Educational Leadership (Hmef 5023) Topic 4
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    Educational Leadership (Hmef 5023) Topic 4 Educational Leadership (Hmef 5023) Topic 4 Presentation Transcript

    • EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP HMEF 5023 Dr. Allison Lee Gim Wah October 2009 topic 4
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • What Is Motivation?
      • There are some 140 distinct definitions for the concept of motivation (Golembiewski, 1993).
      • Etymologically, motivation is derived from the Latin word motus , a form of the verb movere, which means “to move” (Steers & Porter, 1987).
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Definitions of Motivation
      • Motivation is the degree to which a person is moved or aroused to expend effort to achieve some purpose. It refers to the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction.
      • Motivation concerns actions, and the internal and external forces which influence an individual’s choice of action or engagement in certain specified behaviors.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Definitions of Motivation
      • 3. Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual need.
      • 4. Motivation is getting people to do willingly and well those things which have to be done.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Why is motivation important?
      • Employees have different needs, aspirations, and attitudes.
      • It explains:
      • (a) What energizes human behavior?
      • (b) What directs or channels behavior?
      • (c) How is behavior maintained or sustained?
      • There is a critical need to identify the motivated, the unmotivated, and the demotivated employee
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Characteristics of a motivated employee
      • High and consistent performance
      • Energetic, enthusiastic, and determined to succeed
      • Unstinting cooperation in overcoming problems
      • Willingness to accommodate necessary change
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation Inner state of disequillibrium: Needs, desire, expectancy Behavior or Action Incentive or goal Modification of inner state A General Model of the Basic Motivation Process
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Types of Motivation
      • Extrinsic Motivation
      • Originated from the proponents of the behaviorist theories.
      • Involves external incentives, e.g., rewards and punishments.
      • Intrinsic Motivation
      • Originated from the proponents of the cognitive theories.
      • Emphasizes factors such as self-direction, curiosity, challenge and effort.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Theories of Motivation
      • Early Theories of Motivation:
      • Hierarchy of Needs Theory
      • Theory X and Y
      • Motivator-Hygiene Theory / Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Theories of Motivation
      • Contemporary Theories of Motivation:
      • Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (ERG) Theory
      • McClelland’s Theory of Needs
      • Cognitive Evaluation Theory
      • Task Characteristic Theories
      • (a) Requisite Task Attributes Theory
      • (b) The Job Characteristic Model (JCM)
      • Goal-setting Theory
      • Reinforcement Theory
      • Equity Theory
      • Expectancy Theory
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Motivation Theories
      • Motivation theories fall into 2 main categories:
      • (a) Content theories
      • (b) Process theories
      • Content theories explain the dynamics of employee needs, such as why people have different needs at different times.
      • Process theories describe the processes through which needs are translated into behavior.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Hierarchy of Needs Theory
      • Proposed by Abraham Maslow.
      • People are motivated by the desire to satisfy specific groups of needs.
      • Needs are divided into “lower-order needs” and “higher-order needs.”
      • Lower-order needs are physiological and safety needs.
      • Higher-order needs are social, esteem and self-actualization needs.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Hierachy of Needs
      • 1. Physiological needs = Need for food, sleep, etc.
      • 2. Safety needs = Need for a stable, secure environment
      • 3. Social needs = Need for affection, belongingness,
      • acceptance
      • 4. Esteem needs = Need for self-respect, status, recognition,
      • attention
      • 5. Self-actualization needs = Need for self-fulfillment
      5 4 3 2 1
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Lower-order needs are fulfilled before the higher-order needs
      • As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
      • Implication: To motivate a person, leaders have to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying those needs at or above that level.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Theory X and Theory Y
      • Proposed by Douglas McGregor
      • Two distinct views of human beings:
      • (a) Theory X
      • – assumes subordinates dislike work, are lazy,
      • and must be coerced to perform.
      • (b) Theory Y
      • – assumes subordinates like work, are creative,
      • seek responsibility, and can exercise self-
      • direction
      • Implication: Theory X assumes lower-order needs
      • dominate individuals. Theory Y assumes higher-
      • order needs dominate individuals.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
      • Proposed by Frederick Herzberg
      • Herzberg conducted a research on 200 engineers and accountants to investigate what do people want from their jobs.
      • Found that “motivators” or “satisfiers” such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth lead to job satisfaction.
      • “ Hygiene” factors or “dissatisfiers” such as company policy, supervision, work conditions, salary, interpersonal relationships, status and security lead to dissatisfaction.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Continuum
      • Typical View:
      • Satisfaction Dissatisfaction
      • Herzberg’s View:
      • 1. Satisfaction No Satisfaction
      • 2. Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Implication of Herzberg’s theory:
      • - Factors leading to job satisfaction are distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction.
      • - Leaders who seek to eliminate factors that create job dissatisfaction can bring about peace, but not necessarily motivation.
      • - To motivate, use intrinsically rewarding factors, e.g., emphasizing achievement, work itself, responsibility and growth.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Existence, Relatedness and Growth (ERG) Theory
      • Founded by Clayton Alderfer of Yale University who reworked on Maslow’s theory.
