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Mot ii
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  • 1. Introduction to Psychology II Motivation-ii Miss Adeela Aslam
  • 2. Primary motives
    • Innate motives based on biological needs.
    • Examples:
    • Hunger
    • Thirst
    • Pain avoidance
    • Need for sleep
    • Wastes elimination
    • Sex motivation
  • 3. Hunger motivation
    • A need or convincing desire of food
    • What cause hunger?
      • Empty stomach contraction cause hunger
      • Hunger produce an overall feeling of weakness
      • Lower level of glucose (a kind of sugar in blood) in the blood
      • Liver also responds to a lack of bodily fuels by sending nerve impulse to brain. These messages also contribute to desire of eat
  • 4. Brain areas involve in hunger
    • Two areas of hypothalamus are involved in hunger
  • 5. Brain areas involve in hunger
    • lateral hypothalamus
    • ventromedial hypothalamus
      • The hypothalamus is sensitive to levels of sugar or glucose in the blood and it also take signals from stomach and liver. All these signals combine to explain about the state of hunger.
      • The ventromedial hypothalamus is involve in the stop mechanism of eating food
      • Set point is the proportion of body fat (leptin) that tend to be maintained by the changes in huger and eating so it is the important mechanism that indicates about feeling of hunger or when to take less food
  • 6. Thirst motivation
    • There are two kinds of thirst
    • Extracellular thirst that is caused by a reduction in the volume of fluids found between body cells
    • It is caused by bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating and drinking alcohol
    • It leads to decrease the level of salts and water in the body so best satisfied by salty water
  • 7. Cont….
    • Intracellular thirst is triggered when fluid is drawn out of cells due to an increased concentration of salts and minerals outside the cells because it leads to shrink the cell
    • This kind of thirst is best satisfied by plain water
    • Kidneys and hypothalamus is involve in thirst motivation
  • 8. Pain motivation
    • Avoiding pain is also the basic human drive
    • Pain is an episodic drive as it occurs in distinct episodes
    • It is associated with bodily damage that has occur or is about to occur
  • 9.
    • Pain prompts to avoid or eliminate sources of discomfort rather than attainment of any goal
    • Pain tolerance could be learned through society as some people show their pain loudly and some show least of the behaviour without to much distress
  • 10. Sex motivation
    • The term sex drive refers to the strength of one’s motivation to engage in sexual activity
    • Many psychologists do not think of sex as primary motive because it not necessary for individual survival rather it is important for group survival
    • The sex drive is non-homeostatic
    • Sex drive can be aroused at virtually any time by almost any thing
  • 11. Cont….
    • Hormones play a role in sex drive
      • Androgen is the male hormone whereas Estrogen is female hormone related to sex drive
      • Increase in the level of androgen initiate sex drive in males whereas estrogen and androgen both play role in female sex drive because females also have little amount of androgen when its level increase they feel the sex drive
  • 12. sleep
    • Unconsciousness or unawareness of the external environment is what we meant as sleep
    • Stages of sleep
    • Stage 1 is light sleep where you drift in and out of sleep and can be awakened easily
  • 13.
    • In stage 2 , eye movement stops and brain waves become slower with only an occasional burst of rapid brain waves.
    • When a person enters stage 3 , extremely slow brain waves called delta waves are interspersed with smaller, faster waves.
    • In stage 4 , the brain produces delta waves almost exclusively.
  • 14. Cont…
    • Stages 3 and 4 are referred to as deep sleep , and it is very difficult to wake someone from them. In deep sleep, there is no eye movement or muscle activity. This is when some children experience bedwetting, sleepwalking or night terrors.
    • In the REM period, breathing becomes more rapid, irregular and shallow, eyes jerk rapidly and limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed. Brain waves during this stage increase to levels experienced when a person is awake. Also, heart rate increases, blood pressure rises and the body loses some of the ability to regulate its temperature. This is the time when most dreams occur, and, if awoken during REM sleep, a person can remember the dreams. Most people experience three to five intervals of REM sleep each night.
  • 15. Factors affecting sleep
    • Circadian rhythm - This is natural 24 hours cycle which determines when humans fall asleep according to correspond daily activities and environment surrounding people
    • Environmental arousal - certain factors cause a state of arousal. When humans are in this state, sleep tends to be disrupted (e.g. stress)
    • Sleep deprivation - when one is sleep deprived, he/she tends to fall asleep sooner the next time and remain asleep longer. It must be emphasized that individual differences play an important role in sleep cycles
  • 16. Bowel & bladder tensions
    • Bowel and bladder tension plays an important role, particularly during the period of toilet training.
    • Too early or too severe toilet training may induce a feeling of insecurity in the child.
