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Presentation Ireland Special%2520 Nov08%2520%252708 3 1 %252525255 B2%252525255 D%2525255 B1%2525255 D%25255 B1%25255 D%255 B1%255 D%5 B1%5 D[1].Ppt.

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Historic Tour of Ireland

Historic Tour of Ireland

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Presentation Ireland Special%2520 Nov08%2520%252708 3 1 %252525255 B2%252525255 D%2525255 B1%2525255 D%25255 B1%25255 D%255 B1%255 D%5 B1%5 D[1].Ppt. Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Dublin’s Fair City Dublin a Modern European City and The Capital City of Ireland
  • 2. Dublin Presentation By C O Gallchobhair How to Use: A. Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to bring up the information on each slide. B. Use the on-screen arrow keys to move to the next slide. C. You can also use the on-screen arrow keys to move back to the previous slide. D. The Home Button will bring you back to the start of the presentation. E. There are also some links that you can click on; to go to relevant information from some slides. Click on the right arrow key to continue >>
  • 3. Dublin Presentation The History of The City and Area Viking Period to Modern Times
  • 4.  
  • 5. Use the Down Arrow Key on your keyboard to obtain information on each slide Try it now! Thanks that’s great (press it again) You are ready to continue! (press it again) Now Click on the right hand on-screen arrow to continue >>>>> Click to return to last page viewed 
  • 6. Dublin City
    • The city can trace it’s origin back over 2000 years.
      • First settlement was called Eblana.
      • Today's city was originally founded by the Vikings.
      • Much of the grand city seen today was later built by the British Empire from the 16 th to the 19 th Century.
      • – Dublin was built as a 2 nd Capital show, piece of Great Britain’s that vast Empire.
      • The town appears in history as Dubh-linn, which is Gaelic for (Blackpool) – AD 291
      • Baile Atha Cliath is the official name, which came from a settlement there at a later date.
      • Please use the down arrow key to move to next slide .
    Don’t forget to use the down arrow key on your keyboard. Thanks XXXXXXXXXX
  • 7. DUBLIN
      • Dublin has often figured prominently in Irish history.
    On your keyboard press the down arrow key just once, the right hand arrow key will now take you to the next slide >>
  • 8. Christian Dublin
      • Dublin’s early settlement inhabitants were converted to Christianity about
      • the year 450 by St. Patrick
    On your keyboard press the down arrow key just once, the right hand arrow key will now take you to the next slide >>
  • 9. St. Patrick
  • 10. Early Medieval & Viking Dublin
    • The Danish Vikings captured the City of Dublin in the 9 th Century.
      • The Celts gained control back in 1014, 1075 and 1124 .
      • In 1171 the Danes were expelled by the Celt’s and the Anglo~Normans, who were led by The Earl of Pembroke Strongbow and King Henry II of England.
      • Henry held court in Dublin until 1172, he later made the town a dependency of the English City of Bristol.
  • 11. Viking Dublin
    • The Vikings originally attempted to conquer the whole country.
    • The Celtic Chieftains forced them to withdraw back to Dublin, Waterford, Wexford and Youghal.
    • These Viking settlements merged into a mosaic of small kingdoms.
  • 12. The Viking Fleet
      • In 914 the Vikings brought a huge Viking fleet which arrived in Waterford.
    VIKING LONGBOATS IN HARBOUR Viking longboat
  • 13. The Viking Stronghold
    • They attacked all of Leinster and Munster from their settlements in the eastern costal areas of Dublin and Waterford.
    • The Vikings then kept raiding villages and Irish monasteries and making off with their booty to Scandinavia!
  • 14. Chieftain Brian Boru
    • The Vikings were first driven out of Dublin by Brian Boru, who became High King of Ireland.
    • He was helped by his other fellow Chieftains.
    • He took to his throne; the throne of all Ireland, at the Rock of Cashel.
  • 15. Brian Boru Chieftain Brian Boru the last great High King of all Ireland
  • 16. The Chieftain Clan Wars
    • The Boru Clan lost their status as High King’s shortly after the Vikings had been driven out.
    • The deals with other Chieftains had collapsed and Clan warfare ensued.
    • Much Chieftain feuding and battles between the clans then occurred.
    • Now various Chieftain’s were wrestling with each other over all the land, with no High King in charge.
  • 17. Chieftain O’Connor & Chieftain McMurrough
      • After the Irish Clan wars, eventually Rory O’Connor and Dermot McMurrough became contenders for overall control of the Island.
      • This included Dublin and Leinster of course, now that the Vikings had gone.
      • McMurrough was defeated and Rory O’Connor gained control as High King Chieftain of Ireland.
  • 18. Chieftain Dermot McMurrough
    • The manipulative Chieftain McMurrough, who did a deal with Strongbow to re-gain power in Dublin amd Leinster.
  • 19. Chieftains O’Connor & McMurrough
    • Chieftain Rory O’Connor had a Castle in Castlerea in Connacht.
    • O’Connor now took the throne of Ireland at the formidable castle at Cashel.
      • “ The Rock of Cashel”.
  • 20. The Rock of Cashel On the main Dublin-Cork road, you are transported back 1,500 years. This was the seat of Kings and medieval bishops for 900 years and flourished until the early 17th century.
  • 21. High King Ruairi O’Connor
    • O’Connor Coat of Arms – Chieftains of Connacht, Clare & Sligo
      • ( High Kings)
  • 22. Strongbow
    • Strongbow, a very powerful knight arrived in Ireland from Anglo~Norman England with a very skilled and professional army in 1170 .
    The famous Cider depicting the Norman Earl of Pembroke Strongbow. Richard de Clare
  • 23. Strongbow
    • Richard de Clare – the 2 nd Earl of Pembroke.
    • Richard was King Henry II of England’s trusted knight of the realm.
    • Strongbow, although fairly ruthless, was also a very fine soldier and knight. He was a superbly skilled archer * - hence the name.
    • *de Clare brought into effective military use; the strongbow, to his fellow archers.
