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Geology Exam 1
 

Geology Exam 1

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GEOLOG EXAM ONE REVIEW BY KRISTARA AND MICHELA

GEOLOG EXAM ONE REVIEW BY KRISTARA AND MICHELA

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    Geology Exam 1 Geology Exam 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Geology Exam 1 Archaeology F.I.G. By: The Most Awesome F.I.G. Members there is!!!
    • Relative Age
      • The Age of Something Compared to something else.
      • 1.) Law of Horizontality:
      • Rocks are deposited in horizontal layers…DUH!
      • 2.) Law of Superposition:
      • Rock layers on the bottom of a sequence of layers are oldest
      • 3.)Law of Cross-Cutting Relationship:
    • What can be used to determine relative age on a large scale?
      • Hmmm….could it be….FOSSILS
      • Called the Law Of Faunal Succession
      • Which was discovered by William Smith in C. 1790
    •  
    • Absolute Age
      • A number in years
      • i.e. Earth = 4.6 Billion
      • RADIO ACTIVITY
      • Radio active Parent atom => Stable Daughter Atom
    • Absolute Age VOCAB.
      • Isotopes:
      • Atoms with the same number of Protons in the nucleus but with a different number of Neutrons
      • Half Life:
      • The Time it takes for Half the Parent material to decay to its stable daughter.
    •  
    • Section 2 Planetary Geology
    • THE UNIVERSE
      • Really Old…13 BILLION yrs. Old
      • 1.) Big Bang Theory
      • 2.) Big Crunch (Big Bang + Big Bang in reverse)
      • 3.) Static…BORING
    • BIG BANG THEORY
      • 1920’s
      • Edwin Hubble
      • Discovered through the observation of “Red Shifting”.
      • The Universe formed do to an explosion of materials that formed stars and planets.
    • Universe Cont….
      • Universe>>
        • Galaxies>>>
          • Solar Systems>>>
            • Star w/ Planet (s) that revolve around it
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Terrestrial Planets
      • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
      • - They are Small… small …
      • - Rotate Slowly on Axis
    • Mercury
      • Innermost Planet ~ 58 Million Km away from sun
      • NO Atmosphere
      • Not Geologically Active
      • Surface Temp. -175 – 425 *C
      • 50% of planet (volume) is an IRON core = 70% of Planets mass
    • Venus
      • Second planet from the sun 108 million Km away from sun.
      • Thick corrosive atmosphere(96% CO2)
      • Atmospheric Pressure at surface (90 times that of Earth’s Surface)
      • Surface Temp. >>> 500*C
      • Surface: Craters, lava, ets.
    • Mars
      • Fourth Planet ~ 228 Million Km away from Sun
      • Polar Ice Caps
      • Geologically (Volcanically) Active
      • No evidence of plate tectonics
      • Evidence of running water and large dust storms
      • Surface Temps. -30 to -80* C
      • Meteorites from Mars
    • Jovian Planets
      • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
      • Large
      • Composed of lighter elements (H, He, O)
      • Rotate rapidly on axis i.e.> Jupiter = 10 hrs.
      • Thick Atmospheres (H, He, N, CH4)
    • Section 3 Rocks and Mineral
    • Rocks and Minerals
      • Rocks: Made of one or minerals
        • Minerals: Made of one or more elements
          • Elements: #1 (H) - #92 (U) naturally occurring
            • Atoms: Smallest particle of matter that retains the physical characteristics of an element
    • Atoms 101
      • Atoms are made of…
              • Protons (+), Neutrons (), Electrons (-)
    • Mineral Criteria
      • 1.) SOLID
      • 2.) INORGANIC
      • 3.) NATURALLY OCCURRING
      • 4.) Highly- Ordered internal crystalline structure
      • 5.) Definite Chemical Composition that can be expressed as a formula
    • Most Abundant Elements (on earth)
      • Oxygen >>> 46.6%
      • Silicon (Never found without Oxygen) >>> 27.72%
      • Aluminum>>> 8.3%
      • Iron>>> 5%
      • Calcium>>> 3.63%
      • Sodium>>> 2.83%
      • Potassium>>> 2.59%
      • Magnesium>>> 2.09%
      • Total: 98.59%
    • What are minerals based on?
      • Chemical Composition
    • Silicates
      • Basis: SiO 4
      • Ex.
      • (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 = Olivine
