Hello, I will be doing a presentation on the Glass Ceiling in Top Management. My role: Mid level manager, wanting to start an Women’s Employee Resource Group. You: Management that will be approving or denying my request.
Objective: What is the glass ceiling? What are the intangible and tangible benefits of gender diversity? How can we turn awareness into action?
The most debated effect is the presence of what is called glass ceilings or glass walls — those invisible, culturally embedded assumptions and beliefs about the skills and competencies of women that prevent their advancement into top management positions or their advancement into certain communities and domains like engineering or technical occupations. The presence of such glass barriers implies that certain positions and roles are controlled primarily by men. (Burke and Vinnicombe, 2005; Forster, 1999; Hewlett and Luce, 2005; Kanter, 1977; Liff and Ward, 2001; Strober and Chan, 1999).
Descriptive: constellations of traits that are thought to uniquely describe men and women. Incongruous with the job, will lead to decreased performance expectations and evaluations. Sex type of the job is determined by gendered characteristics to be required of the job and the proportion of men or women occupying the job. Prescriptive: stereotypes describe how men and women should be. So if a woman asks masculine, she is greeted with hostility and is disliked – leading to decreased evaluations. Both types have led to the glass ceiling. When a woman exhibits stereotypically feminine behaviour she is considered a poor fit for most managerial jobs (descriptive) and when she exhibits masculine behaviour she is perceived as being aggressive and hostile (prescriptive). Employee involvement: relational instead of hierarchical. Encourage relationship building and communal skills and work cooperatively and manage through facilitation. Focus on bottom line and less on soft skills of HR. Women will be favored for jobs that are sex typed as feminine and employee involvement required feminine characteristics. Same study found that women are not being excluded from lower or top level management because of the strategic integration of HR.
Proportion of women in management roles has increased more in HR than any other field, women’s representation in top levels of management has remained unchanged in the last ten years. Women hold 43 percent of executive, administrative and managerial occupations-but they account for less than 3 percent to 5 percent of top executive positions nationwide, according to data from the Women's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL).
Career Practices: First, women who leave the labor force lose seniority. Second, job skills may get rusty during extended leaves or absences. And finally, employers may view gaps in work history as a signal that women who leave may do so again.
In the wake of the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which encouraged companies to cast a wider net for new, independent board members, corporations are discovering the business case for corporate board diversity. Diversity of board members has become a highly desired aspect of good board governance. It acknowledges the interests of all stakeholders. Simply stated, the directors of corporate boards remain predominantly white and male. Gender Matters in Management Style Can gender distinctions make a difference when it comes to management styles and leadership characteristics that position both sexes for promotions? &quot;Who's choosing the CEO at most companies?&quot; asks Shuck. &quot;The board of directors, mainly--which tends to be white males. We're not yet gender-blind,&quot; she adds. &quot;And with few women in the really top spots, there's not enough of a critical mass to exert change.“
http://www.catalyst.org/file/86/1-17-08%20abd%20study.pdf The results (2001) indicated that there is a positive correlation between the number of female directors and a company's appearance on the '100 Best Companies to Work For' list. To determine whether the companies on Fortune's &quot;100 Best Companies to Work For&quot; have a higher percentage of female directors, we used annual report data on the number of female directors. We found annual reports for 48 of the 100 companies of which 27 companies are Fortune 500 companies. The data in Table 2 provide a comparison of these 27 companies with the remaining 473 companies on the Fortune 500. Comparing the number of female directors, there is only 1 (70) of the 27 (473) firms in the &quot;100 Best Companies to Work For&quot; (other firms) that have no female directors on their boards. This suggests that directors may be involved with the aspects that cause companies to be nominated for inclusion in the &quot; 100 Best Companies to Work For&quot; list. Of the 100 companies, 25% of the employee comments specifically note family-oriented benefits, including flexible scheduling, day-care subsidies, and adoption assistance. Social responsibility, then, does appear to be a priority for these companies both internally and externally. Our results do not change if we compare overall percentages. Of the 320 directors for the 27 firms that were part of both the &quot;100 Best Companies to Work For&quot; and the Fortune 500, there were 45 female directors (14.1%). This compares to a female representation of 12.0% (676/5611) for the 473 corporations that were not on the &quot;100 Best Companies to Work For&quot; list. The difference in the gross percentages (14.1% vs. 12.0%) is also significant (t = 1.70, p = .050). Our data suggest a synergy surrounding the increased representation of women on boards of directors when one considers the approaches to the concept of corporate social responsibility discussed earlier (i.e., contingency theory, social issue life cycle theory, and signaling theory). Husted (2000) describes social issues as the gap between what a company should be doing and what the company is doing on particular issues. Our study illustrates that the presence of female members on a board may affect organizations positively through their influence on internal as well as external operational matters. As seen in the &quot;100 Best Companies to Work For&quot; listing, employee perceptions are more positive at companies with more women board members.
