Geology Exam 1
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GEOLOG EXAM ONE REVIEW BY KRISTARA AND MICHELA

GEOLOG EXAM ONE REVIEW BY KRISTARA AND MICHELA

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Geology Exam 1 Geology Exam 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Geology Exam 1 Archaeology F.I.G. By: The Most Awesome F.I.G. Members there is!!!
  • Relative Age
    • The Age of Something Compared to something else.
    • 1.) Law of Horizontality:
    • Rocks are deposited in horizontal layers…DUH!
    • 2.) Law of Superposition:
    • Rock layers on the bottom of a sequence of layers are oldest
    • 3.)Law of Cross-Cutting Relationship:
  • What can be used to determine relative age on a large scale?
    • Hmmm….could it be….FOSSILS
    • Called the Law Of Faunal Succession
    • Which was discovered by William Smith in C. 1790
  •  
  • Absolute Age
    • A number in years
    • i.e. Earth = 4.6 Billion
    • RADIO ACTIVITY
    • Radio active Parent atom => Stable Daughter Atom
  • Absolute Age VOCAB.
    • Isotopes:
    • Atoms with the same number of Protons in the nucleus but with a different number of Neutrons
    • Half Life:
    • The Time it takes for Half the Parent material to decay to its stable daughter.
  •  
  • Section 2 Planetary Geology
  • THE UNIVERSE
    • Really Old…13 BILLION yrs. Old
    • 1.) Big Bang Theory
    • 2.) Big Crunch (Big Bang + Big Bang in reverse)
    • 3.) Static…BORING
  • BIG BANG THEORY
    • 1920’s
    • Edwin Hubble
    • Discovered through the observation of “Red Shifting”.
    • The Universe formed do to an explosion of materials that formed stars and planets.
  • Universe Cont….
    • Universe>>
      • Galaxies>>>
        • Solar Systems>>>
          • Star w/ Planet (s) that revolve around it
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Terrestrial Planets
    • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
    • - They are Small… small …
    • - Rotate Slowly on Axis
  • Mercury
    • Innermost Planet ~ 58 Million Km away from sun
    • NO Atmosphere
    • Not Geologically Active
    • Surface Temp. -175 – 425 *C
    • 50% of planet (volume) is an IRON core = 70% of Planets mass
  • Venus
    • Second planet from the sun 108 million Km away from sun.
    • Thick corrosive atmosphere(96% CO2)
    • Atmospheric Pressure at surface (90 times that of Earth’s Surface)
    • Surface Temp. >>> 500*C
    • Surface: Craters, lava, ets.
  • Mars
    • Fourth Planet ~ 228 Million Km away from Sun
    • Polar Ice Caps
    • Geologically (Volcanically) Active
    • No evidence of plate tectonics
    • Evidence of running water and large dust storms
    • Surface Temps. -30 to -80* C
    • Meteorites from Mars
  • Jovian Planets
    • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
    • Large
    • Composed of lighter elements (H, He, O)
    • Rotate rapidly on axis i.e.> Jupiter = 10 hrs.
    • Thick Atmospheres (H, He, N, CH4)
  • Section 3 Rocks and Mineral
  • Rocks and Minerals
    • Rocks: Made of one or minerals
      • Minerals: Made of one or more elements
        • Elements: #1 (H) - #92 (U) naturally occurring
          • Atoms: Smallest particle of matter that retains the physical characteristics of an element
  • Atoms 101
    • Atoms are made of…
            • Protons (+), Neutrons (), Electrons (-)
  • Mineral Criteria
    • 1.) SOLID
    • 2.) INORGANIC
    • 3.) NATURALLY OCCURRING
    • 4.) Highly- Ordered internal crystalline structure
    • 5.) Definite Chemical Composition that can be expressed as a formula
  • Most Abundant Elements (on earth)
    • Oxygen >>> 46.6%
    • Silicon (Never found without Oxygen) >>> 27.72%
    • Aluminum>>> 8.3%
    • Iron>>> 5%
    • Calcium>>> 3.63%
    • Sodium>>> 2.83%
    • Potassium>>> 2.59%
    • Magnesium>>> 2.09%
    • Total: 98.59%
  • What are minerals based on?
    • Chemical Composition
  • Silicates
    • Basis: SiO 4
    • Ex.
    • (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 = Olivine
    • SiO 2 = Quartz
  • Carbonates
    • Basis
    • CO 3
    • Ex.
    • CaCO 3 = Calcite
    • Basis
    • Cl
    • Ex.
