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Chapter 9 notes india

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  • 1. Chapter 9: South Asia
  • 2. South Asia’s Physical & Human Contexts
    • Monsoon climate
    • Flat topography with elevated features on its edge
    • Hinduism
    • Islam introduced through invasions
    • Transformation through British imperialism
    • Post-World War II independence
  • 3. Annual Rainfall & Dominant Atmospheric Wind Patterns Over Asia During the Summer
    • Prevailing winds that occur during particular seasons of the year
    • Brings pronounced wet and dry seasons
    • Expresses itself differently in each of the three Asian subregions
  • 4. Annual Rainfall & Dominant Atmospheric Wind Patterns Over Asia During the Winter
  • 5. Monsoon Contrasts
  • 6. Environmental Contrasts
    • Monsoon climate
    • Expresses itself differently in each of the three subregions of Asia
    • Mountain-induced orographic precipitation
    • Late southwestern monsoon season sometimes includes cyclones.
    • Landforms
      • Indo–Gangetic Plain
      • Deccan Plateau (Southern India)
  • 7. The Indo–Gangetic Plain
    • Annual precipitation levels increase west to east
    • Much of Indus plain is arid.
    • Humid Bangladesh characterized by semideciduous and tropical rainforest vegetation
    • Water supply is seasonal.
    • Summer or west monsoon provides 85% of annual rainfall totals.
  • 8. Landform Regions of South Asia
  • 9. South Asia
    • Often referred to as the “Indian subcontinent”
    • Territorial dominance of India
    • Substantial population density
    • Primarily a rural region
    • Tradition of state control of industry
    • Divisive role of ethnicity, religion, and politics in economic development process
  • 10. The Precolonial Heritage
    • Greater cultural diversity than China
    • Subjected to numerous external influences from the west
    • Early civilizations in Indus River region
    • 2000 BC–Aryans invasion produced a mixed Indo–Aryan civilization.
    • Indo–Aryans introduced Hinduism and the caste system.
  • 11. Impact of Islam
    • Most powerful of all Islamic empires was Mughal Empire–16 th and 17 th centuries.
    • Lahore became one of the most celebrated Islamic cities of the world.
    • Islam especially attractive to untouchables and Hindus of lower caste
    • Rejection of caste system produced the blended Hindu and Islamic religion of Sikhism.
    • Islam was highly doctrinaire and closely associated with a nomadic conquering culture.
  • 12. Languages of South Asia
  • 13. Colonial Transformation
    • Early British influence
      • British East India Company
      • Indirectly came to control up to two-thirds of country
      • Replaced native administration
      • Took actions to decimate textile industry in 19 th century
    • By 1900s, South Asia was a total colonial possession.
      • Economic contours totally altered
      • Industrial development slow-paced
  • 14. Independence and Nation-State Building
    • British engaged in divide and conquer strategy.
    • Caste system remained rigid.
    • Communalism persisted.
  • 15. Spatial Evolution of British Empire in India
  • 16. Pakistan
    • Created in 1947
    • A west and east formed
      • West–Closer to the West
      • East–Closer to southeast Asia
      • Tenuous from the beginning
      • East gained independence in 1971 (renamed Bangladesh).
    • Tensions with India
      • Jammu and Kashmir
      • Joint nuclear ambitions
    • Post-9/11/2001 relationship with US in al Qaeda fight
  • 17. Jammu and Kashmir
  • 18. Accommodating Diversity in India
    • Created as a secular state
    • Religion has become a predominant political issue relating to castes.
    • Rise of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
      • Conservative
      • Hindu-based
    • Federalism as a political structure
    • Hindi–Official language and most widely spoken
  • 19. Population Contours of India
    • More than 1 billion people
    • Second most populous country in the world
    • Population growth rate double that of China
    • Quadrupled in past 85 years
    • ¾ live in rural villages
    • Changing age structure
  • 20. Explaining the Decline in Population Growth Rates
    • Growth rates vary between ethnic, religious, and caste groups.
    • In general, Hindus have fewer children than Muslims.
    • Unequal gender relationships
    • Heading toward stage three of demographic transformation model
  • 21. Population Growth Rates of Indian Political Units – 1991–2001
  • 22. Gender Bias of Indian Political Units 2001
  • 23. Agricultural Development in India
    • 62% of population engaged in some form of agricultural pursuits.
    • 65% in rural villages and small towns
    • Spatial distribution determined by availability of water.
