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Educational Leadership (Hmef 5023) Topic 4


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  • 1. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP HMEF 5023 Dr. Allison Lee Gim Wah October 2009 topic 4
  • 2. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • What Is Motivation?
    • There are some 140 distinct definitions for the concept of motivation (Golembiewski, 1993).
    • Etymologically, motivation is derived from the Latin word motus , a form of the verb movere, which means “to move” (Steers & Porter, 1987).
  • 3. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Definitions of Motivation
    • Motivation is the degree to which a person is moved or aroused to expend effort to achieve some purpose. It refers to the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction.
    • Motivation concerns actions, and the internal and external forces which influence an individual’s choice of action or engagement in certain specified behaviors.
  • 4. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Definitions of Motivation
    • 3. Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual need.
    • 4. Motivation is getting people to do willingly and well those things which have to be done.
  • 5. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Why is motivation important?
    • Employees have different needs, aspirations, and attitudes.
    • It explains:
    • (a) What energizes human behavior?
    • (b) What directs or channels behavior?
    • (c) How is behavior maintained or sustained?
    • There is a critical need to identify the motivated, the unmotivated, and the demotivated employee
  • 6. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Characteristics of a motivated employee
    • High and consistent performance
    • Energetic, enthusiastic, and determined to succeed
    • Unstinting cooperation in overcoming problems
    • Willingness to accommodate necessary change
  • 7. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation Inner state of disequillibrium: Needs, desire, expectancy Behavior or Action Incentive or goal Modification of inner state A General Model of the Basic Motivation Process
  • 8. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Types of Motivation
    • Extrinsic Motivation
    • Originated from the proponents of the behaviorist theories.
    • Involves external incentives, e.g., rewards and punishments.
    • Intrinsic Motivation
    • Originated from the proponents of the cognitive theories.
    • Emphasizes factors such as self-direction, curiosity, challenge and effort.
  • 9. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Theories of Motivation
    • Early Theories of Motivation:
    • Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    • Theory X and Y
    • Motivator-Hygiene Theory / Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
  • 10. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Theories of Motivation
    • Contemporary Theories of Motivation:
    • Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (ERG) Theory
    • McClelland’s Theory of Needs
    • Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    • Task Characteristic Theories
    • (a) Requisite Task Attributes Theory
    • (b) The Job Characteristic Model (JCM)
    • Goal-setting Theory
    • Reinforcement Theory
    • Equity Theory
    • Expectancy Theory
  • 11. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Motivation Theories
    • Motivation theories fall into 2 main categories:
    • (a) Content theories
    • (b) Process theories
    • Content theories explain the dynamics of employee needs, such as why people have different needs at different times.
    • Process theories describe the processes through which needs are translated into behavior.
  • 12. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    • Proposed by Abraham Maslow.
    • People are motivated by the desire to satisfy specific groups of needs.
    • Needs are divided into “lower-order needs” and “higher-order needs.”
    • Lower-order needs are physiological and safety needs.
    • Higher-order needs are social, esteem and self-actualization needs.
  • 13. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Hierachy of Needs
    • 1. Physiological needs = Need for food, sleep, etc.
    • 2. Safety needs = Need for a stable, secure environment
    • 3. Social needs = Need for affection, belongingness,
    • acceptance
    • 4. Esteem needs = Need for self-respect, status, recognition,
    • attention
    • 5. Self-actualization needs = Need for self-fulfillment
    5 4 3 2 1
  • 14. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Lower-order needs are fulfilled before the higher-order needs
    • As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
    • Implication: To motivate a person, leaders have to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying those needs at or above that level.
  • 15. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Theory X and Theory Y
    • Proposed by Douglas McGregor
    • Two distinct views of human beings:
    • (a) Theory X
    • – assumes subordinates dislike work, are lazy,
    • and must be coerced to perform.
    • (b) Theory Y
    • – assumes subordinates like work, are creative,
    • seek responsibility, and can exercise self-
    • direction
    • Implication: Theory X assumes lower-order needs
    • dominate individuals. Theory Y assumes higher-
    • order needs dominate individuals.
  • 16. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
    • Proposed by Frederick Herzberg
    • Herzberg conducted a research on 200 engineers and accountants to investigate what do people want from their jobs.
    • Found that “motivators” or “satisfiers” such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth lead to job satisfaction.
    • “ Hygiene” factors or “dissatisfiers” such as company policy, supervision, work conditions, salary, interpersonal relationships, status and security lead to dissatisfaction.
  • 17. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Continuum
    • Typical View:
    • Satisfaction Dissatisfaction
    • Herzberg’s View:
    • 1. Satisfaction No Satisfaction
    • 2. Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction
  • 18. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Implication of Herzberg’s theory:
    • - Factors leading to job satisfaction are distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction.
    • - Leaders who seek to eliminate factors that create job dissatisfaction can bring about peace, but not necessarily motivation.
    • - To motivate, use intrinsically rewarding factors, e.g., emphasizing achievement, work itself, responsibility and growth.
  • 19. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Existence, Relatedness and Growth (ERG) Theory
    • Founded by Clayton Alderfer of Yale University who reworked on Maslow’s theory.
