Geology Exam 1

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GEOLOG EXAM ONE REVIEW BY KRISTARA AND MICHELA

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Geology Exam 1

  1. 1. Geology Exam 1 Archaeology F.I.G. By: The Most Awesome F.I.G. Members there is!!!
  2. 2. Relative Age <ul><li>The Age of Something Compared to something else. </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Law of Horizontality: </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks are deposited in horizontal layers…DUH! </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Law of Superposition: </li></ul><ul><li>Rock layers on the bottom of a sequence of layers are oldest </li></ul><ul><li>3.)Law of Cross-Cutting Relationship: </li></ul>
  3. 3. What can be used to determine relative age on a large scale? <ul><li>Hmmm….could it be….FOSSILS </li></ul><ul><li>Called the Law Of Faunal Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Which was discovered by William Smith in C. 1790 </li></ul>
  4. 5. Absolute Age <ul><li>A number in years </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. Earth = 4.6 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>RADIO ACTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>Radio active Parent atom => Stable Daughter Atom </li></ul>
  5. 6. Absolute Age VOCAB. <ul><li>Isotopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms with the same number of Protons in the nucleus but with a different number of Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Half Life: </li></ul><ul><li>The Time it takes for Half the Parent material to decay to its stable daughter. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Section 2 Planetary Geology
  7. 9. THE UNIVERSE <ul><li>Really Old…13 BILLION yrs. Old </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Big Bang Theory </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Big Crunch (Big Bang + Big Bang in reverse) </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Static…BORING </li></ul>
  8. 10. BIG BANG THEORY <ul><li>1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>Edwin Hubble </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered through the observation of “Red Shifting”. </li></ul><ul><li>The Universe formed do to an explosion of materials that formed stars and planets. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Universe Cont…. <ul><li>Universe>> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galaxies>>> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Systems>>> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Star w/ Planet (s) that revolve around it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 15. Terrestrial Planets <ul><li>Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars </li></ul><ul><li>- They are Small… small … </li></ul><ul><li>- Rotate Slowly on Axis </li></ul>
  11. 16. Mercury <ul><li>Innermost Planet ~ 58 Million Km away from sun </li></ul><ul><li>NO Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Not Geologically Active </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Temp. -175 – 425 *C </li></ul><ul><li>50% of planet (volume) is an IRON core = 70% of Planets mass </li></ul>
  12. 17. Venus <ul><li>Second planet from the sun 108 million Km away from sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Thick corrosive atmosphere(96% CO2) </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Pressure at surface (90 times that of Earth’s Surface) </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Temp. >>> 500*C </li></ul><ul><li>Surface: Craters, lava, ets. </li></ul>
  13. 18. Mars <ul><li>Fourth Planet ~ 228 Million Km away from Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Polar Ice Caps </li></ul><ul><li>Geologically (Volcanically) Active </li></ul><ul><li>No evidence of plate tectonics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of running water and large dust storms </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Temps. -30 to -80* C </li></ul><ul><li>Meteorites from Mars </li></ul>
  14. 19. Jovian Planets <ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune </li></ul><ul><li>Large </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of lighter elements (H, He, O) </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate rapidly on axis i.e.> Jupiter = 10 hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Thick Atmospheres (H, He, N, CH4) </li></ul>
  15. 20. Section 3 Rocks and Mineral
  16. 21. Rocks and Minerals <ul><li>Rocks: Made of one or minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals: Made of one or more elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elements: #1 (H) - #92 (U) naturally occurring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms: Smallest particle of matter that retains the physical characteristics of an element </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 22. Atoms 101 <ul><li>Atoms are made of… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protons (+), Neutrons (), Electrons (-) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 23. Mineral Criteria <ul><li>1.) SOLID </li></ul><ul><li>2.) INORGANIC </li></ul><ul><li>3.) NATURALLY OCCURRING </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Highly- Ordered internal crystalline structure </li></ul><ul><li>5.) Definite Chemical Composition that can be expressed as a formula </li></ul>
  19. 24. Most Abundant Elements (on earth) <ul><li>Oxygen >>> 46.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon (Never found without Oxygen) >>> 27.72% </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum>>> 8.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Iron>>> 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium>>> 3.63% </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium>>> 2.83% </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium>>> 2.59% </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium>>> 2.09% </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 98.59% </li></ul>