      • Emphasized 3 needs
      • (a) Existence needs = concerned with basic existence
      • requirements
      • (b) Relatedness needs = desire to maintain
      • interpersonal relationships
      • (c) Growth needs = intrinsic desire for personal
      • development
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Contended:
      • (a) No rigid step-like progression of needs
      • (b) More than one need may be operative
      • simultaneously
      • (c) If gratification of a higher-level need is stifled,
      • the desire to satisfy a lower-level need
      • increases
      • Implication: Frustration may lead to a regression to a lower need e.g., inability to satisfy a need for social interaction might increase the desire for more money!
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • McClelland’s Theory of Needs
      • Proposed by David McClelland
      • Focuses on 3 needs:
      • (a) Need for Achievement ( nAch)
      • = the drive to excel/succeed
      • (b) Need for Power ( nPow )
      • = the desire to control/influence others
      • (c) Need for Affiliation ( nAff )
      • = the desire for close interpersonal
      • relationships
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Implications:
      • (a) nAch individuals need to attain realistic but challenging goals. They need feedback on their performance.
      • (b) nPow individuals need to have impact. They prefer to be emplaced in competitive and status-oriented situations and are more concerned with prestige than effective performance.
      • (c) nAff individuals desire to be well-liked. They strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations, rather than competitive ones.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
      • Proposed by Victor Vroom (1964)
      • Examines motivation from the perspective of why individuals choose to follow a particular course of action.
      • Assumes people can be motivated to perform if they believe that there is a positive correlation between effort and reward.
      • 3 variables involved in motivation:
      Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Valence
      • = the importance individuals have with regards to the outcomes or rewards. (What do subordinates value?)
      • Expectancy
      • = the belief that effort leads to performance. (What are the expectations of subordinates?)
      • Instrumentality
      • = the belief that if individuals perform as expected, then they will get what they desired as promised. (Leaders must ensure promises of rewards are honored)
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation Ability Motivation Effort Performance Outcomes (Rewards) Satisfaction Model of the Expectancy Theory
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Implication:
      • Motivation is determined by perceived expectancies, outcome values and a rational decision-making process.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Goal-Setting Theory
      • Proposed by Edwin Locke
      • Intentions to work towards a goal are a major source of motivation because goals tell a person what needs to be done and how much effort to expend.
      • This theory is a cognitive approach and it states that:
      • (a) Specific goals increase performance than a
      • generalized goal, e.g., “Do your best.”
      • (b) Difficult goals, when accepted, results in higher
      • performance than easy goal.
      • (c) Feedback leads to higher performance than does
      • non-feedback.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Self-efficacy (the individual’s belief the he/she is capable of performing the task), internal locus of control, and participative rather than assigned goals may affect the achievement of the goals.
      • Implication:
      • Direction, accuracy and clarity of goals are important for attainment of goals. Participation of subordinates in the setting of goals and feedback are essential for goal achievement.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Behavior Modification and Motivation
      • Behavior Modification
      • = the process of changing an undesired behavior to a desirable one.
      • = a systematic application of learning theories to bring about a desired change in the pattern of behavior.
      • Objectives of Behavior Modification
      • Increase and maintain desirable behaviors.
      • Decrease and make extinct undesirable behaviors.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Theories of Behavior Modification
      • - Please refer to slides on Theories of Learning
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Principles of Behavior Change
      • Human behavior is due to learning which is guided by the laws of learning.
      • Behavior is a product of learning, therefore, it can be unlearned and corrected.
      • Behavior is influenced by results/consequences. It is strengthened by rewards and weakened by negative consequences.
      • Behavior is also controlled by internal and external factors.
      • Undesirable/maladjusted behavior can be changed by changing the environment (Nature vs nurture?)
      • Behavior is learnt by training, conditioning, or observing others.
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Management of Behavioral Change
      • Steps:
      • Identify the problem
      • Setting goals
      • Establishment of baseline data
      • - gather data through observation, records, research etc.
      • Intervention selection
      • - identify and implement intervention program
      • 5. Evaluation
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Motivation and Students’ Orientation
      • Two types of students (Dweck,1986):
      • (a) Learning oriented students
      • - interested in achieving good grades
      • - motivated to learn
      • - positive perception towards self
      • - willing to take up challenges
      • - believe that intelligence is not fixed; the harder
      • they work, the smarter they become
      • (b) Image oriented students
      • - more interested in looking smart/making a good impression
      • - less motivated to work hard
      • - believes intelligence is predetermined by brains, not due to effort
      • - Self-esteem and pride are based on their impression management
    • Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
      • Attribution Theory and Achievement
      • Many studies have been conducted to examine why some people are more motivated than others.
      • According to Attribution theory (Weiner, 1980), high achievers have these characteristics:
      • - believe success is due to ability and effort.
      • - Do not quit easily.
      • - Choose moderate challenges
      • - Work very hard