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Small Pox
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Small Pox

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  • 1. By: Myles Salazar, Stephanie Nieto, Maria Retana
  • 2. The Origin of Smallpox
    • It is uncertain.
    • Believed to have begun in Africa and spread to India and China.
    • 1 st recorded outbreak of smallpox was during the Egyptian Hittite War (1350 BC).
    • Many epidemics occurred throughout the world for thousands of years.
  • 3.
    • Smallpox (also called variola) is the only disease that has completely wiped out throughout the world.
    • There are four types of variola: classic, hemorrhagic, malignant and modified.
    • They differ by certain types of bleeding sores in mucous tissue.
    • Variola is a member of the orthopoxvirus genus, which also includes viruses such as cowpox and monkeypox.
    • Poxviruses are the largest viruses visible under a microscope. They are larger than some bacteria some bacteria.
    • Poxviruses are the only viruses that don’t need a cell’s nucleus to duplicate inside the cell.
  • 4. 4 Types
    • Classic smallpox was considered the most communicable disease; about 30% of unvaccinated people who came in contact with the virus were infected.
    • The hermorrhagic variety of variola had a much higher death rate (95%) than classic smallpox and lead to death more quickly.
    • The malignant or flat forms of smallpox affected 6% of the population and evolved slower than the classic type of smallpox but with a death rate of almost 100%.
    • The modified variety of variola essentially affected people who were vaccinated.
  • 5.
    • The virus begins growing in the blood steam from 72-96 hours after infected.
    • The initial symptoms that the person has are fever, body aches, headache, chills and vomiting.
    • After the initial symptoms the virus creates a rash that starts as macules (flat, red lesions) on the skin. Then vesicles (raised blisters) form and lastly pustules (pus filled blisters) appear.
    • Just after the rash appears, the virus is highly contagious as it moves into the mucous membrane.
  • 6. Variolation
    • People begin to make assumptions that survivors of the disease were immune the rest of their lives.
    • Variolation was the 1 st attempt at cure.
    • Consisted of grinding up scabs into powder taken from an infected person and blowing in the nostrils of a non immune patient.
    • 2%-3% died of smallpox after variolation.
  • 7.
    • The disease survived through continual person to person transmission.
    • The body sheds the cells and virus particles are release by coughing and sneezing (through saliva) into the environment.
    • The virus is acquired by inhalation.
    • Virus particles could remain on items such as clothing, bedding and surfaces for a week.
    • An infected person can be infectious for up to 3 weeks until the scabs fall off (2-4 weeks)
    • It was the most contagious during the first week of the infection.
  • 8. Treatment
    • No proven treatment.
    • Only thing done was to give them Intravenous Fluids and medicine to control fever and pain.
    • Antibiotics, given to prevent possible bacterial infections.
    • There have always been treatments researched against smallpox.
  • 9.
    • Comes from latin root “vaca” meaning cow.
    • The fluid taken from a cowpox pustule was taken from the milk maids hands to create a vaccine against smallpox.
    • Was given to millions of Americans over many decades.
    • There were no long term side effects were found that might have been caused by vaccintation.
  • 10. How Common Is It?
    • The disease has been officially eradicated.
    • It used to be spread worldwide and caused massive epidemics leading to death.
    • The last known epidemic was in Somalia in 1977, after words the world was declared free of the disease by the World Health Assembly (1980).
  • 11.
    • The last case in USA was in 1949.
    • People began to fear that the locked up smallpox virus in the two labs (one in the USA, the other in Russia) would reach terrorist s and that they would use it as a biological weapon.
    • President Bush announced a plan to protect Americans by an outbreak of vaccinations.
    • Bush has worked with state and local governments to develop national stockpile of the vaccine.
  • 12. Citations
    • http://dermatology.about.com/cs/smallpox/a/smallpoxhx.htm
    •   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox
    • http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=5100
    •   http://www.emedicinehealth.com/smallpox/article_em.htm
    • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/images/PHIL_3_lores.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/smallpox-images/smallpox3.htm&h=460&w=700&sz=76&hl=en&start=3&um=1&tbnid=Hc1uBKgaACfa9M:&tbnh=92&tbnw=140&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsmallpox%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den  
    • http://archives.cnn.com/2002/HEALTH/12/13/smallpox.ny/
    • http://www.bact.wisc.edu/themicrobialworld/variola.jpg

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