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Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
Archaeology Exam 1
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Archaeology Exam 1

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Archaeology Exam 1

Archaeology Exam 1

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  • 1. Archaeology
  • 2. Changers
    • Giovanni Belzoni
    • - Famous Treasure Hunter 1778- 1822. Employed by Henry Salt
    • Thomas Jefferson
    • - Asked the who did it?
    • A. V. Kidder
    • South America and S.W. U.S. looking for Patterns to come up with a cultural History
  • 3. Anthropology (Study of Humans) Subfields of anthropology
    • Biological Anthropology
    • Archaeology
    • Cultural Anthropology
    • Linguistic Anthropology
    • Applied Anthropology
  • 4. Applied Anthropology
    • Solve Problems
    • Advertising/ Marketing
  • 5. Biological Anthropology
    • Human Origins
    • Examine Physical Remains at crime Scenes
    • Diseases
  • 6. Cultural Anthropology
    • Document Diff. Living Cultures
    • Languages
    • (comparative,
    • Evolution, and origins)
    Linguistic Anthropology
  • 7. Archaeology
    • Reconstruct the Past using texts, objects, etc.
    • Preservation
  • 8. Scientific method
    • Main Method
    • Six steps
      • Define a relevant problem
      • Establish one or more hypothesis
      • Determine the empirical implications of the hypothesis
      • Collect appropriate data through observation and/or experimentation
      • Test Hypothesis by comparing these data with the expected implications
      • Reject, Revise, and/or retest hypotheses as necessary.
  • 9. Hypothesis
    • A proposition proposed as an explanation of some phenomenon
  • 10. Induction vs. deduction
    • Inductive reasoning: Working from specific observations to more general hypotheses
    • Deductive reasoning: Reasoning from theory to account for specific observational or experimental results.
  • 11. The “Faces” project
    • ??????????
  • 12. Humanistic archaeology
    • ??????????
  • 13. Culture Material culture
    • ??????????
  • 14. Arch. Vocab
    • Artifacts:
    • Portable (made, Modified, or used by Humans)
    • Features:
    • Non-portable thing constructed by
    • humans for some task or tasks
    • Ecofacts:
    • The unmodified remains of biological materials used by people or related to the activities of people
    • Geofacts:??????????
  • 15. Pedra Furada
    • ????????????
  • 16. Midden
    • Refuse deposit resulting from human activities, generally consisting of sediment; food remains such as charred seeds, animal bones, and shell; and discarded artifacts.
  • 17. Debitage
    • ???????
  • 18. AREAS
    • Site
    • - Significance, human activity, types: terrestrial and underwater…
    • Region
          • A complex of sites, more broad scale notion of space beyond the level of the site.
  • 19. Archaeological culture
      • not equal to ethnicity
      • used to describe shared traits
  • 20. Pueblo Bonito
    • Pg. 72
  • 21. Chaco Canyon
    • Pg. 72
  • 22. Ancestral Pueblo
    • ????????
  • 23. Research design
    • A plan that guides an archaeological investigation
      • It clarifies:
    •  The questions being asked
    •  The data needed to answer the questions
    •  The methods used to recover the data
  • 24. Primary deposit Secondary deposit
    • P: Material found at site of last use
    • S: Material found where primary context has been disturbed
  • 25. Archaeological survey
    • Survey of an area to determine where there’s a site
  • 26. Survey
    • Remote sensing:
    • The Application of methods that employ some form of electromagnetic energy to detect and measure characteristics of an archaeology target.
    • Aerial photography:
    • Satellite imagery (TIMS)
  • 27. Survey
    • Magnetometer survey:
    • Soil resistivity survey:
    • A remote sensing. monitors the electrical resistance of soils in a restricted volume near the surface of an archaeological site; buried walls or features can be detected by changes in the amount of resistance registered by resistivity meter.
    • Ground penetrating radar
    • Remote sensing. Radar pulses directed into the ground reflect back onto the surface. Showing prescence and depth of possible buried features.
  • 28. Sampling
    • Judgmental sample
    • You Choose which sites to sample
    • Statistical sample (Random Sampling):
    • Samples are picked randomly
    • Judgmental vs. statistical sampling
    • Judgmental uses previously known knowledge/ info. Where as statistical gets rid of any bias and allows for generalizations.