  20. 25. What are minerals based on? <ul><li>Chemical Composition </li></ul>
  21. 26. Silicates <ul><li>Basis: SiO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 = Olivine </li></ul><ul><li>SiO 2 = Quartz </li></ul>
  22. 27. Carbonates <ul><li>Basis </li></ul><ul><li>CO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 = Calcite </li></ul><ul><li>Basis </li></ul><ul><li>Cl </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>NaCl = Halite </li></ul>Halides
  23. 28. Sulfates Basis: SO 4 Ex. CaSO 4 * 2H 2 0 <ul><li>Sulfides </li></ul><ul><li>Basis: </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>FeS 2 = Pyrite </li></ul>
  24. 29. Native Elements <ul><li>Can Occur By Itself </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul>
  25. 30. Section 4 Badass Rocks
  26. 32. Igneous Rocks <ul><li>Formed from cooled (crystallized) Magma/Lava </li></ul><ul><li>Magma= under the earths surface = Intrusive or Plutonic </li></ul><ul><li>Lava = above earths surface = Extrusive or Volcanic </li></ul>
  27. 33. Igneous Rocks Classifications <ul><li>Classified on two things </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul>
  28. 34. TEXTURE <ul><li>Size of mineral crystals (phenocrysts) that compose the rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Aphanitic: Small Phenocrysts (extrusive) </li></ul><ul><li>Phaneritic: Large Phenocrysts (intrusive) </li></ul><ul><li>Viscous: Rate of flow (toothpaste like > Extrusive) </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicular: Air Pockets </li></ul>
  29. 35. COMPOSITION <ul><li>What Minerals are made of… A.K.A. The Chemical Composition </li></ul>
  30. 36. Common Igneous Rock Forming Mineral <ul><li>Overall Lighter Color </li></ul><ul><li>High in SiO 2 , K, Na </li></ul><ul><li>(Felsic) </li></ul><ul><li>Quarty– SiO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Orthoclase- K Al Si 3 O 8 </li></ul><ul><li>(K Feldspar) </li></ul><ul><li>Albite- Na Al Si 3 O 8 </li></ul><ul><li>(Na Feldspar) </li></ul><ul><li>Muscovite (K Rich) </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Darker Color </li></ul><ul><li>High in Ca, Fe, Mg </li></ul><ul><li>(Mafic) </li></ul><ul><li>Biotite </li></ul><ul><li>Olivine- (Mg, Fe) 2 Si O 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Anorthite- Ca Feldspar </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibole- Hornblende </li></ul><ul><li>Pyroxene- Augite </li></ul><ul><li>Ferromagnesium Minerals </li></ul>
  31. 38. Igneous Rocks Why do they Melt? <ul><li>Because Of… </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>And the presence of water </li></ul><ul><li>(it lowers the melting pt.) </li></ul>
  32. 39. Why are there different types of Igneous Rocks? <ul><li>Because of FARMS…Don’t trust the farmers!! </li></ul><ul><li>F ractional Crystallization: The Separation of mineral crystals from the magma. </li></ul><ul><li>A SSimilation: Incorporating other rocks into magma </li></ul><ul><li>R eplenishment: Incorporating new magma with cooling magma. </li></ul><ul><li>M ixing of different magma types </li></ul>
  33. 40. Section 5 Volcanoes
  34. 41. Volcanoes <ul><li>Mountains built by Igneous activity </li></ul><ul><li>Made Of </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Lava (morphology) </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Pyroclastic debris </li></ul>
  35. 42. Lava <ul><li>1.) “AA”- Blocky </li></ul><ul><li>2.) “Pa Hoe Hoe”- Ropelike </li></ul>
  36. 43. Pryoclastic Debris <ul><li>Dust: < 1/16 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Ash: Sand Size </li></ul><ul><li>Cinders: Sand – 10 in. </li></ul><ul><li>Block/ Bomb: > 10 in. </li></ul>
  37. 44. Why do some Volcanoes Explode? <ul><li>1.) Type of Lava = Felsic = High Viscosity </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Amount of Volatiles = Felsic (most volatiles in it) </li></ul>
  38. 46. Igneous Rocks and a slight review <ul><li>Magma rises through cracks in earths surface it exploits rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Finds where the rocks are less dense </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks can be an insulator, makes magma red hot </li></ul>
  39. 47. More on Volcanoes <ul><li>There can be small Volcanoes within the big volcanoes; they have long lives and erupts every so often </li></ul><ul><li>Lahars are melted glacier and water that mixes with Pyroclastic flow; like either watery or wet cement </li></ul><ul><li>Hot spots are place like the Hawaiian Islands; the volcano is a cinder cone </li></ul>
  40. 48. Volcanoes again <ul><li>Fresh Volcanic Ash- tuff lithfide volcanic ash </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Springs- Magma body heating the water on the surface-> I.E. Iceland, Yellowstone </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic Neck- inner throat of the volcano-> shown because of erosion of the volcano </li></ul><ul><li>If a volcano erupts under water “pillow” basalt instantaneous cooling all over the ocean floor </li></ul>
  41. 49. You know the drill <ul><li>Fossils- evidence of the past life not likely in Igneous rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Ash is a good for find fossils I.E. Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Ash is made up of fractured lava </li></ul>
  42. 50. Sedimentary Rocks <ul><li>Formed from the consolidation of Sediments are derived from </li></ul><ul><li>Weathering and erosion of Rocks and Earths Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering and erosion of pre-existing rock creates sediment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation of sediments-> water, ice, Gravity, wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposition of sediment-> water (Mississippi) and land (Sahara) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compaction of sediments </li></ul></ul>
  43. 51. LOOK THIS UP IN YOUR NOTES!!! From the LAST CLASS WE HAD
  44. 52. THE END

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