  • 24. Strongbow’s Castle in Wales
    • Pembroke Castle – Norman home and Stronghold of
    • Richard de Clare 2 nd Earl of Pembroke
  • 25. Strongbow
    • Lord Strongbow arrived in Waterford and proceeded to attack north with a large force and with the help of McMurrough’s loyal clan supporters he quickly took Dublin.
  • 26. Strongbow & Aoife
  • 27. Strongbow
    • Strongbow duly married McMurrough’s daughter Aoife, as agreed.
    • Interestingly he married whilst Waterford still burned, and it is said that “the River Suir still ran red with the blood of the slain”, these were medieval times.
    • Marring Aoife thus, brought himself in line to the Chieftain throne of Leinster after McMurrough himself died.
    • (Strongbow thus also inherited divine right to rule Leinster)
  • 28. Strongbow’s Chieftain ~ Norman Wedding
    • Strongbow’s marriage to Chieftain McMurrough’s Daughter Aoife in Waterford.
  • 29. Strongbow King of Dublin & Leinster
    • Lord Strongbow was now high regent and Lord of Norman (Anglo~French) rule in Ireland for the English King, Henry II .
    • Strongbow, was also now King of Leinster and he took up court in Dublin in 1171 and he also built the first of the large Norman castles in Kilkenny in 1172 .
  • 30. Henry II
  • 31. King Henry II
    • Henry believed Strongbow would become too powerful in Ireland, and Strongbow could easily become the King of Ireland as he was better equipped and stronger than Chief O’Connor.
  • 32. Henry II
    • Henry II did not trust Strongbow to remain loyal to the Crown.
    • He believed Strongbow wanted his own expanded Kingdom of Ireland, separate from the English Crown.
  • 33. Henry II & Strongbow
    • Henry II arrived in 1171 via Waterford and accepted loyalty directly from the Roman Catholic Bishops, who believed Henry had been sent by the Pope in Rome.
    • The Chieftains gave their loyalty and O’Connor had now been re-instated as High King of Ireland, and Strongbow in theory now had only as much power as O’Connor’s other subordinate Chieftains.
  • 34. Henry II
    • Henry II without any Battles had now conquered Ireland and he became:
      • “ Lord of Ireland.”
  • 35. Strongbow & O’Connor
    • Under Henry II, the High King Rory O’Connor was again the High Chieftain for the Island of Ireland; Connacht, Munster, Ulster and Leinster.
    • Strongbow & Aoife controlled the eastern part of Ireland from Dublin to Waterford, Leinster.
  • 36. Strongbow’s Power
    • Strongbow – still a knight of the English realm, was now demoted to a Chieftain~Lord of Leinster, (no longer a king) with O’Connor and King Henry II now his masters.
    • Strongbow still ruled in Leinster with great steal and consolidated his Norman rule in the East.
    • He built magnificent Castles and fortifications to protect Anglo~Norman Control.
  • 37. Strongbow
    • Strongbow was summoned to England for the Treaty of Windsor in 1175 between King Henry II and Rory O'Connor, high king of Ireland.
    • He now had to also make peace and now work with Chieftain Rory O’Connor, as ordered to by Henry II.
  • 38. Waterford to Dublin
    • Ireland’s second port and staging post for the sieges and naval landings on Dublin and the East of Ireland.
    • Firstly by the Vikings, McMurrough & Strongbow & King Henry II himself.
    Waterford City on the River Suir
  • 39. Strongbow’s Dublin
    • After Henry II came to establish overall power in Ireland, Strongbow and Aoife were still to remain The Norman -Chieftain rulers of Leinster.
    • Strongbow took court at Dublin Castle and at Kilkenny Castle further south into Leinster.
    • He left a strong legacy behind in Anglo~ Norman Dublin and Leinster.
  • 40. Strongbow at Dublin Castle
    • Strongbow died in June 1176 of some type of infection in his leg or foot.
    • He was buried in Holy Trinity Church in Dublin, his tomb is now vaulted at Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin City.
    • He left a son and a daughter, Gilbert and Isabel, Isabel who later married; William Marshall.
  • 41. Christ Church Cathedral
    • Christ Church Cathedral – Church of Ireland Cathedral
    Strongbow’s burial tomb lies here.
  • 42. Strongbow’s Aftermath
    • King Henry II took all of Strongbow's lands after his death and castles into his own hands.
    • Henry then placed a royal official in charge of the land and installed a knight or lord commander at Dublin Castle.
  • 43. The Widowed Eve
    • Aoife, Strongbow’s wife (Eve), was given her dower rights and possibly held Strigul Castle, later called Chepstow Castle as part of those dower rights until the Welsh rebellion of 1184/85 .
    • There is a record of Eve confirming a charter in Ireland in 1188/89 as:
    • "comtissa de Hibernia".
  • 44. “Eve at Chepstow Castle”
    • Chepstow Castle, where Aoife MacMurchada (or Eve) may have resided after leaving Dublin Castle in the wake of the death of Strongbow, and the loss of her lands in Ireland to Henry II
    • (In theory Aoife (Eve) would have inherited the lands because of her Chieftain Ladyship of Ireland (Leinster) as she was Strongbow’s widow and she, the daughter of Chieftain McMurrough.)
  • 45. Sir William Marshall
    • William Marshall took over in Dublin as King Henry II’s Lord of Leinster after Strongbow’s death.
    • Marshall had also married into the de Clare estate trough Strongbow’s daughter Isabel.
    • Marshall also later became Henry III regent – minder in 1216 , King John’s son was too young to become the English King on his own.
  • 46. Norman Control
    • The Normans then took over the whole land leaving only a small Irish Kingdom in the west of the country for King Henry’s loyal Celtic Cheiftain Rory O’Connor.
    • Earldoms were set up for the remaining loyal Chieftains in Munster, Ulster and parts of Connacht. These Cheiftains now became Anglo~Celt Earls loyal to the Crown of England.
  • 47. Norman Control
    • Overlordship of Ireland had been established with Kilkenny Castle and Dublin Castle been the main strongholds of English~Norman power, as it was under Strongbow earlier.
    • Kilkenny Castle is not very far from Dublin.
  • 48.  
