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  1. 1. Masks A History and examples
  2. 2. History (Central and South America) <ul><li>The use of masks in Mexico dates from 3000 BC. Masks were used by priests to summon the power of deities and in the sacrifices of pre-Hispanic Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>With Spanish contact masks began to be used to educate people on the Christian faith. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Masks in the folk art tradition combine human and animal features: jaguars, birds, bats and alligators can be identified within a humanized face. In other cases, birds, snakes and lizards emerge from the nose or eyebrows of a face. And, others still depict full animals figures attached to the face. </li></ul>Material from Arizona State Museum
  4. 4. <ul><li>Jaguar images and costumes were outlawed by the Catholic church in the 17th century because of their association with Native American religions. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the jaguar has survived as an important aspect in ritual celebrations in Central America today. </li></ul><ul><li>It now represents a blend of Native American and European elements, combining pre-Columbian rituals with events and symbols of Christian significance. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Actors wear masks, such as this one, representing jaguars or tigres . This celebration takes place in the rainy season and demonstrates the continued association of the jaguar with rain and fertility. </li></ul>Material and images from NHM
  6. 6. Images
  7. 8. <ul><li>Take a few moments to sketch 2 ideas for a mask in the Traditional Central and South American style. </li></ul><ul><li>There are magazines with pictures of animals to help you come up with ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Crayons are on the table for you to add color to your sketches. </li></ul>Sketch Assignment
  8. 9. History (Africa) <ul><li>The masks are usually carved with an extraordinary skill and variety by artists who will usually have received their training as an apprentice to a master carver - frequently it is a tradition that has been passed down within a family through many generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Each mask is worn by a trained performer. The masks are part of whole performance ensembles, consisting of elaborately costumed dancers, vibrant music, and highly stylized dances. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>These complex ceremonial events expressed important social, religious, and moral values for the whole community. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, in West Africa, masks are used in masquerades that form part of religious ceremonies enacted to contact with spirits and ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>Many African masks represent animals. Some African tribes believe that the animal masks can help them communicate with the spirits who live in forests or open savannas. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Images
  11. 14. Sketch Assignment <ul><li>Take a few moments to sketch 2 ideas for a mask based on African Designs </li></ul><ul><li>There are magazines with pictures of animals to help you come up with ideas (if you would like). </li></ul><ul><li>Crayons are on the table for you to add color to your sketches. </li></ul>
  12. 15. History (Italy) <ul><li>The first documented usage of Venetian masks was an annual celebration in 1268. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 16th through 18th century Venetian Masks became the signature of the Commedia Dell'arte, popular plays of comedies involving jealousy and love. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Additionally, the masks served an important social purpose of keeping every citizen on an equal playing field. Masked, a servant could be mistaken for a nobleman - or vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>On October 17, 1797 Venice became part of Austria. When the Austrians took control of the city, masked celebrations were outlawed. </li></ul><ul><li>Now masks are worn during the week long celebration of Mardi Gras. </li></ul>
  14. 17. Images
  15. 21. Sketch Assignment <ul><li>Take a few moments to sketch 2 ideas for a Venetian Mask </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to use intricate designs like seen in the previous images. </li></ul><ul><li>You may use crayons for color ideas or if you want a color not available in crayons you may label your sketch. </li></ul>
  16. 22. Mask Requirements <ul><li>You will create a mask based on one of the 3 cultures: Central and South America, Africa, Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Your mask must be detailed and your craftsmanship clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Your mask must be creative (put some of your personality into it).  </li></ul><ul><li>Your mask must be functional as well as decorative (able to be worn). </li></ul>