    • NaCl = Halite
    Halides
  • Sulfates Basis: SO 4 Ex. CaSO 4 * 2H 2 0
    • Sulfides
    • Basis:
    • Sulfur
    • Ex.
    • FeS 2 = Pyrite
  • Native Elements
    • Can Occur By Itself
    • Sulfur
    • Carbon
    • Aluminum
    • Copper
  • Section 4 Badass Rocks
  •  
  • Igneous Rocks
    • Formed from cooled (crystallized) Magma/Lava
    • Magma= under the earths surface = Intrusive or Plutonic
    • Lava = above earths surface = Extrusive or Volcanic
  • Igneous Rocks Classifications
    • Classified on two things
    • Texture
    • And
    • Composition
  • TEXTURE
    • Size of mineral crystals (phenocrysts) that compose the rock.
    • Aphanitic: Small Phenocrysts (extrusive)
    • Phaneritic: Large Phenocrysts (intrusive)
    • Viscous: Rate of flow (toothpaste like > Extrusive)
    • Vesicular: Air Pockets
  • COMPOSITION
    • What Minerals are made of… A.K.A. The Chemical Composition
  • Common Igneous Rock Forming Mineral
    • Overall Lighter Color
    • High in SiO 2 , K, Na
    • (Felsic)
    • Quarty– SiO 2
    • Orthoclase- K Al Si 3 O 8
    • (K Feldspar)
    • Albite- Na Al Si 3 O 8
    • (Na Feldspar)
    • Muscovite (K Rich)
    • Overall Darker Color
    • High in Ca, Fe, Mg
    • (Mafic)
    • Biotite
    • Olivine- (Mg, Fe) 2 Si O 4
    • Anorthite- Ca Feldspar
    • Amphibole- Hornblende
    • Pyroxene- Augite
    • Ferromagnesium Minerals
  •  
  • Igneous Rocks Why do they Melt?
    • Because Of…
    • Temperature
    • Pressure
    • And the presence of water
    • (it lowers the melting pt.)
  • Why are there different types of Igneous Rocks?
    • Because of FARMS…Don’t trust the farmers!!
    • F ractional Crystallization: The Separation of mineral crystals from the magma.
    • A SSimilation: Incorporating other rocks into magma
    • R eplenishment: Incorporating new magma with cooling magma.
    • M ixing of different magma types
  • Section 5 Volcanoes
  • Volcanoes
    • Mountains built by Igneous activity
    • Made Of
    • 1.) Lava (morphology)
    • 2.) Pyroclastic debris
  • Lava
    • 1.) “AA”- Blocky
    • 2.) “Pa Hoe Hoe”- Ropelike
  • Pryoclastic Debris
    • Dust: < 1/16 mm
    • Ash: Sand Size
    • Cinders: Sand – 10 in.
    • Block/ Bomb: > 10 in.
  • Why do some Volcanoes Explode?
    • 1.) Type of Lava = Felsic = High Viscosity
    • 2.) Amount of Volatiles = Felsic (most volatiles in it)
  •  
  • Igneous Rocks and a slight review
    • Magma rises through cracks in earths surface it exploits rocks.
    • Finds where the rocks are less dense
    • Rocks can be an insulator, makes magma red hot
  • More on Volcanoes
    • There can be small Volcanoes within the big volcanoes; they have long lives and erupts every so often
    • Lahars are melted glacier and water that mixes with Pyroclastic flow; like either watery or wet cement
    • Hot spots are place like the Hawaiian Islands; the volcano is a cinder cone
  • Volcanoes again
    • Fresh Volcanic Ash- tuff lithfide volcanic ash
    • Hot Springs- Magma body heating the water on the surface-> I.E. Iceland, Yellowstone
    • Volcanic Neck- inner throat of the volcano-> shown because of erosion of the volcano
    • If a volcano erupts under water “pillow” basalt instantaneous cooling all over the ocean floor
  • You know the drill
    • Fossils- evidence of the past life not likely in Igneous rocks.
    • Ash is a good for find fossils I.E. Pompeii
    • Ash is made up of fractured lava
  • Sedimentary Rocks
    • Formed from the consolidation of Sediments are derived from
    • Weathering and erosion of Rocks and Earths Surface
      • Weathering and erosion of pre-existing rock creates sediment
      • Transportation of sediments-> water, ice, Gravity, wind
      • Deposition of sediment-> water (Mississippi) and land (Sahara)
      • Compaction of sediments
  • LOOK THIS UP IN YOUR NOTES!!! From the LAST CLASS WE HAD
  • THE END