  • 49. Norman English Kings
    • Richard I “Richard the Lionheart”
    • 1189 ~1199
    Richard I Coeur de Lion Leads the Crusade to Jerusalem (left), to fight against the Turks for the Pope and Frederick I, the Holy Roman Emperor with King Philip II of France .
  • 50. Richard The Lionheart
    • Richard I statue Westminster Parliament
    • Richard I ‘s Tomb Effigy at Fontevrault – L’abbaye France
  • 51. King John
    • Prince John ~ Lord of Ireland, the title granted to him by Richard the Lionheart.
    • Prince John held power on the throne of England, while King Richard was fighting in the crusades against the Turks and became therefore acting King of England.
    • Prince John (Acting as King) 1190 ~ 1199
    • Richard I then died in 1199 leaving the crown to his brother King John, who now ruled on his own.
  • 52. Norman English Kings of Ireland
    • King John 1199 ~ 1216
        • King John was regarded as a cruel King and the least successful, though some military success occurred in Ireland and Scotland. He was known for raising high taxes and for breaking his own treaty (The Magna Carta) generally not liked by his subjects, unlike Richard I.
        • *( Richard I who had maintained a small amount of control over his brother John until his death ).
  • 53. The Magna Carta
    • King John under great duress from his rebellious barons, was forced into introducing the Magna Carta into Law, a principle in law that still stands on the British and Irish statute today:
        • The Charter’s main changes:
        • Everybody would now have the right to a fair trail before imprisonment.
        • The Archbishops and Cardinals could now appoint priests to positions of power without the King.
        • 25 Barons would now scrutinise the King’s adherence to the Charter.
        • The King would now have to consult the Barons on the issue of raising any taxes.
  • 54. King John’s Castle
    • King John’s Castle at the mouth of the river Shannon at Limerick.
      • This Castle was in effect an outpost of the English King’s Realm.
  • 55. Medieval English Norman Kings in Ireland
    • Sir Richard de Clare “Strongbow” 1170 ~ 1171 (ruled Leinster only – Lord of Ireland until 1171 – lost power in Ireland to Henry II)
    • King Henry II (Curtmantle) 1154 ~ 1189 * (from 1171 “Lord of Ireland”)
    • Richard I (Coeur de Lion ) 1189 ~ 1199
    • Prince John (Lackland) 1190 ~ 1199
    • King John (Lackland) 1199 ~ 1216
    • Sir William Marshall 1216 ~ 1227 (regent to Henry III)
    • Henry III 1227 ~ 1272
    • King Edward I “Longshanks” 1272 ~ 1307
    • Edward II 1307 ~ 1327
    • Edward III 1327 ~ 1377
    • Richard II 1377 ~ 1399
  • 56. Earlier Norman Kings of England Following the Battle of Hastings 1066 .
    • William I The Conqueror 1066 ~ 1087
    • William II Rufus 1087 ~ 1100
    • King Henry I Beauclerc 1100 ~ 1135
    • King Stephen 1135 ~ 1154
    • Empress Matilda 1141 ~ 1141
    • King Henry II Curtmantle 1154 ~ 1189
  • 57. Medieval Dublin Castle
    • The Castle in the 12 th Century later partly destroyed by fire.
  • 58. Edward I ~ “Longshanks”
    • Edward I - The English King and Norman Overlord who conducted the wars with Scotland and France and asserted his authority in Ireland.
    • Edward I or “Longshanks” was also known as the Hammer of the Scots.
    • *(Edward is referred to in the famous Scottish song: “Flower of Scotland”)
    • Image of Edward I at Westminster Abbey with King Alexander of Scotland on the right and Prince Llewellyn of Wales on the left from a 1520’s Manuscript
    • Portrait of King Edward I
    • 1272 - 1301
  • 59. King Edward I
    • The Normans under Edward established a large English garrison the east of Ireland in particular Dublin & Kildare.
    • Towards the close of the reign of Edward I, the English settlers tended to congregate in the district around Dublin.
    • This area became known as "The English Land”.
    • Meanwhile those English who resided outside it were said to be "inter Hibernicos," i.e., among the Irish, and were considered fraternisers.
  • 60. “The English Land”
    • This district was limited, roughly speaking, by the great mountain tract of Wicklow to the south and by the Carlingford and Mourne Mountains to the north in Ulster.
    • It also ran towards the shore of the Shannon in the West, whence the border ran by Edenderry, Rathangan, and Kildare down to the Barrow River.
    • This Norman “border” followed the course of the River Shannon to the west and altered direction towards the sea at the mouth of the Barrow River.
    • It was not until a full century after this, that the English land became known as “The Pale”.
  • 61. Trim Castle
      • The largest Anglo~Norman fortification in Ireland near Dublin in county Meath.
      • The Castle and moat structure using the River Boyne can be clearly seen, despite its part ruin.
    Trim Castle is near an attractive little town called Trim on the banks of the River Boyne just north of Dublin. It has a very strong medieval heritage. This Norman castle was also the setting for the movie picture Braveheart.
  • 62. The Norman Castle
  • 63. The Norman Castle Castle Banqueting Hall, Kitchen and With-drawing Room
  • 64. Kilkenny Castle Norman Lordship of Leinster and Ireland
    • The present Castle begun by William Marshall 1207 (Henry III)
    • King Richard & King John, and later English Kings & Queens visited the Castle, including: King Edward VII (1901~1910) right up to King George V and Queen Mary (1910~1936)
    • Strongbow’s first earthwork and wood Castle was burned down by Donal Mor O’Brien
    • (O’Brien was the Chieftain King of Limerick)
  • 65. House of York
    • King Richard II died (he was possibly murdered!)
    • His son Edward IV eventually ascended to the throne in 1461 bringing Anglo~Irish relations closer even more.
    • Later Edward’s brother King Richard III became King and was the last English King to lead fully armoured knights into battle.
    Richard II Edward IV
  • 66. House of York
    • English rule in Ireland by force alone was not working outside the “Pale”
    • The English Pale was a fortified area surrounding Dublin and later stretching as far as Waterford.
    • English & Irish relations though, now became inextricably bound together during his reign.
