Welcome to all of you my friends to this slide cum video show. After preparing slide show the need was felt to incorporate videos in the show. There are total 29 videos in the show. Typical videos were selected from total 53 videos considering the time slot available. This slide cum video show will demonstrate the efficacy of modern tools available for imparting education. I hope you all will enjoy the show. Your suggestions are welcome This is interactive show. If anybody wants explanation on any point he can raise the issue anytime during the show. After discussions on that point are over we will proceed further. So my friends never hesitate to raise the points any time during the show
Look at the nearest point and look at the farthest point. The nearest point will be some where in our body itself where as the farthest point will be out there in the sky beyond the stars. Between these two pints lies whole universe.Nearest things are quite clear however farthest things are not so clear. The distance of the farthest point cannot be measured. It is beyond measurement and therefore infinite. Like wise is the universe.
Microcosm Microcosm is the world of the order of 10 raise to –33cms. Please note that the size of the atom is 10 raise to –8cms. Here we will be talking about the sizes less than the dimensions of electron, proton and neutron, even less than the size of photon. High-energy colliding beam accelerators called synchrotrons are in operation in the world in the hope of unearthing smallest common particle of matter and energy. We can speculate that smallest unit of universe is made of the smallest unit of existence, smallest unit of non-existence and the field between the two. The smallest unit of existence is of matter or energy and say it is positive in nature. The smallest unit of non-existence is of void or space and say it is negative in nature. We may call this negative unit anti-matter or anti-energy. The field between the above two is the cause of effect at a distance. The field is a sort of aura or corona. The field has a typical characteristic that the unit of existence and the unit of non-existence repel each other when they are near and attract each other when they are away. From this we may deduce that the unit of existence and unit of non-existence have the same polarity when they are near and opposite polarity when away. Time lag due to inertia, between cause and effect is responsible for dynamic universe. Thus unit world or universe must be pulsating. In the pulsating phenomenon the object does not leave the place yet it is in motion. This motion is like vibrating motion. The vibrating motion presents static and dynamic phenomenon simultaneously. Inertia means opposition to change. It is just like human beings who oppose change due to habits. Yet nothing is permanent but change.
In the universe there is existence of matter and energy. Let us first talk about matter. The atom is the basic unit of matter. The size of all atoms is approximately the same i.e. 10 raise to minus 8 cms. The length 10 raise to minus 8 cms. is equal to one angstrom that is approximately equal to the diameter of an atom. An atom of Hydrogen weighs only10 raise to minus 24 gms. All things are made of atoms.The atoms are little particles that move around in perpetual motion attracting each other when at a distance but repelling each other upon being squeezed into one another. It may be interesting to compare with human behavior. Do we not behave in the same fashion?The atoms are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons. The search for common smallest common unit of matter is going on in the laboratories of the world. That is the search for constituents of protons neutrons and electrons.The similar atoms combine and form elements. The different elements combine to form compounds of which the matter is made of. For example carbon and oxygen are elements but when they combine carbon di oxide is formed which is compound
The elements are classified in the periodic table on the basis of structure of an atom.1 Atomic number is the number of protons or electrons in the atom.2 Chemical symbol of the atom.3 Atomic weight or mass of the atom.You can see the place of oxygen atom in the periodic table. Oxygen is a gas at standard temperature and pressure.There are 92 elements found to be naturally occurring rest are made in the laboratory. There are 115 elements discovered so far i.e. till 2004.Radioactive materials are the heavy elements of atomic number greater than 80. Due to loss of radiation (radioactive decay) elements go on changing from one substance to another which in turn continues the process till stable material (lead) is attained.Matter exists in different states that is solid, liquid, gaseous and plasma. The plasma has got innate tendency to expand. Application or removal of heat energy changes the state of matter.
