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Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
Chapter 9 notes india
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Chapter 9 notes india

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  • 1. Chapter 9: South Asia
  • 2. South Asia’s Physical & Human Contexts <ul><li>Monsoon climate </li></ul><ul><li>Flat topography with elevated features on its edge </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Islam introduced through invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation through British imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Post-World War II independence </li></ul>
  • 3. Annual Rainfall & Dominant Atmospheric Wind Patterns Over Asia During the Summer <ul><li>Prevailing winds that occur during particular seasons of the year </li></ul><ul><li>Brings pronounced wet and dry seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses itself differently in each of the three Asian subregions </li></ul>
  • 4. Annual Rainfall & Dominant Atmospheric Wind Patterns Over Asia During the Winter
  • 5. Monsoon Contrasts
  • 6. Environmental Contrasts <ul><li>Monsoon climate </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses itself differently in each of the three subregions of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain-induced orographic precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Late southwestern monsoon season sometimes includes cyclones. </li></ul><ul><li>Landforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo–Gangetic Plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deccan Plateau (Southern India) </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. The Indo–Gangetic Plain <ul><li>Annual precipitation levels increase west to east </li></ul><ul><li>Much of Indus plain is arid. </li></ul><ul><li>Humid Bangladesh characterized by semideciduous and tropical rainforest vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply is seasonal. </li></ul><ul><li>Summer or west monsoon provides 85% of annual rainfall totals. </li></ul>
  • 8. Landform Regions of South Asia
  • 9. South Asia <ul><li>Often referred to as the “Indian subcontinent” </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial dominance of India </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial population density </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily a rural region </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition of state control of industry </li></ul><ul><li>Divisive role of ethnicity, religion, and politics in economic development process </li></ul>
  • 10. The Precolonial Heritage <ul><li>Greater cultural diversity than China </li></ul><ul><li>Subjected to numerous external influences from the west </li></ul><ul><li>Early civilizations in Indus River region </li></ul><ul><li>2000 BC–Aryans invasion produced a mixed Indo–Aryan civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Indo–Aryans introduced Hinduism and the caste system. </li></ul>
  • 11. Impact of Islam <ul><li>Most powerful of all Islamic empires was Mughal Empire–16 th and 17 th centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Lahore became one of the most celebrated Islamic cities of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam especially attractive to untouchables and Hindus of lower caste </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of caste system produced the blended Hindu and Islamic religion of Sikhism. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam was highly doctrinaire and closely associated with a nomadic conquering culture. </li></ul>
  • 12. Languages of South Asia
  • 13. Colonial Transformation <ul><li>Early British influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British East India Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirectly came to control up to two-thirds of country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced native administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took actions to decimate textile industry in 19 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1900s, South Asia was a total colonial possession. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic contours totally altered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial development slow-paced </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Independence and Nation-State Building <ul><li>British engaged in divide and conquer strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Caste system remained rigid. </li></ul><ul><li>Communalism persisted. </li></ul>
  • 15. Spatial Evolution of British Empire in India
  • 16. Pakistan <ul><li>Created in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>A west and east formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West–Closer to the West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East–Closer to southeast Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenuous from the beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East gained independence in 1971 (renamed Bangladesh). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tensions with India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jammu and Kashmir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint nuclear ambitions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-9/11/2001 relationship with US in al Qaeda fight </li></ul>
  • 17. Jammu and Kashmir
  • 18. Accommodating Diversity in India <ul><li>Created as a secular state </li></ul><ul><li>Religion has become a predominant political issue relating to castes. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu-based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federalism as a political structure </li></ul><ul><li>Hindi–Official language and most widely spoken </li></ul>
  • 19. Population Contours of India <ul><li>More than 1 billion people </li></ul><ul><li>Second most populous country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth rate double that of China </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrupled in past 85 years </li></ul><ul><li>¾ live in rural villages </li></ul><ul><li>Changing age structure </li></ul>
  • 20. Explaining the Decline in Population Growth Rates <ul><li>Growth rates vary between ethnic, religious, and caste groups. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, Hindus have fewer children than Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal gender relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Heading toward stage three of demographic transformation model </li></ul>
  • 21. Population Growth Rates of Indian Political Units – 1991–2001
  • 22. Gender Bias of Indian Political Units 2001
  • 23. Agricultural Development in India <ul><li>62% of population engaged in some form of agricultural pursuits. </li></ul><ul><li>65% in rural villages and small towns </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial distribution determined by availability of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy reliance on livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Various dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle are primary source of power for plowing and short-distance transport. </li></ul>