    • The English now granted power to the “Anglo~Irish” Chiefs (former Norman Lords/Chieftains) granting very grand Earldoms in Ireland.
  • 67. Richard III
  • 68. Henry VII
  • 69. Sir Edward Poyning
    • Edward Poyning (Poyning’s Law) Poyning was Henry VII Lord Deputy of Ireland
            • 1459 ~ 1521
      • He was best known for introducing Poyning’s Law, making the Irish Parliament (originally just ruling the English Pale in Ireland) subordinate to the English Parliament and under direct control of the King’s Council and the Privy Council.
        • Originally this Irish Parliament held in Drogheda just ruled the King’s English Pale in Ireland, later the newer Irish Parliament however was to extend English rule over all of Ireland, with Poyning’s Law having direct consequences for the whole country.
    • Back to the Pale
    • Next to Poyning’s Law
    • Back to Henry VII
    • Go to Regency Dublin 1700
    • Go to Dublin Parliament (1700)
    • Go to Act of Union 1800
    • Go to Elizabeth I
    • Go to Queen Victoria
    • Go to Henry VIII
  • 70. ‘ Poynings Law’ 1494
    • Poyning convened a parliament at Drogheda in November, 1494 , the memorable parliament in which the act since known as "Poynings' law" was passed, removing all local power from the colonial Irish Parliament, which at the time only ruled for the pale, no native Irish person sat in this parliament, the later Irish Parliament set up in Dublin to rule for the Protestant ruling class, was to preside over all of Ireland, English law was extended over the whole country. “Poynings Law” would remain in force, establishing a grievance amongst the Irish population.
    • This new law was considered to be a very unfair measure. Poynings Law 1~6
    Edward Poyning
  • 71. ‘ Poynings Law’
    • The following are the most important provisions of this law:
    • l. No parliament was in future to be held in Ireland until the Irish Chief Governor and Privy Council had sent the King information of all the acts intended to be passed in it, with a full statement of the reasons why they were required, and until these acts had been approved and permission granted by the King and Privy Council of England.
    • This single provision is what is popularly known as " Poynings' law."
    Poynings Law 2 ~ 6
  • 72. Poynings Law
    • 2. All the laws lately made in England affecting the. public weal should hold good in Ireland. This referred only to English laws then existing; it gave no power to the English parliament to make laws for Ireland in the future, that remained unchanged until the Act of Union in 1800. The English Parliament was to gain greater control however following the English Civil War.
    • 3. The Statute of Kilkenny was revived and confirmed, except the part forbidding the use of the Irish tongue, which could not be carried out, as the Gaelic Language was now used everywhere, even throughout the English settlements .
    4 ~ 6
  • 73. Poynings Law
    • 4. For the purpose of protecting the settlement, it was made a felony to permit enemies or rebels to pass through the marches; and the owners of march lands were obliged to reside on them or send proper deputies on pain of losing their estates.
    • 5. The exaction of “coyne and livery” was forbidden in any shape or form.
    • 6. Many of the Anglo-Irish families had adopted the Irish War Cries; the use of these war~cries was now strictly forbidden.
    More Information
  • 74. Poynings Law
    • In this parliament the Earl of Kildare was attainted for high treason, mainly on account of his supposed conspiracy with O'Hanlon to destroy the English Deputy; in consequence of which he was soon afterwards arrested and sent as prisoner to England.
    • O’Hanlon was a northern Anglo~Irish Chieftain ~ Earl.
    • He conspired with the Earl of Kildare to seize Carlow Castle - Poyning swiftly recaptured it.
    Return to Edward Poyning
  • 75. The War of the Roses
    • Henry VII the new Tudor King of England took power after the War of the Roses.
    • The Red Rose Tudor House of Lancaster had won the Crown from the House of York.
    • When Henry VII died Henry VIII ascended to the throne he was to bring religious strife to Ireland for the very first time.
  • 76. Henry VIII & The Vatican
    • His departure from the Roman Catholic Church was over the disallowed divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon and the marriage to Anne Boleyn his new love and mother to Elizabeth I.
    • The Vatican in Rome excommunicated him over the issue.
    • Henry had 6 wives in all – not all at the same time!
    Link: * Go back to Dublin 1800
  • 77. Henry VIII
    • Henry VIII when he gained power thought about taking Ireland by force.
    • The Earl of Surrey was sent to Ireland to assess the Irish situation, the Earl reported back that a draft of 6,000 men would be required to enforce the Crown’s rule. This army would have required material support from England and new castles would have to be built in each area as they conquered the land.
  • 78. Henry VIII
    • The Crown would also have to follow this up with forced colonisation or plantation of English people.
    • Military presence alone would not be sufficient to maintain control. It would have been a vast undertaking for the English Crown at this time.
    • Henry VIII decided it was too expensive to attack Ireland.
    • However events were to play into his hands.
  • 79. Henry VIII
  • 80. Henry VIII
    • The problem for Henry was that the previously loyal Irish Earls did not support the new Tudor Kings following the war of the roses.
    • Henry VIII now demanded loyalty to the Tudor Crown, but alas the new House of Lancaster remained unpopular with Irish lords.
  • 81. Cardinal Wolsey
    • Prior to excommunication, Henry’s trusted Roman Catholic Cardinal from the Vatican in Rome, Cardinal Wolsey suggested the English Roman Catholic Church should rule Ireland, from the established Catholic Church of England.
    • He also suggested taking control via the Archbishops in Ireland.
    • To force Ireland to accept Henry III by military means, castle construction and Church infiltration would be very costly indeed.
  • 82. Cardinal Wolsey
    • The Roman Catholic Cardinal and senior religious advisor to King Henry VIII of England, Ireland & Wales.
  • 83. Silken Thomas
    • Silken Tomas, Fitzgerald the Earl of Kildare and Chief~Governor of Ireland since 1496
    • He was given the title by Henry VII to rule Ireland on his behalf.
    • Nicknamed Silken Thomas because of his flashy cloak of state.
  • 84. Silken Thomas
    • Thomas Fitzgerald, The Earl of Kildare
  • 85. Silken Thomas
    • On arriving at the Irish Earls Council Chamber, he flung his sword of state across the council table, whilst also removing his robe of state and showing himself in complete mail.
