Java Land F
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  • 1. Java Look-and-Feel Design Guidelines Eileen Kraemer University of Georgia CSCI 4800/600
  • 2. An online book …
    • The Java Look-and-Feel Design Guidelines, Second Edition are available online
    • Target audience:
      • the designer who chooses the interface elements, lays them out in a set of components, and designs the user interaction model for an application
  • 3. Focus of the book ….
    • design guidelines for software that uses the Swing classes together with the Java look and feel.
    • on creating cross-platform GUI (graphical user interface) applications and applets in the JavaTM programming language.
    • on design issues and human-computer interaction in the context of the Java look and feel.
    • guidelines are appropriate for GUI applications and applets on PCs and network computers; doesn’t address the problem of S/W that runs on consumer electronic devices.
  • 4. What is the “Java Look and Feel”?
    • First of all, what is a “look-and-feel”?
      • The appearance and behavior of a complete set of GUI components.
    • Why do we need a Java look-and-feel?
      • Want to have Java applications that have a consistent look and behavior across multiple platforms
      • The goal of the Java look-and-feel is to provide a distinctive platform-independent appearance and standard behavior.
  • 5. Java look-and-feel
    • Flush 3D style
      • surfaces appear to be in the same plane as the surrounding canvas
      • border has a bevel
    • Drag texture
    • Color model
  • 6.  
  • 7. Elements of the Java L&F
    • Style of use/appearance of:
      • Windows
      • Menus
      • Toolbars
      • editor panes
      • dialog boxes
      • alert boxes
  • 8. Java L&F Windows
    • Platform-specific borders, title bar, and window controls
    • “Metal” look and feel window contents – menu bar, toolbar, editor pane, etc.
    • Here’s the code
  • 9. Menus, the Menu Bar
    • Provide access to and info about application’s primary functions
    • Later: guidelines for creation of such menus
  • 10. Drop-down menus
    • Menu separators divide choices into logical groupings
    • Titles highlighted in blue (default Java look and feel theme)
    • Can use keyboard shortcuts instead of the mouse.
    • Mnemonics – another way to access menu items..
  • 11. Keyboard shortcuts
    • keystroke combinations that activate a menu item from the keyboard even if the menu for that command is not currently displayed.
    • usually consist of a modifier key and a character key, like Control-Z, plus a few special keys such as F1 and Delete.
    • Don’t post menus; rather, perform the indicated actions directly.
  • 12. Mnemonic
    • an underlined alphanumeric character in a menu title, menu item, or other interface component.
    • reminds the user how to activate the equivalent command by simultaneously pressing the Alt key and the character key that corresponds to the underlined letter or numeral.
    • See example code for both shortcuts and mnemonics
  • 13. Guidelines for shortcuts …
    • Specify keyboard shortcuts for frequently used menu items; don’t need a shortcut for every command
    •   Display shortcuts using the standard abbreviations for key names (such as Ctrl for the Control key), separated by hyphens.
    • Know the common shortcuts across platforms; use them.
    •   Don’t use the Meta key (the Command key on the Macintosh platform) for a shortcut, except as an alternate for Control. It isn’t available on some target platforms.
  • 14. Java L&F Toolbar
    • displays command and toggle buttons that offer immediate access to the functions of many menu items.
    • divided into functional areas
    • Flush 3D style
  • 15. Java L&F Editor Pane
    • Editor pane inside a scroll pane
  • 16. Java L&F Dialog Boxes
    • use the borders and title bars of the platform they are running on
    • dialog box contents have the Java look and feel
    • Windows, Mac, CDE
  • 17. Java L&F Alert boxes
    • Windows, Mac, CDE
  • 18. Java Foundation Classes
    • An extension to the original Abstract Window Toolkit ( AWT ),
    • Includes:
      • the Swing classes , which define a complete set of GUI components for JFC applications
      • pluggable look and feel designs
      • the Java Accessibility API,
    • all implemented without native code (code that refers to the functions of a specific operating system or is compiled for a specific processor).
    • components include:
      • windows and frames, panels and panes, dialog boxes, menus and toolbars, buttons, sliders, combo boxes, text components, tables, list components, and trees.
  • 19. The Java 2 SDK
    • contains the AWT,
      • the class library that provides the standard application programming interfaces for building GUIs for Java programs.
    • Contains a JFC that also includes
      • the Java 2D API
      • drag and drop
      • other enhancements
  • 20. Support for Accessibility
    • features of the Java 2 SDK that support people with special needs:
      • the Java Accessibility API
        • provides “hooks” for an assistive technology to interact and communicate with JFC components ( screen readers and screen magnifiers.)
      • the Java Accessibility Utilities
        • provides support in locating the objects that implement the Java Accessibility API. (These utilities are necessary for developers who develop only assistive technologies, not mainstream applications.)
      • keyboard navigation, mnemonics, keyboard shortcuts (also called "accelerators"), customizable colors and fonts, and dynamic GUI layout.
      • A “pluggable” look and feel architecture that can be used to build both visual and nonvisual designs, such as audio and tactile UIs
  • 21. Accessibility, continued
    • Keyboard navigation
      • enables users to use the keyboard to move between components, open menus, highlight text, and so on.
      • makes an application accessible to people who find it difficult or impossible to use a mouse.
  • 22. Support for Internationalization
    • J2SDK provides internationalized text handling and resource bundles.
      • support for the bidirectional display of text lines
    • J2SDK provides
      • resource bundles
      • locale-sensitive sorting
      • support for localized numbers, dates, times, and messages.
  • 23. User Interface Components of the JFC
    • Swing, a complete set of user interface components, including windows, dialog boxes, alert boxes, panels and panes, and basic controls.
    • Each JFC component contains
      • a model (the data structure)
      • a user interface (the presentation and behavior of the component)
  • 24.  
  • 25. Major JFC UI Components
    • See table of components
  • 26. Java L&F - Recommendations
    • Don’t specify look and feel explicity.
      • cross-platform l&f allows app to appear and perform the same everywhere
      • simplifies the app's development and doc
      • Java look and feel is used by default.
      • If error occurs while specifying name of any l&f, the Java l&f is used by default.
    • Available Look and Feel Designs:
      • Metal
      • Windows
      • CDE/Motif