    • Emphasized 3 needs
    • (a) Existence needs = concerned with basic existence
    • requirements
    • (b) Relatedness needs = desire to maintain
    • interpersonal relationships
    • (c) Growth needs = intrinsic desire for personal
    • development
  • 20. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Contended:
    • (a) No rigid step-like progression of needs
    • (b) More than one need may be operative
    • simultaneously
    • (c) If gratification of a higher-level need is stifled,
    • the desire to satisfy a lower-level need
    • increases
    • Implication: Frustration may lead to a regression to a lower need e.g., inability to satisfy a need for social interaction might increase the desire for more money!
  • 21. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • McClelland’s Theory of Needs
    • Proposed by David McClelland
    • Focuses on 3 needs:
    • (a) Need for Achievement ( nAch)
    • = the drive to excel/succeed
    • (b) Need for Power ( nPow )
    • = the desire to control/influence others
    • (c) Need for Affiliation ( nAff )
    • = the desire for close interpersonal
    • relationships
  • 22. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Implications:
    • (a) nAch individuals need to attain realistic but challenging goals. They need feedback on their performance.
    • (b) nPow individuals need to have impact. They prefer to be emplaced in competitive and status-oriented situations and are more concerned with prestige than effective performance.
    • (c) nAff individuals desire to be well-liked. They strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations, rather than competitive ones.
  • 23. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
    • Proposed by Victor Vroom (1964)
    • Examines motivation from the perspective of why individuals choose to follow a particular course of action.
    • Assumes people can be motivated to perform if they believe that there is a positive correlation between effort and reward.
    • 3 variables involved in motivation:
    Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality
  • 24. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Valence
    • = the importance individuals have with regards to the outcomes or rewards. (What do subordinates value?)
    • Expectancy
    • = the belief that effort leads to performance. (What are the expectations of subordinates?)
    • Instrumentality
    • = the belief that if individuals perform as expected, then they will get what they desired as promised. (Leaders must ensure promises of rewards are honored)
  • 25. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation Ability Motivation Effort Performance Outcomes (Rewards) Satisfaction Model of the Expectancy Theory
  • 26. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Implication:
    • Motivation is determined by perceived expectancies, outcome values and a rational decision-making process.
  • 27. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Goal-Setting Theory
    • Proposed by Edwin Locke
    • Intentions to work towards a goal are a major source of motivation because goals tell a person what needs to be done and how much effort to expend.
    • This theory is a cognitive approach and it states that:
    • (a) Specific goals increase performance than a
    • generalized goal, e.g., “Do your best.”
    • (b) Difficult goals, when accepted, results in higher
    • performance than easy goal.
    • (c) Feedback leads to higher performance than does
    • non-feedback.
  • 28. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Self-efficacy (the individual’s belief the he/she is capable of performing the task), internal locus of control, and participative rather than assigned goals may affect the achievement of the goals.
    • Implication:
    • Direction, accuracy and clarity of goals are important for attainment of goals. Participation of subordinates in the setting of goals and feedback are essential for goal achievement.
  • 29. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Behavior Modification and Motivation
    • Behavior Modification
    • = the process of changing an undesired behavior to a desirable one.
    • = a systematic application of learning theories to bring about a desired change in the pattern of behavior.
    • Objectives of Behavior Modification
    • Increase and maintain desirable behaviors.
    • Decrease and make extinct undesirable behaviors.
  • 30. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Theories of Behavior Modification
    • - Please refer to slides on Theories of Learning
  • 31. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Principles of Behavior Change
    • Human behavior is due to learning which is guided by the laws of learning.
    • Behavior is a product of learning, therefore, it can be unlearned and corrected.
    • Behavior is influenced by results/consequences. It is strengthened by rewards and weakened by negative consequences.
    • Behavior is also controlled by internal and external factors.
    • Undesirable/maladjusted behavior can be changed by changing the environment (Nature vs nurture?)
    • Behavior is learnt by training, conditioning, or observing others.
  • 32. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Management of Behavioral Change
    • Steps:
    • Identify the problem
    • Setting goals
    • Establishment of baseline data
    • - gather data through observation, records, research etc.
    • Intervention selection
    • - identify and implement intervention program
    • 5. Evaluation
  • 33. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Motivation and Students’ Orientation
    • Two types of students (Dweck,1986):
    • (a) Learning oriented students
    • - interested in achieving good grades
    • - motivated to learn
    • - positive perception towards self
    • - willing to take up challenges
    • - believe that intelligence is not fixed; the harder
    • they work, the smarter they become
    • (b) Image oriented students
    • - more interested in looking smart/making a good impression
    • - less motivated to work hard
    • - believes intelligence is predetermined by brains, not due to effort
    • - Self-esteem and pride are based on their impression management
  • 34. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation
    • Attribution Theory and Achievement
    • Many studies have been conducted to examine why some people are more motivated than others.
    • According to Attribution theory (Weiner, 1980), high achievers have these characteristics:
    • - believe success is due to ability and effort.
    • - Do not quit easily.
    • - Choose moderate challenges
    • - Work very hard