Employer-employee relations is an intangible asset which may significantly contribute to the firm’s performance in the future. Difficult to measure, so using this list might reveal firms with superiour relations. Buy and hold or follow an active portfolio. 11% Reasons? High employee satisfaction may lead to increased productivity, lower turnover, and increased performance. Great Place to Work Institute – 5 dimensions (credibility, respect to employees, faireness, pride and camaderie) – Been in business at least 7 years and at least 1000 FT/PT Ees. Survey is administered to at least 400 random employees and consists of 57 statements + a management survey.
Findings suggest that being named one of the 100 Best is an indicator of superior firm performance.
What do these groups accomplish? They help their members with professional development and their employer with business growth. They can contribute community-specific knowledge and time that helps their employer grow the business by building brand recognition in external, non-traditional communities. They sometimes participate in marketing activities that help those departments define effective segment marketing plans or avoid product design, marketing or advertising faux pas. They also provide members with early leadership and professional development opportunities normally associated with being a senior leader or managing a large project. And they can be helpful in strengthening the company's recruiting and community relations efforts. ERGs serve multiple purposes. Important workforce development benefits include the advancement and retention of women, and, in particular, women of color, and the development of potential leaders. Marketplace development benefits include providing relevant insights on emerging markets, product development and design, as well as multicultural marketing. On the workplace development ftont, ERGs influence workplace culture by identifying unexamined assumptions, educating employees and senior leadership, and changing norms. Finally, ERGs serve an important community development and corporate social responsibility function by linking employees to their communities through donations and volunteerism. Members headquartered in Japan or Canada were mote likely than members headquartered in Europe or the United States to say that the primary purpose of their women's ERG was to provide social support to address women's professional challenges. Despire the feeling that networks should be used in this way, only 19 percent of those that track network activiúes—31 respondents—actually measured or linked women's network leadership with promotion and/or retention statistics. If womens ERGs are most valuable in this respect, organizations must measure and provide more explicit links between network leadership and participation, and metrics relating to advancement, retention, performance, and accountability.
Glass ceiling presentation
The Glass Ceiling in Top Management Presented By: Ann Kubricky
Agenda <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Background on Glass Ceiling </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex Stereotypes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management Types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Women’s Representation in Top Management </li></ul><ul><li>Value Proposition of Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Resource Groups </li></ul>
Glass Ceiling … those invisible, culturally embedded assumptions and beliefs about the skills and competencies of women that prevent their advancement into top management positions or their advancement into certain communities... The presence of such glass barriers implies that certain positions and roles are controlled primarily by men... Burke and Vinnicombe, 2005
<ul><li>Gender Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Human Resource Management </li></ul></ul>Background on Glass Ceiling
Background on Glass Ceiling <ul><li>Fortune 1000 companies: there are more than twice as many male executives than females in HR management. </li></ul><ul><li>Fortune 500 companies: 50 companies have 25% or more of women with corporate officer titles. </li></ul><ul><li>Fifteen of the Fortune 500-and twenty-five of the 1,000 largest firms-have female CEOs. </li></ul>
Women’s Representation in Management <ul><li>Men (82.94%) and white men in particular (71.53%) occupied </li></ul><ul><li>the vast majority of the 1,219 board seats. </li></ul>Catalyst, 2008
Female Representation on Boards of Directors Associate with Fortune’s “100 Best Companies to Work For” List Bernardi and Bosco, 2006 Women’s Representation in Management
Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work for in America <ul><li>Is there an ROI to being on the Fortune’s “ 100 Best Companies to Work” list? </li></ul>
Results Buy /Hold and Active portfolios outperform the S&P 500 in each of the multi year periods and seven of the eight annual periods in 1998-2005. (Goenner, 2005) Firms on the list have higher sales growth, asset growth and return on assets relative to S&P 100 in 1998. (Fulmer et al, 2003) Firms on the list have higher sales growth, asset growth and return on assets relative to S&P 100 in 1990-1994. (Lau and May, 1998)