    • Heavy reliance on livestock
    • Various dairy products
    • Cattle are primary source of power for plowing and short-distance transport.
  • 24. Agricultural Productivity and Change
    • Sources of rural poverty are many.
      • Lack of health access and other social services
      • Lack of meaningful land reform
      • Average size of household plot is 6.5 acres.
      • Negative impact of Green Revolution
      • Negative impact of government economic policies
      • Technology impact
      • Hasn’t solved problems
      • Has exacerbated economic inequalities
  • 25. Agricultural Regions of India
  • 26. India’s Industrial Economy
    • Railroads
    • Strong industrial resource base
    • Fossil fuels can adequately power the industrial base.
    • Iron ore counts for 6% of world production and 5% of world reserves.
    • Government has constructed hydroelectric facilities to make up for shortages in commercial energy.
    • Carefully planned economy by government
  • 27. Primary Mineral and Industrial Regions of South Asia
  • 28. Industrial Regions
    • Diversified industrial sector is emerging–Damodar Valley
    • Mumbai is second most important industrial region.
      • Cotton textile manufacturing
      • Automobile production
      • Aircraft
      • Pharmaceuticals
      • Plastics
      • Chemicals
    • Bangalore– “Silicon Valley of India”
      • Texas Instruments
      • IBM
      • Compaq
      • Other computer software firms
  • 29. Brain Drain
    • Highly educated university graduates
    • Concern to stem brain drain
  • 30. Evolving Urban-Industrial Regions
    • Kolkata (Calcutta)
    • Mumbai
    • Bangalore
    • Other regions
      • New Delhi
      • Chennai
  • 31. Urban India
    • Stark contrasts between urban and rural world
    • Prosperity gap has widened in the postindustrial economy.
    • Greater levels of rural to urban migration
    • Stream of urban migrants has exceeded urban employment opportunities.
  • 32. Urban Growth
    • Urbanization levels low into the mid-20 th century
    • Growth indicators
      • Rural to urban migration
      • Natural increase of urban population
    • Most population growth in large cities
    • Thirty-five cities with more than 1 million population
    • Some are megacities, but not “world cities”
      • Delhi–17.3 million
      • Mumbai–17.3 million
      • Kolkata–14.3
      • Insufficient finance, transport, and telecommunications
  • 33. Urban India–1901–2007
  • 34. The Urban Poor
    • First- and second- generation rural to urban migrants see the city as a place for greater economic opportunity.
    • Lack of adequate income to secure durable housing
    • Some in substandard housing
    • Bustec –“Village in a city”
      • Squatter dwellings
      • Dirt floors
      • Electricity, sewage, and water rare
  • 35. Pakistan
    • Continues to rank as one of the world’s poorest countries
    • One of the larger debtor nations
    • Agriculture based on wheat, rice, leather products, and carpets.
    • Located in transitional location between Islamic Middle East and Hindu India.
    • “ Dysfunctional country with little evidence of a civil society”
  • 36. Pakistan in the Crossroads
    • 169 million population
    • 96% Islamic
    • Formerly East and West Pakistan until 1970s, when East Pakistan became Bangladesh.
    • Language is 96% Punjab.
    • Parts of Sharia in legal system
    • Tension among civil society, religious elements, and military rule.
    • Madrasahs helped to support militant Islam.
    • Supported Pushtuns and Taliban government in Afghanistan prior to 9/11/2001
  • 37. Nepal
    • Landlocked country
    • Physical and cultural transition between Tibet in north and India to south
    • Most populated part is central foothills–Kathmandu Valley
    • Worldwide success in marketing its natural and cultural heritage
      • Adventure tourism
      • Tourism industry creates substantial domestic employment opportunities.
    • 90% involved in subsistence agriculture
    • Exacerbated demands on women in economy
  • 38. Bangladesh
    • Formerly East Pakistan after 1971 civil war
    • Great cyclone in 1971 resulted in a sharply reduced agriculture economy.
    • Economy rests almost completely on agriculture.
    • Poorly developed industrial economy
    • Relatively stable government
    • Child labor is widespread.
    • Half the rural population is landless.
    • High illiteracy
  • 39. Sri Lanka
    • 20 million population
      • 74% Singhalese
      • Tamil-speaking Hindus for the rest
      • Cultural conflict
    • Gained independence from British in 1948
    • Changed name from Ceylon in 1972
    • Government programs have significantly improved life.
    • Some social indicators on par with developed countries
    • Exports count for about one- third of the economy.