    • Such problems may be avoided if parents wait until the child is physically ready.
    • These drives have very little significance in adult motivation.
  • 17. Secondary motivation
    • The need to belong
    • Achievement motivation
    • Power motivation
    • Creativity motivation
    • Aggression
    • Social Approval Motive
    • Play & Manipulation
    • Motives of Exploration & Curiosity
    • Competence Motive
  • 18. The need to belong
    • The need to belong or affiliation
    • Aristotle called us as social animal so we have a need to affiliate with others for feeling of identification and connectivity
    • It is aid to survival as
    • attachment serve as a powerful survival tool from caregivers to bring maturity for children and also enhance reproduction
    • it also enhance the practice of corporation and protection
    • Wanting to belong
  • 19. Cont…
    • We are acting to increase our social acceptance by obeying social norms because it enhance our self esteem
    • The need to belong depends on deep attachment and menacing threats
    • Moreover we have to maintain that relationship with many activities
    • It also have some darken sides as it could lead to abusive relationships as detachment could lead to negative emotions
    • So one can say that strong feeling of belongingness leads to good health or visa verse
  • 20. Achievement motivation
    • It is the desire to excel or meet some internalized standard of excellence
    • Many achievement oriented children have
    • parents and teachers who encourage their independence from very early age
    • Achievement could be as a result of intrinsic(desire to perform for once own sake) or extrinsic motivation(desire to perform because of some external rewards or to avoid punishment)
  • 21. Cont….
    • Effective managers adjust their managerial style in such a way that it will enhance the achievement motive of their employees
    • This motive have strong implications in all areas of life as the desire to have success is predominating in all spheres of life
    • But as it is said that it is learned, we learn this desire from are surroundings
  • 22. Power motivation
    • A tendency to seek impact, control or influence over others, and to be seen as powerful individual
    • People are more apt to belong to organization and seek office
    • Also seek to powerful professions like business management or teaching
    • They seek to display trapping of power
    • Male show negative or opposite to social norms to show their power whereas females show more positive behavior to command
  • 23. Creativity motivation
    • This motivation has its link more with intrinsic motivation rather than extrinsic one
    • It is enhanced by personal interests or involvement challenging situation and freedom of choice rather than increase in salaries
    • Creativity killers are
    • working under strong supervision
    • choices restrictions by rules
    • working only for getting good evaluation
    • working mainly for money
    • time pressure
  • 24. Aggression
    • While it has a biological basis, human aggression is primarily under the control of social factors.
    • Among the environmental and social causes of human hostile aggression are frustration, insults, compliance with social pressures and unpleasant environmental conditions, such as high temperatures, intense noise, and under some conditions, crowding.
  • 25. Cont….
    • Aggression can be learned in various ways.
    • Punishment, catharsis, the presence of non aggressive models may serve to lessen aggressive behavior.
  • 26. Social Approval Motive
    • Motive for social approval means to gain approval from significant others & the society in general.
    • If this motive is weak, a person may behave antisocially.
    • If it is too strong, a person may bury his originality and use up his adaptive energies in trying to discover and do the conventionally correct things.
    • If the child was deprived of the love and care in infancy and could not develop the earliest form of social approval motive, the consequences could be undesirable social developments in later life.
  • 27. Need for Self Actualization
    • It refers to an individual’s need to develop his or her potentialities, to do what he or she is capable of doing.
    • “ Self actualizers”, then are people who make the fullest use of their capabilities.
    • The goals for this need vary from person to person, for some it may be achievement in literacy or scientific fields, for others leadership in politics or community, and for some it may be living their lives fully without being unduly restrained by social conventions.
  • 28. Competence Motive
    • We are motivated to master challenges of environment. This is called competence motivation.
    • Exploration, curiosity, and the need for sensory stimulation may simply be expressions of our need to master the environment.
    • This motive plays an important & persistent role in driving human behavior
  • 29. Cont…
    • To achieve new masteries.
    • From crawling to standing, a baby pulls himself over and over again until he finally succeeds. In a similar way, he works to be effective in the environment when it comes to walking and number of other challenges.
    • These triumphs of child hood throw light on competence motivation.
  • 30. Motives of Exploration & Curiosity
    • The curiosity and exploration motive causes to seek out a certain amount of novelty and complexity, and with no other apparent motivation, we seek out and explore new environments.
    • This motive is not unique to humans. Many animals will explore a new environment with no external reward other than the newness of what is perceived.
  • 31. Play & Manipulation
    • This is a motive to explore the surrounding and satisfying the pleasure need through playing and manipulation.
    • This motive plays an important role in learning the new skills and mastering new tasks.