Current Conservation Research at CCI <ul><li>David Grattan </li></ul><ul><li>Manager of Conservation Research  </li></ul><...
Recent issues which have affected CCI’s research programme.  <ul><li>Lab. closure from 2003 to 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Labs...
CCI’s approach to research <ul><ul><li>Consultation with clients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development and approval of p...
RESEARCH FRAMEWORK <ul><li>Foundation Research  results in new knowledge or techniques needed as building blocks for other...
Consultation with clients <ul><li>Sessions at meetings of  Canadian Association for Conservation (CAC) </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Client Drivers* and other influences on selection of research topics <ul><li>Impact of Research   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Im...
Drivers and Influences continued: <ul><li>2. Corporate Drivers and Other Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmental...
Current Research Projects <ul><li>COLLECTIONS – RISK </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of mammal storage-cabinet infestation seve...
<ul><li>METALS </li></ul><ul><li>An Investigation into the Causes of Indoor Bronze Sculpture Corrosion: A Case Study </li>...
<ul><li>PAPER </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of Works on Paper with Iron Gall Ink in Canadian Collections. </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>ADHESIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of Modifiers on the Stability of a Vinyl Acetate/Ethylene (VAE) Copolymer Emuls...
<ul><li>UNDERWATER COLLECTION </li></ul><ul><li>Collection and documentation of deteriorated of materials from heritage ai...
<ul><li>CLEANING </li></ul><ul><li>Mould Research Project: Determination of Effectiveness of Target Treatments in the Remo...
<ul><li>PAINTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>CCI Lining Project; Phase III - Assessment of the Performance of Lining Supports on Mo...
<ul><li>NEW in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors in the post- treatment washing phase of archaeolo...
Why GAB parameters? <ul><li>Recent research (Gurnagul and Zou) shows that the deterioration rate of paper is dependant on ...
P is permanence or expected lifetime and C and K are GAB parameters. This simplifies to the following quadratic expression...
Equilibrium moisture detector – measures GAB parameters vs. temperture
Areas of special interest <ul><li>Development of the portable lab. for conservation </li></ul>
Scientist- Nancy Binnie – working with Conservator Jim Hay to open windows in the paint and measure colour with the Minolt...
Statue of Queen Victoria – inside Library of Parliament.
On-site analytical instrument – Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer.  Fibre optic measures reflection spectrum and  al...
The  FTIR reflectance spectrometer used to identify the surface contamination on the Statue of Queen Victoria
Attenuated Total reflection (ATR) is also available as an on site FTIR technique with this instrument. Used to analyze ink...
Built-in TV camera allows semi microscopic selection of detail for spectral measurement – and  In this instance the analys...
Dissemination - publicatiions
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This is the Powerpoint presentation I gave at the LOC meeting.

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Loc3

  1. 1. Current Conservation Research at CCI <ul><li>David Grattan </li></ul><ul><li>Manager of Conservation Research </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Conservation Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Ottawa, Canada. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Recent issues which have affected CCI’s research programme. <ul><li>Lab. closure from 2003 to 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Labs now finished – new – newly equipped </li></ul><ul><li>Key staff beginning to retire </li></ul>
  3. 3. CCI’s approach to research <ul><ul><li>Consultation with clients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development and approval of project proposals – with timelines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing the research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guided by the RESEARCH FRAMEWORK </li></ul>
  4. 4. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK <ul><li>Foundation Research results in new knowledge or techniques needed as building blocks for other research </li></ul><ul><li>Applied scientific research answers conservation questions and results in new knowledge for treatments or for collections . </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment and Methods Development </li></ul><ul><li>Collections Preservation Research results in frameworks, tools or standards for the preservation of heritage collections </li></ul>
  5. 5. Consultation with clients <ul><li>Sessions at meetings of Canadian Association for Conservation (CAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Consultations with Canadian Council for Archives (CCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Museums Association (CMA) </li></ul><ul><li>CCI Symposia </li></ul><ul><li>Collegial dialogue </li></ul>
  6. 6. Client Drivers* and other influences on selection of research topics <ul><li>Impact of Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on Preservation of Heritage Collections in Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential or pending loss of collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More effective and affordable collections preservation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Climatic Conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on the Accessibility and Understanding of Canadian Collections Preservation of Heritage Collections in Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significant Materials and Object Types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Artists and Creators </li></ul></ul></ul>* i.e. “client drivers” are factors related to the client or to the object which make research essential.