    • At a stroke he renounced himself, Dublin and Ireland from he English Monarchy.
    • English Overlordship set up by Strongbow and King Henry II now seamed to be at a amazing sudden end !!
  • 86. Dublin Castle 1534 Silken Thomas Fitzgerald’s siege on Dublin Castle
  • 87. Sir William Skeffington
    • The young Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, was friendly with some of the Irish Archbishops who were mostly arch enemies of Cardinal Wolsey. The Archbishop of Dublin John Allen was one of Wolsey allies however. Wolsey had a great deal of influence over the bishops in Ireland at the time.
    • Silken Thomas then attempted to attack Dublin Castle.
    • Henry VIII - outraged, sent the ruthless General Sir William Skeffington to quell the rebellion with 2,300 men, the Fitzgerald Castle was swifty taken and Thomas & his Clan executed. (a small baby of the clan was spared from this slaughter).
  • 88. Sir William Skeffington
    • Skeffington had been ruthless in his killing of the Fitzgeralds, which struck fear in the hearts of Irish Earls.
    • Skeffington then fortified Dublin Castle and also took the Fitzgerald Castle at Maynooth Co. Kildare.
    • The Pale already partially established by the Normans now consolidated the English control particularly in the East.
  • 89. Tudor Loyalty Established
    • Most of the the Anglo~Irish Earls were supportive of the Fitzgerald rebellion prior to its defeat.
    • The Earls now fearful of Henry’s methods, quickly passed laws in the old Drogheda Parliament as a display of loyalty to Henry VIII. Poynings Law
    • These were similar laws to those already passed in England.
    • Henry VIII was now all powerful over the Irish Earls and now Tudor King of Ireland.
  • 90. The Pale
    • The Pale which emanated outwards from Dublin, originally named “The English Land” by Edward I (Longshanks) , during the Norman period, had stretched from Dublin to Waterford and westward to Kildare and further still to the Shannon and the Barrow rivers, pretty much all of Leinster and its surrounding land.
    • No boundary had been built however it relied only on natural river and mountain boundaries.
    • Therefore it could be breached by a rebel Chieftain Army or potentially by a rebel murder gang willing to cross the rivers Barrow and Shannon or via difficult mountain terrain.
  • 91. The Pale
    • In 1488 the English pale was formally introduced in an Act passed by a Anglo~Irish Parliamentary Statute from the English garrison town of Drogheda.
    • The Medieval Anglo~Irish Parliament was held at Drogheda.
    • The Pale was now down to just four counties, Dublin, Meath, Kildare and Uriel (now Louth), much smaller than in Norman times.
    • English garrison towns still existed outside the pale of course, and these were mainly constructed during the Medieval period.
    • The phrase to be “beyond the pale” comes from this reference, namely if you came from outside the pale you were a barbarian.
  • 92. The Pale
    • The Pale 1488 – Statute from the old Drogheda Parliament .
  • 93. The Pale
    • In 1494 Sir Edward Poyning passed an Act allowing for new construction around the Pale consisting of huge double ditches to be interlaced with Castles to protect this English Pale.
    • These ditches were to be six feet high, but in some stretches there were much higher.
    • The ditches stretched the entire district around Dublin and Drogheda.
    • The Pale now also bordered the River Dodder including Merrion Castle the old Fitzwilliam Stronghold.
  • 94. The Pale
    • The Area just outside the Pale became hinterland, and would be only occupied by old Irish or English soldiers.
    • During Henry VIII 34 th year reign 1543 , he extended the Pale northwards to Dundalk, the next garrison town along the eastern coast beyond Drogheda.
    • He also extended it south towards Dalkey an old small coastal garrison harbour town just south of the town of Dublin, hence the Pale now reached the start of the mountains.
  • 95. The Pale
    • These Dublin mountains and Wicklow mountains were not properly captured until much later, and therefore created access points in the border for Chieftain clans to secretly enter the pale.
    • The English Army was placed intermittently along the Pale’s border to protect against raiders and to try to capture any trespassers or Chieftain merchants.
  • 96. The Pale
    • The small Town of Dalkey still has a Tudor look about it today, with a small Tudor Castle at one end of the town.
    • The Pale was also extended by Henry VIII ~ westward to Nass, Sydan, Kells, Rathmore, Balimore, Clan and Kilcocke, Tallaght and to the bridge at Kilcullen.
    • A larger Rampart was then built to keep the rebels out from entering the Pale and the Lord Deputy Garret og Fitzgerald Earl of Kildare had been given charge of maintenance of these defences. The last defence was still the Castles of course.
  • 97. Dublin
    • The “Protestant Ascendancy” through “re-colonising” was a largely successful policy, shoring up military control particularly in the area around Dublin and in the Leinster province.
    • The policy was first introduced by Henry VIII, and increased by Elizabeth I , all ruled over by a Lord Lieutenant Viceroy in Dublin.
    Dublin Castle 1570 Lord Lieutenant Sidney riding out from the Castle
  • 98. Elizabeth I
  • 99. Queen Elizabeth I
    • Queen Elizabeth after defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588 , now made sure that she controlled the Irish Earls, and the Scottish Earls.
    • She now waged war on both the Scottish & Irish rebel armies.
    • She also increased the Anglicisation of Ireland and large protestant land-owner plantation followed.
    • Governor Presidencies had been set up to administer the Earls in the provinces of Leinster, Munster and Connacht.
    • Ulster was still solely under her Chieftain~Earldom control.
  • 100. Lord Mountjoy
    • Elizabeth’s Viceroy General Lord Mountjoy, a very clever tactician, was now put in charge of the English garrison at Dublin Castle.
    • Cheiftain O’Neill the Earl of Tyrone was one of the last of the great Gaelic Chieftains, along with Chieftain Red Hugh O’Donnell, the Earl of Tyreconnel.
    • Both Chieftain~Earls still had full control in Ulster, under English “Overlordship”, now the Tudor Queen’s new Lord~Lieutenant Mountoy.
