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  1. 1. DANGEROUS GLOBALIZATION Copyright © 2009 by Shivaprasad Srikantia. All rights reserved. Contains extracts from the book titled AMERICAN CAPITALISM, AMERICANOMICS, & MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS - The concealed economic and political secrets of capitalism that made America a superpower in less than one century, by Shiv Srikantia. Paperback edition of book available at www.lulu.com/content/2353971 PLEASE CLICK ON BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER OF THIS TEXT WINDOW TO VIEW THIS ESSAY IN FULL SCREEN MODE After the British colonies were dismantled, economic problems began gripping England. At one time in history, mine workers and unemployed citizens staged protests to embarrass the Margaret Thatcher administration. However, the violent protests went beyond Downing Street and embarrassed the entire nation. In fact, the civil disorder in the streets of London made Britain look like a third world nation. When this happened, Margaret Thatcher was reelected and told to rule the nation with an iron hand. Many European politicians learnt the hard way that capitalist economies were not sustainable without some form of imperialism or colonization. European politicians and business tycoons concluded that the key ideas embedded within imperialism and colonialism had to be refined and brought back into society. This time however, the ideas had to be cleverly packaged as Globalization. For many third world nations that had suffered under imperial and colonial powers, the word globalization sounded less threatening. While imperialism often carried a negative connotation in the last century, globalization did not. Globalization ushered in a second wave of legitimate corporate imperialism ready to be unleashed over third world nations in Asia, South America, and Africa. In the first phase of globalization that could last 70 years, only the G-7 nations will actually prosper. In the second phase, weaker nations of the third world might prosper. However, the prosperity of weaker nations may be many light years away. By then, many third world economies in Africa, Asia, and South America would have disintegrated into the stone age. Incidentally, this two phase plan is politically very ingenious. On the surface, many of the WTO rules will philosophically appear to be favorable to developing economies. However, if the numbers are crunched and a serious economic analysis is carried out, the benefits to third world nations would be found to occur at a distant future several economic generations away. This explains why Western business cartels have tried to block analytical exercises by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Considering the covert economic agendas of the G-7 nations, it makes good business sense to restrain UNCTAD analysts from examining reality. In the twenty first century, wealth annexation is not being done directly by governments. Popular world sentiment would be against governments engaging in expansionism or colonialism. However, private 1
  2. 2. businesses are free to engage in corporate expansionism and imperialism. It is perfectly legal for transnational business corporations engaged in banking, mining, oil drilling, farming, and construction to engage in imperialism. This way, the supporting role of the bureaucratic leadership would be indirect rather than direct. It is believed that organizations such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), USAID, and World Trade Organization (WTO) routinely aid multinational corporations from G-7 nations in carrying out corporate expansions. The political and imperialistic agendas are so carefully concealed that even senior bureaucrats and officials of these organizations may be unaware of their existence. The agendas are fashioned during secret meetings held in remote places like Brussels, Copenhagen, and Helsinki. Just to deter curious eavesdroppers, the meetings are held thousands of miles away from the business headquarters of World Bank, IMF, WTO, CIA, and USAID. The WTO seemed to have become the pivotal organization entrusted with the task of legitimizing a moderate level of imperialism through a new series of trade regulations. The IMF, World Bank, and WTO became a power triad that could make third world nations helplessly dependent on the G-7 nations. In fact, the collaborative practices of the triad have made the weaker nations politically defenseless against the G-7 nations. To some extent, the WTO regulations were also framed to contain American domination in world trade. The WTO was primarily managed by European bureaucrats who were somewhat envious of America’s economic clout. As a political backlash however, operational philosophies of the World Bank were quickly revised to promote American imperialism and subdue European imperialism. The World Bank was managed by American bureaucrats who wished to keep European haughtiness under check. Since global business and international politics were close cousins, the CIA was probably reconfigured unofficially to assist American industrial expansionism. The WTO was established in 1995 to help smoothly carry forward the imperialistic agendas of multinational corporations. Through the WTO, many American multinational corporations cleverly had American laws revised and re-drafted. The WTO factor allowed big businesses