In America, those who opposed warfare were labeled as being unpatriotic. On the other hand, those who
supported warfare and nuclear weapons research were called patriots. It was as if warfare and spiteful
military aggression were honorable endeavors. This gives a fair idea of how an industrial society in the
twentieth century could be completely misguided into holding a doctrine that supported fierce military
aggression. Incidentally, during Adolf Hitler’s reign in the last century, the entire nation of Germany was
misguided into embracing barbarism.
Though the founding fathers of English descent had been in favor of complete freedom, the peril of
communists as expressed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants was not completely unfounded. After
communists came to power in Russia, they began to see Germany as a prime target. Nations in Europe that
had allowed the privilege of free speech to communists eventually fell to communists. In Europe, communists
often misused the free speech doctrine to incite violent revolutions. The German immigrants from Europe
had first hand wisdom of he dangers of free speech. In fact, East Germany had fallen to communists.
At one time in history, American citizens of German ancestry were accorded high social status in society.
When Adolf Hitler came to power, and the Nazis began engaging in war crimes, there was a backlash against
American citizens of German ancestry. Some German-Americans were Pro-Nazi, while some others were
Anti-Nazi. Many German citizens in America decided to change their last names to gently conceal their
German ancestry. At present, less than 15 percent of Americans have an English heritage. Nearly 18 percent
have a German heritage, while about 15 percent have an Irish heritage.
As Germans and Irish Catholics were apprehensive, they were prone to be less liberal with free speech that
endorsed communistic ideologies. Tidal waves of immigration were quickly turning America into a nation
of factory workers. The labor unions were becoming very powerful in America. Capitalists were also
threatened by the labor unions. There was a great danger of American labor unions embracing socialistic
The Teamsters became the most powerful labor union in America, and helped members successfully
negotiate wages and working conditions. It is also alleged that funds from the union were being utilized by
Cosa Nostra mobsters and gangsters in Las Vegas. The Teamsters also supported the Republicans. Until
disappearing, a man named Jimmy Hoffa had represented the Teamsters union. In law enforcement circles,
there is a strong suspicion that Jimmy Hoffa was liquidated by the Mafia. Incidentally, the Mafia seemed to
have the know-how for making people disappear. Without a dead body, it would never be possible for a court
of justice to confirm death.
As German and Irish Catholics together made up 33 percent of the new American society, they formed a
single majority to churn up strong anti-communist and anti-socialist sentiments. The American capitalists
and politicians had reasons to worry that the peculiarly interesting ideas embedded within the framework of
socialism or communism would find an appreciative audience in academic circles where intellectually
inclined middle class citizens congregated to exchange ideas. Thomas Hobbes, an eminent English
philosopher expressed the view that intellectuals incited revolutions. He also drew attention to the fact that
university campuses had become epicenters from where serious political changes were initiated.
In industrialized capitalistic societies, college professors who were overtly anti-establishment were generally
denied tenure and a secure job. Over the years, academicians who were unconditionally supportive of big
businesses, capitalism, imperialism, and the government were honored with tenure. The others were
denigrated and dishonorably discharged. Most college professors came from middle class society, and tended
to be covertly anti-establishment.
Within the broad idea of freedom of speech in a democracy, American college professors were dissuaded
from discussing the specifics of Marxism and Leninism. This is quite understandable, as events in history
point out that the ideologies of socialism, and communism were very intellectually stimulating. They quickly
appealed to the intellectually superior classes. Besides, as over one hundred American universities were
involved in military work, professors with communistic value systems and allegiance to the Joseph Stalin
way of reasoning would be a distraction to the American way of life.
All over the world, there was the danger of communism establishing its roots on college campus coffee bars.
This was particularly disturbing to the ruling class of American capitalists because the American government
administration frequently recruited young college graduates. Incidentally, some officials in the State
Department who worked overseas in Vietnam had studied communistic literature and found it thoroughly
fascinating. To the White House administration, this was a red flag.
Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin began claiming that people with communistic ideas were working
in the American government. In America, with a single stroke of the brush, Senator McCarthy proved beyond
a shadow of doubt that there was a clear limit to free speech in America. Clearly, America grew up as a
nation where communist ideologies were booted out. Communists were denied entry visas by American
immigration authorities. Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy also alleged that the Department of State had
been infiltrated by communists. If true, the infiltration of communists into the American government
machinery could seriously undermine or sabotage its efforts to curb the spread of communism in other
regions of the world.
During his Presidency at the White House, Woodrow Wilson desired to limit the freedom of speech. He was
the principal endorser and enforcer of the Sedition Act of 1918. This act actually challenged the rights
bestowed by the First Amendment in the American constitution. The First Amendment stated that Congress
would have no power to pass laws that obstructed free speech. Woodrow Wilson was of the opinion that
there were certain exceptions, and that the conditions did not apply when the country was at war. But the
American Constitution, in its most pristine form, seemed to allow no exceptions whatsoever.
In America, an effective mechanism had to be established where college professors in political science,
sociology, and economics would be discouraged from writing books that could make their provocative views
available to mainstream society. Therefore, professors were encouraged to write papers for publishing in
elitist journals that were read only by intellectual recluses. Under these circumstances, most college
professors of political science or sociology were dissuaded from discussing controversial issues in the
classroom. Similarly, most college professors of economics would be reluctant to discuss unfair trade
practices and invite the wrath of big businesses or special interest groups intent on influencing government
Apart from college campuses, the motion picture industry was a place where intellectuals such as story
writers, artistes, scriptwriters, and authors congregated to exchange views. The motion picture industry was,
therefore, another space threatened by the invasion of communistic ideologies. In fact, some Congressmen
claimed that communists had infiltrated the motion picture industry in Hollywood. In 1950, an investigation
spearheaded by Martin Dies tried to find out the extent of infiltration. However, there was insufficient
evidence to prove the allegations.