  • 101. Chieftain O’Neill
    • Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster had originally shown loyalty to the Crown, but he later cast away his title of Earl of Tyrone.
    • He was locally proclaimed “King of Ireland”.
    • O’Neill attacked Elizabeth’s forces with a great deal of success in Ulster, which gained him support.
    • Red Hugh O’Donnell also gained military success by re-capturing Sligo Castle and defeating Lord Clifford, the English Governor of Connacht.
  • 102. The Spanish Return
    • Elizabeth was now under a big challenge by Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster and Red Hugh O’Donnell, who had joined forces with O’Neill, supported by a Scottish rebel army 1,000 strong.
    • The Spanish firstly surprised the English and entered Kinsale harbour and the town itself from the sea, in the September of 1601 . They arrived in very hostile English territory.
    • Don Juan del Aguilla’s small Spanish Army only numbered 4,000 men however and were to be no match for the English.
  • 103. The Battle of Kinsale
    • O’Neill’s hand was now forced, so he marched his Chieftain army south and west from Ulster on a long march through enemy territory Connacht and Munster, in the depth of a very cold winter to support the Spanish at Kinsale.
    • To his credit, he managed to avoid all attempts of being stopped by the English en-route to the south.
  • 104. The Battle of Kinsale
    • The English would have had superior forces in the west of Ireland and should have been able to capture O’Neill’s forces, but O’Neill managed to evade them.
    • O’Neill on arrival at Kinsale, still had 12,000 men, who immediately surrounded the English just outside the small garrison town of Kinsale, whilst the English forces were still fighting the remaining Spanish inside.
  • 105. The Battle of Kinsale
    • The battle now also became one of terrible trench warfare and attrition. Mountjoy dug in to wait and merely hold off the Chieftain Army, until reinforcements arrived.
    • Lord Mounjoy’s forces on land were down to 6,500 men by the 2 nd December 1601 , whilst O’Neill and the combined Scottish and Spanish armies numbered 10,000.
  • 106. The Battle of Kinsale
    • The Spanish struggle in the town put pressure on O’Neill and O’Donnell to attack the English forces.
    • The English Royal Naval fleet had just arrived however.
    • The Fleet, arrived with supplies and men for Mountjoy.
  • 107. The Battle of Kinsale
    • Queen Elizabeth had sent a large Naval Fleet to defeat the small Spanish fleet that had been sent by King Pillip III of Spain, now anchored in Kinsale harbour.
    • The English now besieged the Spanish Army, with vastly superior forces both at land and from their fleet at sea.
  • 108. The Battle of Kinsale
    • Lord Mountjoy with a large mounted land force now ruthlessly defeated the Chieftain Armies when they tried to mount a coordinated attack , along with the Spanish from inside the town, Mountjoy immediately crushed them all.
    • The Spanish Fleet were forced to surrender by the English fleet on Christmas Eve 1601 , and turned back for Spain.
  • 109. Elizabeth I
    • The defeat of the Chieftain Armies enabled her to now capture Ulster completely.
    • In 1610 the Ulster Plantation was started to maintain control in Ulster, this time with a complex system of multi-tier plantation of Ulster’s lands.
    • O’Neill’s nine-year war with Ireland had been put to the sword. O’Neill himself was now finished.
  • 110. Elizabeth I
    • Elizabeth now very much consolidated her English Tudor Rule.
    • Queen Elizabeth I established Ireland’s first University in Dublin at Trinity College, and was a great supporter of Arts and Education.
    • Further magnificent Tudor~Elizabethan buildings were constructed around this period in Dublin.
  • 111. Elizabeth I
    • Dublin was now the seat of control for the entire Irish Colony.
    • The 1610 plantation of Ulster was extensive creating a long legacy in the province of Protestant Rule and consolidating English power in Ulster, and loyalty to the Crown.
    • Dublin Castle was also re-built during her reign.
  • 112. Dublin Castle 1600’s
    • The Elizabethan (re-built) Dublin Castle
  • 113. Charles I & The 1641 Rebellion.
    • By 1641 King Charles I tried to maintain control in Ireland and with his own parliament in London, but the English parliament was gaining far greater control over the English King and the Monarchy.
    • Difficulties in England encourage the Irish population including the Anglo~Irish Earls to mount a major uprising in 1641 mainly the native people of Ulster, who had never accepted the violence and injustice of the plantation of their lands since 1610 .
    • The Scots or English parliaments were also now seen as a greater threat to them than the power of the English King.
  • 114. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls
    • The name of the Rebellion of 1641 , was given to this protracted conflict, started by the massacre of Protestants in Ulster in 1641 .
    • A union had been created by the Civil War where “Old English” Anglo~Irish Earls and Gaelic Catholics united against the Crown.
    • The severe Cromwellion onslaught that followed was swift, ruthless and decisive.
  • 115. 1641 Rebellion and the Ulster Massacre
    • Started by the massacre of Protestants by Catholics, which was on a large scale.
    • Though exaggerated by many, modern research now suggests around 12,000 out of a total 40,000 Protestants in Ulster were slain, a terrible massacre no doubt, by any scale, and a regrettable episode amongst others in Irish History.
    • The rebellion then spread through other parts of Ireland including further south in Dublin itself.
  • 116. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls
    • Protestant dominance in Ireland was in danger of been completely eradicated, such was the initial success of the rising.
    • The Battle of Benburb in 1646 was to see the slaying of the main protestant army in Ireland.
    • The terrible massacres, created a deep mistrust by the Protestant ruling class in Ulster for years to come.
    • They were never to forgive or trust the neighbouring Catholics despite the passing of generations.
    Go back to Dublin 1800
  • 117. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls
    • Such was the acute sense of discontent by the native Irish Catholics in Ulster by 1641 , due to the loss of their lands. There is no doubt that there was a lingering bitterness from 1610 , which unfortunately spilled over into uncontrolled violence and mayhem.
    • When the Earls engaged in their insurrection on 22nd October 1641, unquestionably they were not intending on the complete destruction of the entire Plantation that had been brought into place however.
  • 118. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls
    • At the time of the Ulster Plantation in 1610 , there was also a large concurrent transportation scheme carried out by the royal authorities.