to force lawmakers to draft trade laws without Congressional approval. With the WTO in place, politicians, and voters have very little control over trade laws. In fact, trade regulations are now almost entirely controlled by a powerful cartel of American multinational corporations and special interest groups from the European Union. International trade laws at the WTO have been carefully framed by Western world powers. Traditionally, most Western economies have thrived on colonialism and imperialism. Incidentally, many international trade laws lack moral sensibility. International laws framed by Western bureaucrats permit imperialism in a concealed manner. Third world nations must now learn to deal with such laws. WTO regulations prohibited third world economies from imposing protectionist tariffs. In the long run, this policy attempts to strangulate fledgling industrial businesses in third world nations. It does so by putting third world businesses in direct competition with powerful multinational corporations from industrialized nations. Incidentally, in international business that is conducted across state borders, unfair trade is not considered unethical or immoral. Many small nations in South America, Africa, and Asia can be forced to invest in major engineering projects. They can also be forced to allot contracts to American companies. The World Bank will then offer to fund the project with generous loans. However, the quantum of loan repayment will be well beyond the economic 2
  3. 3. capacity of a third world economy. Eventually the nations are driven into debt. A nation weakened by debt can be politically manipulated by the White House administration. This is the first step in imperialism. While promoting American capitalism, the White House administration often worked overtime to have the CIA, World Bank, IMF, and American military work in consonance. These organizations were directed to support the expansionist efforts of American multinational corporations. However, many third world nations did not approve of the indirect alliance between the American government machinery and multinational corporations. Corporate imperialism is now an integral component of globalization. Many varieties of undercover corporate imperialism would be legitimate under international trade laws. However, it is still considered distasteful to discuss the economic benefits of imperialism openly. Just as nudity in public view would be considered obscene in some puritanical cultures, imperialism in full public view would be considered offensive. Therefore, socio-political etiquette demands that imperialism be practiced with adequate camouflage. Unlike governments, business corporations are not obligated to be either benevolent or honorably philanthropic. However, intellectuals and socialists in Europe persuade businesses to exhibit social responsibility. Moreover, European and Asian business corporations function in societies with an intellectual slant towards socialism. In contrast, American businesses which focus narrowly on profiteering are far removed from socialism and social responsibility. However, the new breed of businesses springing up in Silicon Valley might be capable of understanding social responsibility. The businesses in Silicon Valley seem to have been able to distance themselves from the Cartesian heritage that had plagued American society for over 150 years. In the last century, many European nations had evolved a flavor of corrupt capitalism that was not politically self sustainable without colonialism. Therefore, if corrupt capitalism is the way to go, corporate imperialism should no longer carry a negative connotation. Rather than governments coyly denying the existence of imperialism, politicians, economists, and intellectuals should discusses the existance of imperialism openly. They should also engage in lively public debates. All weak nations must be warned of camouflaged imperialism through unfair trade regulations. In fact, as imperialism was not stoppable, it had to be legalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The international trade laws are now becoming the new instruments of imperialism. Corporate executives chasing profits and politicians intent on making economic history will be surely distressed by the fact that aboriginal civilizations in the Eastern world are sitting on mineral deposits and oil reserves worth billions of dollars. For the sake of technological supremacy, many multinational corporations might feel the need to gain access to scarce mineral resources uselessly lying around in the third world. Africa has rich deposits of copper and cobalt lying around uselessly for centuries. If the aboriginal civilizations resist courtship, aerial bombing and military invasion might follow. For many aboriginal civilizations that are still peacefully practicing spirituality, occultism, witchcraft, and voodoo economics, global industrialization will begin to appear as a mutant form of Western imperialism. There may also be an element of truth in this. Therefore, a revelatory set of core industrial philosophies might become necessary to uniformly guide civilizations across the world, and alter the confrontational dynamics. While looking more realistically at the troubled world, industrial philosophers must examine the resulting synergy when economic strength, political clout, military capability, cultural idiosyncracies, and religious convictions work either in consonance or dissonance to shape an outcome. Industrial philosophy 3
