An in depth look at what happened in Shap’s room from February to June
Biology Biology is the study of living organisms ‘ nuff said
ALWAYS wear your safety goggles when doing labs
Don’t fool around in the lab
Always know what’s going on around you
Scientific Method The scientific method is the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a problem
Scientific Method steps
Name the problem or question
Form a hypothesis
Test hypothesis by doing an experiment
Check and interpret your results
Nature of life
To be alive, something must…
BE COMPOSED OF CELLS
HAVE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
RESPOND TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT
ADAPT TO ENVIRONMENT
Microscopy… … is the technical field of using microscopes to view samples or objects. Scientists use microscopes to view cells and other microscopic organisms. Without microscopes, science and technology wouldn’t be nearly as advanced as it is now.
Mitochondrion -site of cellular respiration
Endoplasmic Reticulum -transports chemicals between cells and within cells
Vacuole -store insoluble wastes
Golgi App. -modifies chemicals to make them functional
Centrioles -forms spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during cell division
Nucleus - the control center of the cell
Same organelles as animal cell except…
Chloroplasts -the site of photosynthesis
Cell function The cell is a self-replicating unit that may exist as functional independent unit of life or as sub-unit in a multicellular organism that is specialized into carrying out particular functions towards the cause of the organism as a whole.
Mitosis Mitosis is the splitting of a cell. It occurs in four phases.
Prophase - Formation of paired chromosomes disappearance of nuclear membrane, appearance of the achromatic spindle, formation of polar bodies
Metaphase - arrangement of chromosomes in the equatorial plane
Anaphase -the two groups of daughter chromosomes separate and move along the fibers of the central spindle, each toward one of the asters, forming the diaster.
Telophase -two daughter nuclei are formed, the cytoplasm divides, forming two complete daughter cells.
Diffusion Diffusion is the passive movement of molecules or particles along a concentration gradient, or from regions of higher to regions of lower concentration This is one way things are transported in and out of the cell
Osmosis Osmosis is tendency of water to flow from a hypotonic solution (low concentration of dissolved substances) to hypertonic solution (higher concentration of dissolved substances) across a semipermiable membrane This is another way for the transportation of things in and out of the cell
Active transport Osmosis and diffusion all occur by themselves through changes in pressure and concentration. When something needs to be moved by other means, it is called active transport. An example of this is Contranslational transport which is the process whereby a protein is moved across a membrane as it is being synthesised.
Biochemical reactions Biochemical reactions occur when chemicals interact and cause a reaction. These occur all the time and are aided by enzymes (see next slide)
Vinegar and baking soda
Enzymes An enzyme is a catalyst or a chemical produced by cells to speed up specific chemical reaction Enzymes work in cells. The Lysosome is a digestive enzyme.
Monk who did experiments with pea plants to see how genes are passed on to offspring and how traits are inherited. He was the first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing.
Meiosis Meiosis is the splitting of gametes or sex cells. Each cell has half as many chromosomes because it needs to match up with another of the opposite sex to form a zygote.
Punnett Squares Used to predict which genes the offspring of two parents will inherit
Inheritance The offspring of two parents INHERIT the parents traits. If both the male and female have dominant brown hair traits, the offspring will INHERIT brown hair.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) Say that 5 times fast. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.
Structure (of dna)
DNA is made up of subunits which scientists called nucleotides.
Each nucleotide is made up of a sugar, a phosphate and a base.
There are 4 different bases in a DNA molecule:
adenine (a purine)
cytosine (a pyrimidine)
guanine (a purine)
thymine (a pyrimidine)
The number of purine bases equals the number of pyrimidine bases
The number of adenine bases equals the number of thymine bases
The number of guanine bases equals the number of cytosine bases
The basic structure of the DNA molecule is helical, with the bases being stacked on top of each other
Replication (of dna) When replicating, the double helix structure uncoils so that each strand of DNA can be exposed. When they uncoil, the nucleotides are exposed so that the freely available nucleotides can pair up with them. When all nucleotides are paired up with their new partners, they re-coil into the double helix. As there are two strands of DNA involved in replication, the first double helix produces 2 copies of itself via each strand.
Rna Transfers information to the protein forming system of the cell Fun fact-RNA is the genetic material of some viruses
Biotechnology… … is the technology that allows for the alteration of an organisms genetics and DNA.
Genetic engineering A form of biotechnology. Plants can be genetically modified to be immune of all herbicides so that farmers have a healthier crop. Anything can be genetically engineered to produce a desired effect.
Genetic disorders A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. Certain diseases can be the result of a genetic disorder.
Charles Darwin Charles Darwin did extensive research and was one of the firsts to document evolution. He did his research on the Galapagos Islands. Here he found many species that had adapted to their environments. HOME
Evolution This whole theory of transformation is based on the fact that when random genetic mutations occur within an organism's genetic code, the beneficial mutations are preserved because they aid survival, a process known as natural selection.
Natural selection Natural Selection is the idea formulated by Darwin that consists of differential survival and reproduction among members of a population or species in nature, due to variation in the possession of adaptive genetic traits. Natural selection, the major driving force of evolution, is a process leading to greater adaptation of organisms to their environment.
Sexual selection Selection which promotes traits that will increase an organism's success in mating and ensuring that its gametes are successful in fertilization. This is distinct from natural selection which acts simply on traits which influence fecundity and survival.
Classification (the 5 Kingdoms)
Cell wall usually
Cyano-bacteria (blue-green algae )
Unicellular or multicellular (many-celled)
Unicellular or multicellular
Chloroplasts for photosynthesis
Unicellular or multicellular
No cell walls nor chloroplasts
Ecosystems An ecosystem is The complex of a community of organisms and its environment functioning as an ecological unit
Interactions in Ecology
EXAMPLES OF INTERACTONS:
The food web-predators and prey
Co-evolution-plant and animal adapt only to each other
Food webs A diagram of what eats what in a certain environment.
Population Studies Many scientific experiments can be done by testing and doing studies on a certain organism population. For instance, if the population of fish in a pond is 200 in 2001, then only 100 in 2003, scientists can use this information to find out why the population decreased.
Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, using sunlight as the source of energy and the aid of chlorophyll.
The greenhouse effect is when energy is absorbed from the sun and stays inside the particular environment, resulting in a constant recycling of energy inside the environment.
Human impact in the biosphere
Humans have a huge impact in the biosphere. Every time we run our cars, dump our trash, and release toxins into the environment, we pollute the atmosphere and hurt the earth. Humans also help the biosphere by planting crops and trees, decomposing nutrient rich compost, and breeding animals.
Jurassic Park movie clip This Clip relates to biology because of the way the dinosaurs were born and the way they reproduced. The dinosaurs were reincarnated by scientists using genetic engineering and biotechnology. The DNA of a dinosaur found in the prehistoric mosquito was spliced in with the DNA of a frog. When the frog mated, a dinosaur was conceived. Also, all the dinosaurs put in the theme park were females. They then changed into males because of the frog DNA. In the clip, it was mentioned that the frog could change spontaneously from a female into a male. This explains how the dinosaurs mated and had eggs. A more probable explanation would have been that the dinosaurs inherited a trait that would allow for asexual reproduction .