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Data Present Data Present Presentation Transcript

  • DATA PRESENTATION
  • METHOD OF DATA PRESENTATION
    • TABLES
    • CHARTS
    • DIAGRAMS
    • GRAPHS
    • PICTURES AND CURVES.
  • TABULATION
    • THE TABLES SHOULD BE NUMBERED.
    • EG: TABLE 1, TABLE 1.1 ETC.
    • A TITLE MUST BE GIVEN TO EACH TABLE.
    • THE TITLE MUST BE BRIEF AND SELF-EXPLANATORY.
    • THE HEADINGS OF COLUMNS OR ROWS MUST BE BRIEF AND CLEAR.
    • FOOT NOTES MAY BE GIVEN.
    • SOURCE-NOTE MAY BE GIVEN; IT REFERS TO WHERE INFORMATION HAS BEEN TAKEN.
  • SIMPLE TABLES
    • DATA ARE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ONE CHARACTERISTIC.
    TABLE 1 POPULATION OF INDIA 685,185,000 1981 251,321,000 1921 238,396,000 1901 POPULATION YEAR
  • FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE:
    • THE DATA IS FIRST SPLIT UP INTO CLASS INTERVALS AND THE FREQUENCY (NUMBER OF ITEMS) WHICH OCCURS IN EACH GROUP IS SHOWN IN THE ADJACENT COLUMN.
    TABLE 2 AGE DISTRIBUTION OF PATIENTS 11 10-14 18 5-9 35 0-4 NO OF PATIENTS AGE-GROUP
  • CHARTS AND DIAGRAMS
    • BARS MAY BE VERTICAL OR HORIZONTAL
    • THE BARS ARE USUALLY SEPARATED BY APPROPRIATE SPACES.
    FIG 1 SIMPLE BAR CHAR
  • MULTIPLE BAR CHARTS
    • TWO OR MORE BARS CAN BE GROUPED TOGETHER.
    • IT IS USEFUL FOR DIRECT COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO VALUES.
    FIG 2
  • COMPONENT BAR CHART
    • BARS MAY BE DIVIDED INTO 2 OR MORE PARTS
    • EACH PART REPRESENTING A CERTAIN ITEM AND PROPORTIONAL TO THE MAGNITUDE OF THAT PARTICULAR ITEM.
    FIG 3
  • HISTROGRAM
    • IT IS PICTORIAL DIAGRAM OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION.
    • THE CLASS INTERVALS ARE GIVEN ALONG THE HORIZONTAL AXIS.
    • THE FREQUENCY ALONG THE VERTICAL AXIS.
    FIG 4
  • FREQUENCY POLYGON
    • IT IS OBTAINED BY JOINING THE MID POINTS OF THE HISTOGRAM BLOCKS.
    • IT IS SMOOTHED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE SHARP TURNS ARE AVOIDED.
    FIG 5
  • PIE CHARTS
    • FREQUENCY OF THE ATTRIBUTE/VARIATE IS SHOWN BY DIVIDING A CIRCLE INTO SEGMENTS.
    • THE AREA OF EACH SEGMENT DEPENDS UPON THE ANGLE.
    • EG: DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURE AS PER INCOME.
    FIG 6
  • THANK YOU