  4. 4. must also contribute towards civilizing certain genres of savage capitalism that blossomed at the Chicago school. In South America, tribal civilizations have socially thrived on land rich in natural resources. Capitalists will be tempted to point out to American foreign policy makers that impoverished communities in South America and Africa are sitting on gold, diamonds, minerals, and oil reserves worth billions of dollars. These indigenous tribes like to preserve their way of life and their poverty. Incidentally, the tribal natives have not demonstrated sufficient scientific temper to be able to propel an industrial revolution that could intelligently make use of these natural resources for their economic betterment. A few economists from the Chicago school might try to argue that it would be unrighteous to allow these precious mineral deposits remain untapped by humanity. American and European capitalists will point out that from a world development agenda it would be morally justifiable for industrialized nations to set up mining operations and extract metals that are useful to humanity. At some point in time, it becomes the responsibility of the politicians in the White House to look for a convenient pretext and plan a military assault to gain unfettered access to natural resources. In the past, when third world civilizations obstructed legitimate corporate expansion, military action might have been commissioned to subdue them. Sometimes, the Western governments may have had to declare war to protect the interests of the business corporations. After all, the multinational corporations were the blood of the industrial economy. With the looming threat of American military assault, many small nations were reluctantly willing to surrender their oil wells and mineral deposits to American corporations. In fact, many wars were never fought because the leaders of tiny nations believed that American Presidents were not mature enough to refrain from using nuclear weapons. Incidentally, the North Vietnamese communists believed that American Presidents would not hesitate to use nuclear weapons. When American leadership was able to defy international law and invade Panama to control interests in the Panama Canal, the United Nations treated it as a minor misdemeanor. Even the Iraqi invasion was viewed as a misdemeanor. When American multinational corporations faced obstacles to carrying out business in a third world nation, the White House conceived a way of getting directly involved. In the last century, the simple idea was to create a situation that could precipitate a war. The White House strategy was to intentionally allow an American naval vessel to stray close to hostile territory. The intent of the American naval vessel was to provoke a gunboat attack from the hostile nation. The American navy would have their vessel deliberately torpedoed and sunk. A sunk vessel could serve as a great excuse for the White House to declare war. This simple American baiting technique had been successfully used in declaring wars on Spain, Germany, and Vietnam. This was also a technique that could be used to provoke Iran or North Korea and create an excellent opportunity to declare war. Until World War II, the American military fought wars to protect the nation. After World War II, the military re-invented itself to be able to engage in wars to protect the interests of multinational corporations. Corrupt political leaders and bureaucrats in many third world nations invite Western businesses to mercilessly bulldoze the native civilizations and set up mining and oil drilling projects. In some ways, this is a direct invitation to colonists and imperialists. The corrupt leaders make enormous sums of money through bribes and kickbacks. For instance, the corrupt political leadership in Nigeria is alleged to have siphoned off nearly 400 billion dollars over a period of 50 years. Though such economic misdeeds have 4
  5. 5. precipitated civil wars in many African nations, there is no political will to halt the corruption. In fact, African democracies have even managed to install a political culture where elections are rigged. Corrupt African leaders who can successfully rig elections and get elected become folk heros. The club of capitalists will insist that explaining technological needs to aboriginal civilizations preoccupied with occultism is not an easy task. In fact, they will unanimously agree that it is highly impractical to enlighten the aboriginals. Politicians fear that any attempt to communicate Western scientific ideals will invite violence and hostility from the aboriginals. Therefore, to secure access rights, Eastern and African civilizations might have to be militarily overpowered by the capitalists. Even British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had supported military aided colonization and imperialism. Incidentally, history reveals many American Presidents had supported slavery and racism. In 1972, President Richard Nixon endorsed the idea of trespassing into the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate Hotel. During World War II, British intelligence services hired a high profile astrologer named Louis Von Wohl to help predict Adolf Hitler’s military moves. In Italy, under