The hypothalamus is sensitive to levels of sugar or glucose in the blood and it also take signals from stomach and liver. All these signals combine to explain about the state of hunger.
The ventromedial hypothalamus is involve in the stop mechanism of eating food
Set point is the proportion of body fat (leptin) that tend to be maintained by the changes in huger and eating so it is the important mechanism that indicates about feeling of hunger or when to take less food
Androgen is the male hormone whereas Estrogen is female hormone related to sex drive
Increase in the level of androgen initiate sex drive in males whereas estrogen and androgen both play role in female sex drive because females also have little amount of androgen when its level increase they feel the sex drive
Stages 3 and 4 are referred to as deep sleep , and it is very difficult to wake someone from them. In deep sleep, there is no eye movement or muscle activity. This is when some children experience bedwetting, sleepwalking or night terrors.
In the REM period, breathing becomes more rapid, irregular and shallow, eyes jerk rapidly and limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed. Brain waves during this stage increase to levels experienced when a person is awake. Also, heart rate increases, blood pressure rises and the body loses some of the ability to regulate its temperature. This is the time when most dreams occur, and, if awoken during REM sleep, a person can remember the dreams. Most people experience three to five intervals of REM sleep each night.
Circadian rhythm - This is natural 24 hours cycle which determines when humans fall asleep according to correspond daily activities and environment surrounding people
Environmental arousal - certain factors cause a state of arousal. When humans are in this state, sleep tends to be disrupted (e.g. stress)
Sleep deprivation - when one is sleep deprived, he/she tends to fall asleep sooner the next time and remain asleep longer. It must be emphasized that individual differences play an important role in sleep cycles
While it has a biological basis, human aggression is primarily under the control of social factors.
Among the environmental and social causes of human hostile aggression are frustration, insults, compliance with social pressures and unpleasant environmental conditions, such as high temperatures, intense noise, and under some conditions, crowding.
It refers to an individual’s need to develop his or her potentialities, to do what he or she is capable of doing.
“ Self actualizers”, then are people who make the fullest use of their capabilities.
The goals for this need vary from person to person, for some it may be achievement in literacy or scientific fields, for others leadership in politics or community, and for some it may be living their lives fully without being unduly restrained by social conventions.
From crawling to standing, a baby pulls himself over and over again until he finally succeeds. In a similar way, he works to be effective in the environment when it comes to walking and number of other challenges.
These triumphs of child hood throw light on competence motivation.