • Glands of the Endocrine System
    • Pituitary Gland (continued)
      • Posterior Lobe
        • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) : stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys
        • Oxytocin : stimulates uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts
  • Glands of the Endocrine System
    • Testes (male)
      • 2, oval glands located in the scotal sac of the male
      • male gonads that produce male gametes (sperm), produces male sex hormone:
        • testosterone : promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males
  • Glands of Endocrine System
    • Thymus Gland
      • located in mediastinal cavity anterior and superior to the heat
      • present at birth and grows to largest size during puberty then begins to shrink
      • plays a part in the immune system, but is also part of endocrine system because it secretes the hormone:
        • thymosin : promotes development of cells in immune system
  • Glands of Endocrine System
    • Thyroid Gland
      • resembles a butterfly in shape with right and left lobes
      • located on either side of trachea and larynx
      • produces 3 hormones:
        • calcitonin : stimulates deposition of calcium into bone
        • thyroxine (T 4 ) : stimulates metabolism in cells
        • Triiodothyonine (T 3 ) : stimulates metabolism in cells