specific circumstances, courts allow women to commit perjury. In some Middle Eastern nations, it is illegal for a woman to drive a motor vehicle. Philosophically speaking, what is perceived as right or wrong or as legal and illegal are just elements of human fabrication in the mind of the beholder. Acquisitiveness is fundamental to the human psyche. The Western civilizations have always been in pursuit of material wealth and comfort. Western nations have fought wars to annex territories and seize wealth from their neighbors. An important ingredient of prosperity of many Western nations can be partly traced to wealth confiscation due to colonialism and imperialism. European colonist nations could afford higher wages due to wealth acquisition from Africa and Asia. In the nineteenth century, the American nation could afford a higher wage for workers because of annexed wealth from South America and Asia. Today, American citizens can afford better cars, better homes, and better home appliances partly due to wealth annexed from third world countries in South America. Patriotic citizens and politicians will rightly point out that wealth annexation and imperialism has brought tremendous benefits to the American economy and the American people. We notice that the sale of arms and weaponry are seldom done directly between governments. A lot of business in arms trading has to be carried out clandestinely. International arms deals usually involve bribes, kickbacks, fraudulent documents, and misrepresentation. Therefore, most weapons manufacturers and governments use the services of arms dealers and middlemen. The middle men and arms dealers get paid fabulous sums of money just for shielding high profile politicians and bureaucrats involved in making the deals. The middlemen and arms dealers take responsibility for executing risky transactions that violate international and local laws. Incidentally, most arms dealers and middlemen tend to be businessmen of doubtful integrity. Many billion dollar defense deals are made secretively over champagne and caviar. For an evangelist who passionately endorses industrial development on the planet, it will appear morally justifiable to persuasively dislodge the tribal families and rehabilitate them elsewhere. However, most African, South American, and Asian nations do not have a critical mass of honest political leaders or statesmen who can ensure that displaced civilizations get a fair economic deal during rehabilitation. In South America and Africa, money derived through sale of natural resources was seldom used effectively for the rehabilitation of displaced citizens. Often, the revenue was sent directly to the nation’s capital. 5
  6. 6. NGOs express the opinion that native civilizations need to be treated with respect, evicted with social dignity, and rehabilitated with compassion. In reality however, corrupt third world politicians and the bureaucracy use heavy arm tactics and military units to evict the native civilizations. Such actions often precipitate social unrest and civil disorder. Meanwhile, intelligent politicians will quickly point out that rehabilitation is a difficult task in overly populous regions of third world nations. High technology businesses in America were expected to be in dire need of mineral elements scattered in various parts of the globe. For American supremacy in engineering, aerospace, medical, and military hardware products, multinational corporations had to gain control of scarce mineral resources as quickly as possible. In 1951, President Harry Truman had the Materials Policy Commission estimate the requirements of American industry and identify geographical locations that held these deposits. This information would help the White House decide American foreign policy. American trade policies are carefully drafted with a great deal of patriotism. American foreign policy is primarily shaped to help American businesses legally profiteer from the weaknesses of third world nations. With protectionism, American policy also prohibits third world nations from exporting their agricultural products. These policies ensure one-sided trade deals that will significantly benefit the American nation. Based on the report of the Materials Policy Commission, rubber had to be annexed from Vietnam. Tungsten had to be annexed from South Korea and Bolivia. Columbium had to be annexed from Brazil and Mozambique. Chromium had to be annexed from Philippines. Cobalt had to be annexed from Congo, Morocco, and Zambia. Oil had to be annexed from Nigeria, Ecuador, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq. Exotic minerals uselessly lying around in third world countries had to be marked for control and annexation. The annexation could begin with the process of making a small direct investment to extricate the resource. Later, the windfall profits from mining and drilling could be brought back to America. Some intellectuals in America claim that the Bush administrated has spent $ 500 billion on an Iraq war that does not serve a serious purpose. However, economist will point out that the money spent on the Iraq war is an excellent investment. In future years, annexation of oil resources from Iraq will bring windfall profits to American oil companies. Once the annexation mechanism is in place, and an American chairman is installed in the Iraqi oil management organization, the costs of the war can