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  1. 1. An Introduction to the Profession of Social Work: Becoming a Change Agent Segal/ Gerdes/ Steiner Chapter 4 Social Justice and Civil Rights
  2. 2. Injustice Can Be Described As : <ul><li>Coercively established and maintained inequalities, discrimination, and dehumanizing, development-inhibiting conditions of living </li></ul><ul><li>imposed by dominant social groups, classes, and peoples upon dominated and exploited groups, classes and people” (Gil, 1998, p. 10). </li></ul>
  3. 3. These Conditions include <ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serfdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit at ive wage labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homelessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inadequate health care and education </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. Slavery <ul><li>Slavery didn't end during the Civil War. Today, 27 million men, women, and children endure brutal working conditions for no money and under the constant threat of beatings, torture, and rape . Slavery today is defined as forced labor without pay under threat of violence. </li></ul><ul><li>600,000 to 800,000 people are trafficked internationally every year. Approximately 80% of them are women and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery was officially abolished worldwide at the 1927 Slavery Convention, yet it continues to thrive thanks to the complicity of some governments and the ignorance of much of the world. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>In the 2000 Refugee Report, “Trafficking in Women and Children: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery,” former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright calls human trafficking “the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery is an extremely profitable, international industry. Experts estimate trafficking in the US yields $9 billion every year. Around the world, trafficking in women for commercial sex purposes nets $6 billion per year. The trade of human flesh is so lucrative that authorities complain that even as they close in on one smuggling ring in the US, another one pops up. </li></ul><ul><li>The four most common types of slavery are: chattel slavery , debt bondage , forced labor , and sexual slavery . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Starvation <ul><li>Starvation is a severe reduction in vitamin , nutrient , and energy intake, and is the most extreme form of malnutrition . In humans , prolonged starvation (in excess of 1-2 months) causes permanent organ damage and will eventually result in death . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Starvation <ul><li>According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations , more than 25,000 people die of starvation every day, and more than 800 million people are chronically undernourished. On average, every five seconds a child dies from starvation. [ </li></ul>
  8. 8. Starvation
  9. 9. <ul><li>Every year, about 6.5 million children under the age of five die because hunger leaves their bodies too weak to resist disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger and poverty are also among the main reasons why 100 million children are not in school. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Injustice includes: <ul><li>Hate crimes – when people are victimized because of their race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, ability, or gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Racial and Economic Inequality </li></ul>
  11. 11. Infant Mortality- deaths/1000 live births <ul><li>Angola 197.82 </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan 163.073 </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone 162.554 </li></ul><ul><li>Liberia 161.99 </li></ul><ul><li>Mozambique 130.79 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Infant Mortality-deaths/1000 live births <ul><li>222. Japan 2.80 </li></ul><ul><li>223. Sweden 2.43 </li></ul><ul><li>224. Hong Kong 2.40 </li></ul><ul><li>225. Iceland 2.34 </li></ul><ul><li>226. Singapore 2.10 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Where’s the U.S. <ul><li>1. Angola 197.82/1000 live births </li></ul><ul><li>184. United States 6.50/1000 live births </li></ul><ul><li>226. Singapore 2.10/1000 live births </li></ul>
  14. 14. Evidence of Social Injustice <ul><li>Hate Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Racial Inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Employment and Housing Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality </li></ul>
  15. 15. Barriers to Social Justice <ul><li>Prejudice - an attitude that involves judging groups and individuals based on myths and misconceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination - is an action that involves treating people differently based on their membership in a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Discrimination - occurs when discrimination is built into the norms and institutions in society and enforced by those in power. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Barriers to Social Justice <ul><li>Oppression - is systematic and pervasive mistreatment of people based on their membership in a certain group. Oppression includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Racism </li></ul><ul><li>Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>Heterosexism </li></ul><ul><li>Classism </li></ul><ul><li>Ableism </li></ul><ul><li>Ageism </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism and other forms of religious-based oppression </li></ul>
  17. 17. People who are members of mainstream or dominant groups have certain privileges built into their lives.
  18. 18. Can you think of a way that: <ul><li>White people have privilege based on their race? </li></ul><ul><li>Men have privilege based on their sex? </li></ul><ul><li>Able-bodied people have privilege based on their physical or mental ability? </li></ul><ul><li>Heterosexuals have privilege based on their sexual orientation? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Explanations of Social Injustice <ul><li>Biological Determinism - Social and economic status is biologically determined. People achieve a certain social and economic status based on innate biological characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>The Socialization Process - People learn from observation. Children do what they see their parents and other adults do. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Explanations of Social Injustice <ul><li>Psychological Perspectives - Bias is caused by psychological conditions such as fear of the unknown. Also includes scapegoating and projection. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological Perspectives - Scarce resources and economic insecurity cause conflict between groups. Discrimination and oppression serve economic purposes and benefit those in power. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Models of Intergroup Relations <ul><li>Melting Pot - Exposure to the mass media and a common education system would cause all those living in the U.S. to lose their cultural uniqueness and become &quot;Americans.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Pluralism - People retain their unique cultural characteristics while they mix socially and economically with other groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Separatism - Groups live in the same country but do things as separately as possible. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Overcoming Social Injustice <ul><li>Fourteenth Amendment - (1868) No state may &quot;deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Fifteenth Amendment - (1870) Gave all men, regardless of race or color, the right to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Nineteenth Amendment - (1920) Gave women the right to vote. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Overcoming Social Injustice <ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1964 - Outlaws discrimination and/or segregation in public accommodations and employment on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin and differential treatment of people of color in voter registration. Gave government enforcement power. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1968 - Added protection against discrimination in housing. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Overcoming Social Injustice <ul><li>Age Discrimination in Employment Act - (1967) Protects employees who are 40 years old or over from unequal treatment at work based on age. Additional laws passed since to offer protection in education and benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 - Outlaws discrimination against people with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, and public services. Requires &quot;reasonable accommodation&quot; for people with disabilities in work places and public facilities. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Overcoming Social Injustice <ul><li>Employment Non-Discrimination Act - Not yet passed. Would prohibit employers from using sexual orientation as the basis for employment decisions such as hiring, firing, promotion and compensation. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Overcoming Social Injustice <ul><li>Affirmative Action - Designed to address past inequities in employment and education based on race and sex. Requires organizations to develop plans to diversify their workforces and student bodies and establish timetables for implementation. </li></ul>