      • SiO 2 = Quartz
    • Carbonates
      • Basis
      • CO 3
      • Ex.
      • CaCO 3 = Calcite
      • Basis
      • Cl
      • Ex.
      • NaCl = Halite
      Halides
    • Sulfates Basis: SO 4 Ex. CaSO 4 * 2H 2 0
      • Sulfides
      • Basis:
      • Sulfur
      • Ex.
      • FeS 2 = Pyrite
    • Native Elements
      • Can Occur By Itself
      • Sulfur
      • Carbon
      • Aluminum
      • Copper
    • Section 4 Badass Rocks
    •  
    • Igneous Rocks
      • Formed from cooled (crystallized) Magma/Lava
      • Magma= under the earths surface = Intrusive or Plutonic
      • Lava = above earths surface = Extrusive or Volcanic
    • Igneous Rocks Classifications
      • Classified on two things
      • Texture
      • And
      • Composition
    • TEXTURE
      • Size of mineral crystals (phenocrysts) that compose the rock.
      • Aphanitic: Small Phenocrysts (extrusive)
      • Phaneritic: Large Phenocrysts (intrusive)
      • Viscous: Rate of flow (toothpaste like > Extrusive)
      • Vesicular: Air Pockets
    • COMPOSITION
      • What Minerals are made of… A.K.A. The Chemical Composition
    • Common Igneous Rock Forming Mineral
      • Overall Lighter Color
      • High in SiO 2 , K, Na
      • (Felsic)
      • Quarty– SiO 2
      • Orthoclase- K Al Si 3 O 8
      • (K Feldspar)
      • Albite- Na Al Si 3 O 8
      • (Na Feldspar)
      • Muscovite (K Rich)
      • Overall Darker Color
      • High in Ca, Fe, Mg
      • (Mafic)
      • Biotite
      • Olivine- (Mg, Fe) 2 Si O 4
      • Anorthite- Ca Feldspar
      • Amphibole- Hornblende
      • Pyroxene- Augite
      • Ferromagnesium Minerals
    •  
    • Igneous Rocks Why do they Melt?
      • Because Of…
      • Temperature
      • Pressure
      • And the presence of water
      • (it lowers the melting pt.)
    • Why are there different types of Igneous Rocks?
      • Because of FARMS…Don’t trust the farmers!!
      • F ractional Crystallization: The Separation of mineral crystals from the magma.
      • A SSimilation: Incorporating other rocks into magma
      • R eplenishment: Incorporating new magma with cooling magma.
      • M ixing of different magma types
    • Section 5 Volcanoes
    • Volcanoes
      • Mountains built by Igneous activity
      • Made Of
      • 1.) Lava (morphology)
      • 2.) Pyroclastic debris
    • Lava
      • 1.) “AA”- Blocky
      • 2.) “Pa Hoe Hoe”- Ropelike
    • Pryoclastic Debris
      • Dust: < 1/16 mm
      • Ash: Sand Size
      • Cinders: Sand – 10 in.
      • Block/ Bomb: > 10 in.
    • Why do some Volcanoes Explode?
      • 1.) Type of Lava = Felsic = High Viscosity
      • 2.) Amount of Volatiles = Felsic (most volatiles in it)
    •  
    • Igneous Rocks and a slight review
      • Magma rises through cracks in earths surface it exploits rocks.
      • Finds where the rocks are less dense
      • Rocks can be an insulator, makes magma red hot
    • More on Volcanoes
      • There can be small Volcanoes within the big volcanoes; they have long lives and erupts every so often
      • Lahars are melted glacier and water that mixes with Pyroclastic flow; like either watery or wet cement
      • Hot spots are place like the Hawaiian Islands; the volcano is a cinder cone
    • Volcanoes again
      • Fresh Volcanic Ash- tuff lithfide volcanic ash
      • Hot Springs- Magma body heating the water on the surface-> I.E. Iceland, Yellowstone
      • Volcanic Neck- inner throat of the volcano-> shown because of erosion of the volcano
      • If a volcano erupts under water “pillow” basalt instantaneous cooling all over the ocean floor
    • You know the drill
      • Fossils- evidence of the past life not likely in Igneous rocks.
      • Ash is a good for find fossils I.E. Pompeii
      • Ash is made up of fractured lava
    • Sedimentary Rocks
      • Formed from the consolidation of Sediments are derived from
      • Weathering and erosion of Rocks and Earths Surface
        • Weathering and erosion of pre-existing rock creates sediment
        • Transportation of sediments-> water, ice, Gravity, wind
        • Deposition of sediment-> water (Mississippi) and land (Sahara)
        • Compaction of sediments
    • LOOK THIS UP IN YOUR NOTES!!! From the LAST CLASS WE HAD
    • THE END