  • 24. Agricultural Productivity and Change <ul><li>Sources of rural poverty are many. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of health access and other social services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of meaningful land reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average size of household plot is 6.5 acres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative impact of Green Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative impact of government economic policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hasn’t solved problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has exacerbated economic inequalities </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Agricultural Regions of India
  • 26. India’s Industrial Economy <ul><li>Railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Strong industrial resource base </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels can adequately power the industrial base. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron ore counts for 6% of world production and 5% of world reserves. </li></ul><ul><li>Government has constructed hydroelectric facilities to make up for shortages in commercial energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully planned economy by government </li></ul>
  • 27. Primary Mineral and Industrial Regions of South Asia
  • 28. Industrial Regions <ul><li>Diversified industrial sector is emerging–Damodar Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Mumbai is second most important industrial region. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton textile manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automobile production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bangalore– “Silicon Valley of India” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas Instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compaq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other computer software firms </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. Brain Drain <ul><li>Highly educated university graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Concern to stem brain drain </li></ul>
  • 30. Evolving Urban-Industrial Regions <ul><li>Kolkata (Calcutta) </li></ul><ul><li>Mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>Bangalore </li></ul><ul><li>Other regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Delhi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chennai </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. Urban India <ul><li>Stark contrasts between urban and rural world </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperity gap has widened in the postindustrial economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater levels of rural to urban migration </li></ul><ul><li>Stream of urban migrants has exceeded urban employment opportunities. </li></ul>
  • 32. Urban Growth <ul><li>Urbanization levels low into the mid-20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Growth indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural to urban migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural increase of urban population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most population growth in large cities </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty-five cities with more than 1 million population </li></ul><ul><li>Some are megacities, but not “world cities” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delhi–17.3 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mumbai–17.3 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kolkata–14.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient finance, transport, and telecommunications </li></ul></ul>
  • 33. Urban India–1901–2007
  • 34. The Urban Poor <ul><li>First- and second- generation rural to urban migrants see the city as a place for greater economic opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of adequate income to secure durable housing </li></ul><ul><li>Some in substandard housing </li></ul><ul><li>Bustec –“Village in a city” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squatter dwellings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt floors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity, sewage, and water rare </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. Pakistan <ul><li>Continues to rank as one of the world’s poorest countries </li></ul><ul><li>One of the larger debtor nations </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture based on wheat, rice, leather products, and carpets. </li></ul><ul><li>Located in transitional location between Islamic Middle East and Hindu India. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dysfunctional country with little evidence of a civil society” </li></ul>
  • 36. Pakistan in the Crossroads <ul><li>169 million population </li></ul><ul><li>96% Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly East and West Pakistan until 1970s, when East Pakistan became Bangladesh. </li></ul><ul><li>Language is 96% Punjab. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of Sharia in legal system </li></ul><ul><li>Tension among civil society, religious elements, and military rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Madrasahs helped to support militant Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Supported Pushtuns and Taliban government in Afghanistan prior to 9/11/2001 </li></ul>
  • 37. Nepal <ul><li>Landlocked country </li></ul><ul><li>Physical and cultural transition between Tibet in north and India to south </li></ul><ul><li>Most populated part is central foothills–Kathmandu Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide success in marketing its natural and cultural heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventure tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism industry creates substantial domestic employment opportunities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>90% involved in subsistence agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbated demands on women in economy </li></ul>
  • 38. Bangladesh <ul><li>Formerly East Pakistan after 1971 civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Great cyclone in 1971 resulted in a sharply reduced agriculture economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Economy rests almost completely on agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly developed industrial economy </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively stable government </li></ul><ul><li>Child labor is widespread. </li></ul><ul><li>Half the rural population is landless. </li></ul><ul><li>High illiteracy </li></ul>
  • 39. Sri Lanka <ul><li>20 million population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>74% Singhalese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil-speaking Hindus for the rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gained independence from British in 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Changed name from Ceylon in 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Government programs have significantly improved life. </li></ul><ul><li>Some social indicators on par with developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Exports count for about one- third of the economy. </li></ul>

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