be recovered quickly. The White House is currently planning to reconfigure Iraq’s oil industry as an American business corporation. According to the Wall Street Journal, a senior executive from Shell was invited to participate in the restructuring. The basic idea is to get British, Dutch, and American companies oversee Iraq’s oil business and gradually annex the nation’s oil wealth Iraq was holding nearly 110 billion barrels of oil reserves. Unfortunately, Saddam Hussein was unwilling to allow American and British companies control Iraq’s oil resources. It is believed that American oil executives wanted to see Saddam Hussein removed from power. Perhaps, the White House administration was just following suggestions from the powerful American oil cartel. From a long range perspective, easy access to Iraqi oil was essential, just to loosen the tight grip of the OPEC nations on the Middle Eastern oil business. Incidentally, at an earlier point in history, European and American oil executives had wanted Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq to be removed from power. Mossaddeq had played a key role in nationalizing Iran’s oil industry. By doing so, he had delivered a death blow to British Petroleum’s business interests in Iran. Fortunately, the Shah of Iran had been willing to dismiss the honorable prime minister in 1953. However, the removal of Mohammed Mosaddeq produced 6
  7. 7. an oil slick that made the political ground extremely slippery for the Shah of Iran. Eventually a series of political events lead to a scenario where Iranian students barged into the American Embassy in Tehran and precipitated the famous Iran Hostage Crisis. In Iraq, Saddam Hussein had strongly disapproved of oil refining outfits making 100 percent profit. Such spectacular profit margins had made crude oil refining more lucrative than crude oil trading. A cartel of American and European company executives insisted that refining crude oil entitled them to huge profits of up to 100 percent. This meant that every shipment of crude worth one billion dollars was guaranteed to fetch a profit of nearly one billion dollars from refining alone. This was making American, European, and Norwegian oil companies fabulously wealthy and politically influential. Many brutal dictators in Africa, Asia, and South America have the backing of European and North American powers. With political backing from the fraternity of G-7 nations, these dictators can even orchestrate genocides and civil wars to hold on to power. These dictators receive kickbacks for clandestinely assisting G-7 nations in corporate imperialism. Many dictators in Africa, Asia, and South America have grown enormously wealthy by receiving kickbacks. The American nation’s wealth was originally derived by controlling the natural wealth of South America. In fact, the Monroe Doctrine was conceived by President James Monroe in 1823 to help America control, govern, and enjoy the wealth natively belonging to South America. Meanwhile, the Europeans had set out to control and acquire the wealth lying around in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The British had been very successful in establishing colonies in these regions. However, it was becoming difficult for America to set foot in regions under European domination. Therefore, it was critical for America to gain a strong economic foothold in South America. The European and Asian economies have begun to see the American nation as a dangerously overweight monstrosity with a consuming disorder. She is willing to romp around and consume anything that comes her way. The Japanese are busy feeding her with cars, electronic appliances, and shrimps. America’s appetite for consumption provides employment to millions of people around the world. Since American engineers at Ford were the first to perfect the mass produced automobile, the industrial philosophers of the Western world may wish to argue that American companies have the elemental right to annexe oil reserves from nations that have little indigenous use for oil. In many indigenous cultures of the third world, bicycles and horse carriages have been the preferred mode of transport. On the other hand, Western nations are in dire need of oil. The American automobile industry created the craving need for gasoline all over the world. Had American companies not invented the mass produced low cost automobile, the Europeans would have been producing exotic automobiles only for the ruling aristocracy. With just a few Rolls Royces and Bentleys around in the world, there would not have been much demand for either crude oil or mined metals. Middle Eastern and South American nations with oil reserves would then have been languishing in life threatening poverty. Incidentally, in recent years, the Chairman of the Federal Reserve had casually told White House officials that the invasion of Iraq would benefit the American economy. The Iraqi invasion would have had an altogether different political coloring if the Russians and the Chinese had been diplomatically roped in. Perhaps, in such a scenario, the invasion could have come off as an intrusion guided by a curious blend of capitalistic and socialistic ideals. However, a White House 7