We have already talked about matter. Now we will talk about energy. There are various kinds of energies such as heat, sound, chemical, electrical, magnetic, gravitational, potential and kinetic etc. The electromagnetic radiation is another kind of energy.The electrical energy can be very conveniently converted into heat, light, chemical, mechanical or other kind of energy at the flick of the switch. Electrical energy however cannot be stored.Energy by its action not only changes the state of matter (solid, liquid, gaseous and plasma) but also changes the type of matter. When solid carbon is heated in the air it is converted into carbon di oxide which is a gas.
We know about electro magnetic radiation of different frequencies and wavelengths like heat rays, light rays, x-rays, ultra violet rays, cosmic rays, alpha, beta, gamma rays, micro waves and radio waves.There is incredible concentration of energy in the form of cosmic rays in the space. All these kinds of radiations propagate at the same velocity that is the velocity of light which is equal to 3 into 10 raise to 10 cms per second.C is equal to f into lambda. Where C= velocity of light, f= frequency and lambda is wavelength.Light is composed of photons, which have got practically zero mass and maximum velocity. Therefore it can be stated that at velocity of light mass disappears. Light is practically pure energy.
Electromagnetic radiation is coming from space to earth. Major source of electromagnetic radiation is Sun. The level of penetration of different kind of radiation in the earth’s atmosphere is shown in the diagram. The study of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum has assumed greater importance now a days in the laboratories all over the world.
MacrocosmMacrocosm deals with the dimensions of 10 raise to +33 cms. We are now going from the minutest globule to the whole mighty complex that comprises all the worlds in the universe.
Cross section of the earthThe surface of the earth is called earth’s crust where soil, water, air and light or radiation exists side by side.
The earth is not static. It is dynamic. The motion of the earth is the cause of day and night and seasons on the earth.Due to ‘precession of equinoxes’ the earth gradually changes its position relative to the zodiac so that roughly every 2160 years a different sign arises at the time of spring equinox.. We are now about to enter the so-called Age of Aquarius. There are 12 signs. Therefore 2160 into 12 = 25920 which is approximately equal to 26000 years. The spin of the earth’s axis completes one revolution every 26000 years.In Hindu mythology 1 Mahayug = 4.32 million years = 2000/12 into duration of earth’s spin of the axis..Duration of one spin of earth’s axis and duration of Mahayug are related.1 Kalp = 4.32 Billion years.Brahmadeva’s Life = 72000 Kalp = 311.04 Trillion years.
Milky way galaxy – Out LineThe earth is a member of solar system and the solar system is the part of Milky Way galaxy.Diameter of earth’s orbit is 186 million miles.Diameter of solar system is 30.1 into 186 million miles.Diameter of Milky Way galaxy is 100,000 light years.One light year = 3866 Billion miles.Diameter of known universe is 78 Billion light years.
Milky Way Galaxy - Spiral
Milky Way Galaxy – Edge OnBased on thrium-232 half life of 13 billion years and uranium half life of 4.5 billion years it can be stated that,1 Present big bang occued13 billion yeas ago.2 Galaxy formation occurred 11.5 billion yeas ago.3 Sun formation occurred 5 billion yeas ago.4 Earth formation occurred 4.5 billion years ago.On earth degree of complexity of matter has continuously evolved leading to self-replicating molecule i.e. Life.5 Life formation occurred 3 billion years ago.6 Man formation occurred 10 million years ago.
There are local groups of galaxies. There are galactic clusters also. Due to Hubble telescope in orbit the limit of known universe has increased from 10 billion light years to 78 billion light years.The several spiral galaxies are speeding away from the solar system at enormous speed. It means universe is expanding.The expanding and collapsing theories of universe can be explained by the forces of repulsion and attraction as well as by the phenomenon of evaporation and condensation of matter. According to steady state cosmologists’ new galaxies are continuously being formed. Both the static and dynamic concepts can be simultaneously explained by the oscillating nature of the phenomenon of existence of universe.The universe is infinitely old and therefore requires no creator. This is consistent with existing knowledge of cosmology which permits an oscillating universe. The events since big bang are merely the latest incarnation in an infinite series of creation and destruction of the universe.