    • This resulted in some 6,000 able-bodied men being transported from Ireland to Sweden.
    • The vast majority of those were Catholic people that had to be shipped out from Ulster under the orders of the new Lord Lieutenant.
  • 119. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls
    • In the Early years of the Plantation, the Crown Authorities had done their best to decommission the arms of the native Irish people.
    • It’s a remarkable sort of comparison to the present-day situation where a proclamation was issued in 1605 which sought to disarm all people in Ireland, given the changes that have occurred over 400 years since, in technology and in policing and in the rule of law and order.
  • 120. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls
    • The Irish Earls also still wanted to maintain the monarchy in Ireland for and they also wanted to maintain the ruling classes.
    • They along with their tenuous union with the Catholic peasantry~workers and the “old Anglo~Irish” noblemen, wanted a much fairer system to allow the return of land to the previous Catholic owners.
    • They realised they would need some of the Protestant planters to stay.
  • 121. Charles I The 1641 Rebellion & Civil War
    • In Dublin on the eve of a planned attack on Dublin Castle, the rising was compromised, and it’s leaders arrested.
    • The rising in Ulster went ahead though and Sir Phelim O’Neill at first met with considerable success.
    • O’Neill’s victory over the Scots was seen as a victory for King Charles.
  • 122. The Crown Defeated by Parliament
    • King Charles I had an army in Ireland, which however he needed in England to fight as Cavaliers in his Civil War with Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell’s Roundheads – soldiers who were loyal to the new parliament.
    • The Irish Earls were unaware of Cromwell’s support and tried to gain concessions from King Charles.
    • In 1649 Charles I was defeated and was taken to the Tower of London and executed by axe under Cromwell’s orders.
  • 123. Sir Thomas Fairfax
  • 124. Sir Thomas Fairfax
    • Sir Thomas Fairfax, knighted by King Charles I in 1641 .
    • When the English Civil War broke out he became General in Command of the Parliament’s new “Model Army”.
      • Oliver Cromwell was put in charge of it’s Cavalry.
    • Cromwell sought now to force Ireland into complete submission of his authority and that of Parliament.
  • 125. Oliver Cromwell
    • Cromwell’s Puritan Army landed at Dublin in August 1649 .
    • He had a huge 20,000 strong fully armoured and equipped army which crushed all military opposition in its wake.
    • Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1649.
  • 126. Cromwell
    • Cromwell burned his way through Ireland in a ruthless campaign.
    • His Roundhead soldiers now engaged in a huge orgy of killing in Ireland.
    • It was retribution for the 1641 rebellion.
    • Sir Arthur Aston, loyal to the Crown had however believed his headquarters in Drogheda to be defendable from Cromwell’s new “Model Army”.
  • 127. Cromwell
    • Drogheda just north of Dublin was a heavily fortified walled town.
    Drogheda Town around Cromwell’s Time (1649)
  • 128. Cromwell at Drogheda
    • However Cromwell’s artillery breached the walls of the town and it was captured Over 3,500 people, including women and children were slaughtered at Drogheda following the executions of garrison soldiers.
    • The garrison of Wexford suffered a similar fate. Other towns chose to surrender rather than be destroyed.
  • 129. Cromwell’s attack on the Roman Catholic Church
    • Cromwell then attacked the Catholic Church whose property was seized and destroyed and it’s priests were hunted down.
    • By May 1650 Cromwell returned to England, confident that his work in Ireland was done, a terrifying episode leaving long consequences for Ireland.
    • The Lord Protectors forces would now remain in garrisons around Ireland.
  • 130. Aftermath of Cromwell
    • In the provinces of Leinster and Munster, the policy now was to replace all the major Catholic landowners with Protestants, which created a new land-owning upper class.
    • These newcomers were not always in communities with a already significant Protestant population however.
    • The 1641 rebellion had been swiftly defeated.
    • The impoverished bog lands of Connacht & Clare west of the Shannon was set aside for the native Irish population.
    Go back to Dublin 1800
  • 131. The Legacy of Cromwell
    • “ To hell or Connacht” became the dreaded Irish phrase meaning no choice at all !
    • “ The Curse of Cromwell on you” was another phrase derived from this period, meaning of course a terrible curse, always a dreaded phrase.
  • 132. Charles I Under powers granted by Parliament and Self Appointment Cromwell had Charles I executed at the Tower of London, after Oliver Cromwell won the Civil War against the Crown’s Forces in Ireland and England.
  • 133. Cromwell
    • Lord Lieutenant & Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth 1654 –1658 .
  • 134. The Return of the Monarchy under Charles II
    • The restoration of the Crown with Charles II in 1660 brought little change in Ireland.
    • The return of the Crown was welcomed by the majority of the people however, as a vast improvement in the situation incurred under Cromwell.
    • The King did not restore lands, as hoped for any Irish loyalty to the Crown.
    King Charles II
  • 135. King James II
    • Following Charles II, came James II who had converted (back) to the direct Catholic Faith – loyal to the Pope in Rome (as it had been under Henry VIII earlier reign )
    • This was due to James’s marriage with Mary – an Italian Catholic.
    • Cromwell’s settlers had left Ireland as James was catholic, and feared a new Catholic ruling class in Ireland.
    • James however was defeated by a now strong Parliament & Lord Danby sent for the Dutch Prince married to James’s protestant daughter (also called Mary).
    • James II had an heir ~ a Catholic in 1688 which sparked panic in the English Establishment fearing a new Catholic dynasty.
    Go back to Dublin 1800
  • 136. James II
  • 137. William of Orange
    • William of Orange became King and conquered James II at the Boyne River, troops still loyal to James, (Jacobites) and French troops sent by Louis XIV and also some Irish infantry, who were all defeated.
    William III James II Louis XIV
  • 138. King William III
  • 139. Battle of the Boyne
        • King James II was then later defeated at the Battle of the Boyne by the Dutch King William of Orange ~ William III .
        • William had 36,000 men and James had 25,000 - the largest number of troops ever deployed on an Irish battlefield, reinforced by 6,500 French troops sent by King Louis XIV.