  8. 8. administration, with direct access to savage military power, held the view that it could afford to disregard world opinion. American policy makers obtained support from a nation that had gained notoriety for colonizing the Middle East and building the British Empire. In the last century, the games of good business revolved around deceptive marketing, misleading contracts, and intelligent speculation. America’s top business schools began taking pride in teaching the art of deceptive accounting. In the age of corporate fraud, the study of finance became a hot career option. One aspect of capitalism seemed to thrive on deception. In fact, for many years, the creative accounting and book keeping practices of Enron were admired in Wall Street. Looking back in history, the Great Depressions and the stock market crash seemed to have occurred due to outright deception. While dealing with third world nations, many American consulting companies were in a position to produce project reports using data that could not be easily verified. Third world nations ruled by ill-educated despots did not have the technical expertise to verify the outlandish claims made by global consulting companies. Many multinational corporations also found out that political leaders in third world nations could be bribed and persuaded to sign lucrative contracts. Though American law forbids companies from paying kickbacks to foreign bureaucrats, clandestine financial transactions could be easily routed in a roundabout manner through middlemen to avoid detection. Technically, these transactions could be brazenly carried out in foreign territories that were beyond the jurisdiction of American courts. The World Bank often volunteered to fund third world engineering projects that were not exactly investment worthy. In fact, nearly 50 percent of projects funded by the World Bank failed miserably. These failed projects drew third world nations into a vortex of crippling debt. When a small nation was drawn into paralyzing debt, the political system collapsed. This allowed the White House administration to do some arm twisting and gain extraordinary political leverage. Therefore, a failed project was often a blessing in disguise. While funding development projects, the World Bank was not unduly concerned about the nation’s ability to pay back the loan. Should a nation default, a magnificent opportunity for long-term political domination would open up. The World Bank was turning into a Semi-Political Organization (SPO) interested in creating situations where economical indebtedness could be transfigured into political indebtedness. Similarly, the International Monetary Fund was also becoming an SPO. While dealing with third world nations, the IMF and World Bank force market reforms that compel farmers to sign contracts with European and American companies engaged in genetic research. Often, the IMF and the World Bank persuade farmers to buy seeds and poultry technology from multinational business corporations. Multinational companies like Monsanto, Erich Wesjohann, and Hendrix Genetics have their footprint in many parts of the third world. Business corporations are also trying to control cattle rearing in many third world regions. Scientists believe that most genetically engineered animals have weak immune systems and need constant medical attention. With weak immune systems, they also become willing hosts to new strains of viruses and bacteria. Incidentally, the frequent outbreaks of bird flue in some regions of Asia are occurring due to increased activity in genetically engineered poultry farming. Quite simply, third world nations do not have the medical expertise to be able to deal with genetically engineered chickens. However, poultry farmers in Thailand have been experimenting with genetically altered species of birds. The chickens are being sold to supermarket chains. Unless the Word Health Organization 8
  9. 9. (WHO) intervenes and confronts the World Bank and the IMF, a deadly world epidemic might break out within the next two decades. In the last century, political indebtedness often forced third world nations to dramatically change their business laws. The ensuing scenario allowed multinational corporations to move in and make lucrative business deals. Sometimes, changes in trade laws would facilitate dumping. In the end, the American economy stood to gain, while the third world nation’s economy was pushed one step closer to extinction. Eventually, social unrest and civil disorder would engulf the third world nation. This further opened up exciting political and business opportunities for Western nations. The tone of the rhetoric from the White House administration forced a defiant Fidel Castro to cover the entire nation with a blanket of socialism. The socialistic blanket was Cuba’s protective armor against American incursion for wealth annexation. People in the streets of Cuba believe that the CIA made several attempts to assassinate Fidel Castro. Manuel Noriega was becoming a nuisance to American multinational corporations using the Panama Canal. Perhaps, at some point in time, the White House administration figured out that Noriega had to be either assassinated or imprisoned for life without mercy. Fortunately, American law enforcement officials charged Noriega of drug trafficking and put him away in prison. His arrest made it easier to free up the Panama Canal for American businesses. In the last two decades, events of social unrest one witnessed in South America and Africa were primarily due to the political mishandling of the