  • 29. Pg 53
    • Settlement pattern
  • 30. Goals of excavation
    • Depends on the question
    • To recover artifacts and ecofacts
    • To locate features
    • To recover relationships between artifacts, ecofacts, and features
  • 31. Frequency Seriation
    • Measures changes in frequency of an artifact style
    • Battleship curves
  • 32. Stylistic Seriation Seriation
    • Artifacts are ordered based on stylistic similarity
    • Measure changes in the frequency of an artifacts style
  • 33.
    • Stratigraphy: A site’s physical structure produced by the deposition of geological and/or cultural sediments into layers, or strata
    • Stratigraphic profile??????
  • 34.
    • Datum:
    • The zero point, a fixed reference used to keep control on a dig; usually controls both the vertical and horizontal dimensions of province.
  • 35. 4 Principles of Stratigraphy
    • Superposition
    • Association
    • Reversal
    • Intrusion
  • 36. Association
    • -Artifacts found in the same stratum, or deposits are about the same age.
    • -Curatorial effect and the rate of deposition can affect this assumption.
  • 37. Reversal
    • Digging through normal stratigraphy (with the oldest stratum at the bottom) can result in the depositing of older strata on top of more recent stratum.
  • 38. Intrusion
    • An intrusion into a pre-existing stratum must be more recent (or later) than the stratum itself.
    • If the intrusion bisects a stratum, then it can be inferred that both sides of the layers belong to the same deposit.
  • 39. ????????
    • Excavation tools
    • Measurement tools
    • Recording tools
  • 40. Wet sites
    • Accommodations for:
    • Excavation
    • Preservation: keep materials wet to avoid changing the area
  • 41. Caves and rockshelters
    • Accommodations for:
    • Safety
    • Preservation
    • Mapping
    • Lighting
    • Air due to dust
  • 42. Ozette
    • Pg. 83-84 and 157
  • 43. Hoko River site
    • ?????
  • 44. Hidden Cave
    • ???????
  • 45. Sutton Hoo
    • ???????
  • 46. Otzi the iceman
    • 84-85
  • 47. Posthole
    • 65-66
  • 48. Provenience
    • 80-….
  • 49. Total station
    • 92-94
  • 50. flotation
    • 96,97, and 218-219
  • 51. Site formation processes (natural and cultural)
    • Pg. 224
  • 52. Disturbances
    • Cryoturbation:
    • Faunalturbation:
    • Floralturbation:
    • Argilliturbation:
  • 53. Water screening
    • 228
  • 54. “FUN” dating
    • Measures fluorine, uranium, and nitrogen content in bones
    • Site specific
    • Limited by materials
  • 55. Dendrochronology
    • One tree’s rings are compared to others to generate tree ring sequences
    • Present day to 10,000 yrs ago
  • 56. Radiocarbon dating
    • 1949: Willard Libby’s study of cosmic radiation and C14
    • Half-life: 5,730 yrs.
    • Sensitivity increased by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
    • 500- 45,000 yrs. Ago
  • 57. Radiocarbon Dating Cont’d
    • Materials: wood, Charcoal, bone, etc.
    • Industry changes the amount of carbon in the atmosphere
    • Atomic bomb changed it… making us adjust our
    • Calibrations
    • Protocol to avoid contamination
  • 58. Thermoluminescence
    • Measures the amount of light emitted from the release of trapped Electrons
    • Dating limit: 300,000 yrs. Ago
    • Material: pottery, heated stones, etc
  • 59. Argon-Argon dating
    • Measures relative quantities of argon 39 and argon 40 in volcanic rock
    • 200,000 Y.A. to several million Y.A.
    • Materials: volcanic rock
  • 60. Fission track dating
    • Measures breakdown of a uranium isotopes 238 U
    • Breakdown leaves tracks in material; density of tracks aids with dating site
    • 100,000 – 200,000 yrs ago
  • 61. Obsidian hydration
    • Measures thickness of hydration layer in obsidian
    • Site specific
  • 62. Terminus post quem
    • Last date after which
  • 63. Mean ceramic date and Pipe dating
    • 150-151
    • 149
  • 64. Laetoli footprints
    • Pg. 103-106
  • 65. Dating the Pyramids
    • At first the pyramids were dated historically according to hieroglyphics on the pyramids.
    • Due to speculation that the pyramids were actually thousands of years older Nakhla and Hawass decides to radiocarbon date the mortar that held the stones together since it contained pieces of charcoal.
    • The Charcoal actually gave them a date a 100 or so years older because of the old wood problem…
    • More info on page 146-147
  • 66. Dating conventions
    • BC, AD, BP, ya, BCE, CE, kya, mya, centuries, millennia

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