  7. 7. Drivers and Influences continued: <ul><li>2. Corporate Drivers and Other Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmental and Government of Canada Priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CCI Expertise and Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation Research outside CCI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Current Research Projects <ul><li>COLLECTIONS – RISK </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of mammal storage-cabinet infestation severity through a ten-year annual regime of specimen inspections. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Risk for Intergrated Pest Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Fracture of wood due to RH fluctuations. </li></ul><ul><li>Light Damage Calculator and Database. </li></ul><ul><li>Web-Based Collection Risk Assessment Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of Works on Paper with Iron Gall Ink in Canadian Collections –Risk Assessment Survey. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>METALS </li></ul><ul><li>An Investigation into the Causes of Indoor Bronze Sculpture Corrosion: A Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of Corroded Lead using an Electrochemical Technique </li></ul><ul><li>MODERN MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Storage of Optical Discs </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Storage of VHS Tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of Jewel Cases on the Longevity of CDs and DVDs </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of Pollutants on the Relative Stabilities of Optical Discs </li></ul><ul><li>Stability of Optical Discs and Magnetic Tapes </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>PAPER </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of Works on Paper with Iron Gall Ink in Canadian Collections. </li></ul><ul><li>Study on the Effectiveness of Bookkeeper Deacidification Technology Using the Arrhenius Relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>PESTICIDES </li></ul><ul><li>Collections contaminated by Pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>PIGMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Oxide Pigments: Natural and Synthetic . </li></ul><ul><li>STONE </li></ul><ul><li>Characterization of Imitation Stone in Outdoor Monuments and Sculpture. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>ADHESIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of Modifiers on the Stability of a Vinyl Acetate/Ethylene (VAE) Copolymer Emulsion Adhesive </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Cyanoacrylate Adhesives for the Conservation of Fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Tapes and Heat-set Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>AMBER </li></ul><ul><li>Characterization of Canadian Amber </li></ul><ul><li>ARCHAEOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Stain Removal from Archaeological Composite Artifacts made of Wood and Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of PEG and Glycerol for the Treatment of Archaeological Leather </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a Conservation Treatment for Waterlogged Basketry </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>UNDERWATER COLLECTION </li></ul><ul><li>Collection and documentation of deteriorated of materials from heritage aircraft wrecks in fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion Rates for Iron Components of Shipwrecks at Fathom Five National Marine Park </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion of Wood in Freshwater Shipwrecks </li></ul><ul><li>LEATHER/SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Development: Image Analysis for Microscopical Shrinkage Temperature Measurements of Collagenous Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>FINISHES </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent finishes on wooden furniture in Canada, to 1914 </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>CLEANING </li></ul><ul><li>Mould Research Project: Determination of Effectiveness of Target Treatments in the Removal of Visible Mould Growth from Organic Substrates (Paper) </li></ul><ul><li>TEXTILES </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of Bathophenanthroline Test Strips for identifying Iron Ions on Textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Treatments for Stabilization of Iron Containing Textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation of wide format digital inkjet printing of sheer fabrics for textile conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Fugitive Dyes on Cotton and Silk Textiles: Adding Salts, Vinegar, and Using Cyclododecane and Different Drying Methods </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>PAINTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>CCI Lining Project; Phase III - Assessment of the Performance of Lining Supports on Model Paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and Scientific Examination of A.Y. Jackson’s Paint Boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and Techniques of : </li></ul><ul><li> Marc-Aurèle Fortin (1888-1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Cornelius Krieghoff (1815-1872) </li></ul><ul><li>David B. Milne (1882-1952) </li></ul><ul><li>Aide-Créquy (1749-1780 </li></ul><ul><li>Jean-Paul Riopelle (1923-2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Dulongpré (1759-1843) </li></ul><ul><li>Norval Morrisseau (1936-2007) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>NEW in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors in the post- treatment washing phase of archaeological metals </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluation of adhesives for waterlogged wood </li></ul><ul><li>The measurement of GAB parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of new molecular forms of PEG </li></ul><ul><li>The development of the microfading technique </li></ul><ul><li>Shock and fragility studies part 1 and 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of vibration on small canvas paintings </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluation of the Resistograph for testing decayed wood. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Why GAB parameters? <ul><li>Recent research (Gurnagul and Zou) shows that the deterioration rate of paper is dependant on MC rather than RH. One implication is that the isoperm equation which assumes that RH and MC are directly proportional – needs to be recalculated - best descriptor of relationship between RH and MC is the GAB equation </li></ul><ul><li>GAB is </li></ul><ul><li>m = mo*C*K*Aw/[(1-k*Aw)(1-K*Aw +C*K*A w)] </li></ul><ul><li>Where Aw the activity of water = RH/100, </li></ul><ul><li>m is moisture content, mo at monolayer water </li></ul><ul><li>C and K are the GAB parameters. </li></ul>
  17. 17. P is permanence or expected lifetime and C and K are GAB parameters. This simplifies to the following quadratic expression which allows solution for Aw 2 Where N is a complex constant which includes P 2 /P 1 The revised Isoperm equation which includes temperature independent GAB parameters:
  18. 18. Equilibrium moisture detector – measures GAB parameters vs. temperture
  19. 19. Areas of special interest <ul><li>Development of the portable lab. for conservation </li></ul>
  20. 20. Scientist- Nancy Binnie – working with Conservator Jim Hay to open windows in the paint and measure colour with the Minolta hand-held spectrophotometer the original colour scheme Working on the interior of buildings
  21. 21. Statue of Queen Victoria – inside Library of Parliament.
  22. 22. On-site analytical instrument – Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. Fibre optic measures reflection spectrum and allows on-site non-destructive analysis. On site scientific techniques applied to the statue of Queen Victoria – inside Library of Parliament.
  23. 23. The FTIR reflectance spectrometer used to identify the surface contamination on the Statue of Queen Victoria
  24. 24. Attenuated Total reflection (ATR) is also available as an on site FTIR technique with this instrument. Used to analyze inks in the Archimedes Palimpsest – oldest known text of Archimedes theorems – in Walters Art Gallery- Baltimore. Instrument portability allows CCI to offer service anywhere.
  25. 25. Built-in TV camera allows semi microscopic selection of detail for spectral measurement – and In this instance the analysis of original ink (Blue spectrum) and later –post palimpsest ink (Red Spectrum).
  26. 26. Dissemination - publicatiions
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