rehabilitation programs. British and American multinational corporations were not the primary cause of the problem. The local governments and corrupt politicians were more crucial causes. Multinational corporations with unfair business practices were a secondary cause. Third world nations must put in place a new scheme for distribution of revenue that will ensure that displaced citizens are fairly compensated. Somehow, this seems to be an uphill task for third world economies where corruption is deeply ingrained in the nation’s bureaucratic structure. Over the years, as local economies in South America were decimated with American annexation, the natives turned to illicit drug trade for survival. In earlier decades, Spanish colonists had plundered local economies in South America. In the last century, the powerful Colombian drug cartels were fundamentally trying to reverse the flow of cash into the local economies. In fact, at an earlier time in Columbian history, the colonists had committed much graver offenses. For many South Americans, it was payback time now. Many Columbians probably feel that there is an honorable side to drug trading. Drug trafficking activities in South America probably offset the effects of imperialistic wealth annexation, so that local tribes are not driven to life threatening poverty. This explains why Columbian drug cartels are able to survive on high moral grounds. Their longevity in the illicit drug trade has become legendary. In Columbia, drug lords with adorable names and impeccable table manners are idolized citizens of society. Oil company executives spearheading the industrial economies usually hide behind closed doors and dislike media attention. In international trade circles, businessmen dealing with gold, diamonds, spices, oil, coffee, firearms, and narcotic drugs are usually members of powerful global cartels. As many of these cartels routinely engage in clandestine transactions and price rigging, these businessmen detest inquisitive journalists and television crews. In social status, oil cartels are probably just one level above the narcotic drug cartels. 9
  10. 10. Keeping regions in Africa in a perpetual state of social unrest had helped European colonists engaged in mining. For American and European companies with imperialistic agendas, it made perfect business sense to have disorder, social unrest, and political turmoil in South America and Africa. Wealth annexation could be carried out more brazenly under conditions of chaos. If wealth annexation is the principal goal, it would be a good strategy for American capitalists, politicians, and multinational corporations to keep South America and Africa in a constant state of social turmoil. In Africa, brutal dictators are able to keep their nations in a state of anarchy. These dictators also have the full moral support of Western politicians, business tycoons, and multinational corporations. In the last century, the social disorder in Africa was a blessing for Western multinational corporations. For the benefit of corporate expansionism, Africa had to be kept poor, weak, and illiterate until a significant portion of the region’s wealth was sufficiently annexed. Incidentally, the British colonists knew that educated citizens in third world civilizations tended to protest colonial incursions. From a perspective focusing on wealth acquisition, it was an excellent economic strategy to deny education to young Africans. Right through the twentieth century, the world was proud of America’s technological achievements. However, we are now visibly shocked to learn that many third world nations in Asia have started building sophisticated nuclear weaponry, missile systems, and satellites. Just three decades ago, these nations could not have been able to build a household vacuum cleaner that could guarantee trouble free service for six months. These nations were weak in the areas of metallurgy, rubber technology, and polymer science. It now appears that the great scientific discoveries and technologies that were developed in America and Europe a few decades ago are within the grasp of third world nations lead by religious fanatics and despots. Sometimes, nuclear technologies and missile technologies are obtained illegally through underground networks. Perhaps, what these nations had lacked earlier were funds to clandestinely engage in nuclear research and bring their mechanical ideas to fruition. Meanwhile, China is getting ready to build commercial jetliners and compete with American aircraft manufacturers. Young students at one of America’s premier universities wanted potassium cyanide capsules made available to them in the event of a nuclear holocaust. This is the extent to which American political rallies and the media broadcasts had instilled the fear of Soviet communists. What young Americans had failed to notice was that the anti-communist stand was just another election campaign issue for Presidential candidates. Richard Nixon was elected twice after expressing his intense hatred for communists. It seemed as if Republicans and Democrats were competing with each other in generating a cultural prejudice against communists. It also left many impressionable young Americans with the worries of nuclear war, conscription, and divorce of parents. In some ways, the European politicians were also a part of the conspiracy to instill fear of communists in the minds of American politicians. After the world wars, the European economy was in a precarious condition. The European nations exaggerated the Soviet communist threat to have the White House invest in counter-attack nuclear weaponry on behalf of the nations in Europe. In a diametrically complimentary scenario, the White House administrations exaggerated the Soviet communist threat because America needed European nations within her sphere of influence. The communist threat would allow America to set up military bases in Europe. The European politicians had their own agendas. Many European nations wanted to retain a society of 10
  11. 11. capitalism, and curtail military spending. The European politicians wanted their nations to be protected from Soviet intrusion, but were not prepared to invest their tax dollars in stockpiling weapons. A few European politicians wanted the White House to do the job of protecting them from Soviet communists. They wanted to get the White House entangled in their protection system, and have the White House place missiles in Europe. They used every opportunity on hand to exaggerate the Soviet threat and get America’s attention. Even British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher tried to exaggerate the communist threat. Instead of investing in nuclear weapons, the Europeans wanted to conserve money and invest in lucrative business enterprises in America. Many companies located in Europe feared that socialism and nationalization could engulf their business enterprises. Therefore, European companies wished to make business investments in America. They were reasonably certain that their operations in America would be safe from communists. While the American capitalists had the White House administration set up military bases in Europe, the European capitalists set up lucrative businesses in America. To deal effectively with the socialist threats, many European drug companies set up manufacturing plants in New Jersey. The invention of the atomic bomb, and the evolution of violent Stalinist communism in Russia further escalated America’s fears of war. The apprehension also drove America to install military bases in Europe. In fact, American nuclear bases were installed in Britain, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Greenland, Iceland, Italy, Turkey, Netherlands, and Morocco. During wartime, American airplanes could land and take off from bases in Europe. War in Yugoslavia provided an opportunity to install American military bases in Bosnia and Kosovo. War with the Taliban outfit provided an opportunity to install bases in Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. War in Iraq provided an excellent opportunity to install more military bases in the Middle East. According to communists, to see what the European capitalists were capable of inflicting on human society, one need look no further than Africa. Perhaps, in stark reality, many European capitalists had evil designs, and were just as evil as the communists. During the twentieth century, the American and European capitalists created a world where 1 percent of the world’s wealthiest owned 40 percent of the wealth in the world. Furthermore, 10 percent of the wealthiest owned 80 percent of the wealth in the world. In America, the wealthiest 10 percent owned 70 percent of the nation’s wealth. Surely, these statistics do not speak well of Western capitalism. Fortunately, the large hearted Chinese have now come forward to industrializing impoverished regions of Africa. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) war plans made the fundamental assumption that nuclear weapons would be deployed during wars in the immediate future. Later, during the John Kennedy years, the emphasis began shifting towards conventional weapons. However, at the other end of the battlefield, the Soviets believed that conventional wars in Europe would eventually escalate into nuclear wars. As the Soviets had been deeply disturbed and humiliated by the Nazi invasion in 1941, Moscow expected to use nuclear weapons in European conflicts. The Soviets were also ready for the first strike. From 1955, the Warsaw Pact assured a loyal military alliance of communist nations. Most of the communist nations in Eastern Europe and Central Europe had willingly formed this cooperative military alliance. They had agreed to defend each other in the event of an attack. Soviet allies in Eastern Europe were always in a state of military readiness. They could also quickly move from a defensive posture to an offensive posture. But the allies disliked the idea of subserviently obeying orders from Kremlin. 11
  12. 12. At one time in history, the nervousness exhibited by the American leadership became a cause for concern in the Soviet Union. The Soviets began to fear that a nervous American President could launch a preemptive strike. To make matters worse, John Kennedy had appeared extremely nervous. Many intellectuals and scholars express the opinion that the White House administration would have launched a pre-emptive nuclear strike on the Soviet Union if the Soviets had not stockpiled nuclear weapons. If the Soviets had exhibited militarily weakness, the White House administration might have carried out a pre-emptive strike. Through a fast paced nuclear buildup to match America’s arsenal, the Soviets might have actually prevented a dangerous nuclear holocaust. 12