        • At stake was the British throne, French dominance in Europe and Religious power in Ireland.
  • 140. The Battle of the Boyne
  • 141. Battle of the Boyne
        • Approximately 1,500 soldiers were killed at the Boyne.
        • Battle of the Boyne 1 th July 1690 ~ King William III.
        • William himself crossed at Drybridge on the Boyne River with 3,500 mounted troops.
        • Orangemen in Northern Ireland continue to controversially celebrate this Victory of “King Billy” on the 12 th July each year. (modern calendar date change)
    Go back to Dublin 1800
  • 142. Regency Georgian Dublin in the 1700’s
    • During the time of the French revolution and the new ideals of “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” the British government moved now to reduce the restrictions that had been placed on Catholics.
    • Catholics were now allowed to join the army for instance.
  • 143. Regency Georgian Dublin in the 1700’s
    • The penal laws were now repealed (in part) and the land tenure laws changed.
    • Poyning’s Law was also finally repealed, though some of the principles of the Crown’s rule remained in force.
    • A long period of peace and prosperity ensued in Dublin and the Irish Estates during the reign of four consecutive King Georges, known as the Georgian period.
  • 144. Dublin Custom House
  • 145. King George I King George II
  • 146. Castletown House
    • A fine example of a Large Georgian Stately Home near Dublin.
  • 147. The Dublin Parliament in the 1700’s
    • In the 1770’s the Irish Parliament was set up in Dublin which was loyal to the King of England but now had some legislative independence to the English Westminster Parliament.
    The Old Dublin Parliament now a Central Bank
  • 148. Regency Georgian Dublin in the 1700’s
    • By 1782 Dublin had gained a measure of legislative independence, from Westminster in London.
    • Ireland was now a separate entity still fully loyal to the King of England of course.
    • Dublin developed as a City even more, boasting fine architecture and grand broad streets, a Dublin society life also developed, with much gaiety and extravagance.
    • Much of Dublin today has architecture dating from this period with the majority of Georgian terrace town houses still intact and still used as residencies.
  • 149. 18 th Century Dublin By the end of the 17th century and the early 18 th Century a remarkable growth began with Protestant refugees from the European continent pouring into Dublin. In the course of the 18th century Dublin grew enormously in size and wealth. Dublin soon became the second city of the British Empire. This prosperity made Dublin a very exciting city for it’s new and old population. It became very vibrant and fashionable. Phoenix park in Dublin was also laid out for the public.
  • 150. Georgian Dublin The Four Courts Georgian Town House
  • 151. Georgian Ireland 1700’s
    • The Protestant Aristocracy in Georgian Dublin truly had a golden era. The Landlords grew very very rich, however these members of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy had also denied some basic civil rights to the native Roman Catholics community, causing further resentment.
    • The Protestant Landlords during this period lived a merry and extravagant lives, charging very high rents to their tenants and spending the money on houses, their own estates and grandeur.
    • However this extravagance was whilst the tenant farmers lived in abject poverty, almost worlds apart from the high living enjoyed by their masters.
    • In 1720-30 the first of the harsh famines and failed crop devastated the south.
  • 152. Georgian Ireland 1700’s
    • Ordinary Irish people held on to respect for learning and education and maintained their own language to a point, as well as learning English culture and traditions and knowledge of the classics using the unofficial hedge schools, or outdoor schools.
    • Irish poets and harpers still had an audience at the new grand houses and among their own people. Music also developed during this period with new orchestras, and chamber music.
  • 153. Georgian Ireland 1700’s
    • Some small rebellions occurred, but were quickly quelled, the ruling classes overall now enjoying great prosperity and relative peace.
    • This ensured that the status quo in Ireland would remain for the time being.
    • There was some unrest with the tenant farmers which spilled over into murder and risings by “Fenian” gangs.
  • 154. Georgian Ireland 1700’s
    • Overall the native population now had to conform to the now extremely powerful British Empire's rule.
    • Dublin itself, the colonial Capital had been designed to be the second city of the British Empire after London.
    • Dublin was now largely peaceful and very much a new Imperial City, with much gaiety and wealth.
    • Phoenix Park in Dublin was now very fashionable.
  • 155. Phoenix Park 1800 The very grand and splendid Phoenix park in Dublin. Europe’s largest walled park.
  • 156. Background: (how the English came up with the concept of a “Union” with Ireland ..which only led to yet further conflict. ) The formation of the United Kingdom
    • Before 1800 the United Kingdom comprised of the Principality of Wales and the Kingdom of England.
    • After the Act of Union with the Kingdom of Scotland in 1707 Which had been created by the earlier Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland 1603 - the formation of Great Britain was conceived.
    • Ireland, though colonised had not yet been brought into this “Great” union with Britain.
    • This all changed in 1801 with the Act of Union with Ireland.
                                             
  • 157. The Union of The English and Scottish Crowns 1603 and The Act of Union with Scotland 1707 James VI of Scotland became James I of England 1603 The House of Stewart Queen Anne of Scotland signs Act of Union with England 1707 becoming “ The first Queen of Great Britain” After the death of Queen Anne a Stewart – the new “British” Monarchy went to the House of Hanover – the English Crown.
  • 158. The Act of Union with Ireland 1800
    • The combination of the the blue flag with a white cross – the cross of St.Andrew of Scotland and the red crossed flag of St. George of England created the old union flag of Great Britain or the United Kingdom. Next; after the union with Ireland in 1801 the diagonal red cross of St.Patrick was added.to create the new Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
    Note: The flag of Wales is not incorporated into the Union Flag because Wales had been incorporated into England as a Principality of England, as opposed to Scotland who had joined in a Royal Union of Crowns, as supposed equal partners in a Union. England would be the dominant partner however.
  • 159. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1800 ~ 1921
    • In 1801 The Act of Union with Great Britain ~ this abolished the old Parliament in Dublin and created;
    • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
    • Dublin continued to grow rapidly in the new burgeoning industrial age especially with the introduction of canals and by the turn of the century the railways.
    • Dublin however now lost some of the gaiety and grandeur of its former Capital City status as the Irish parliamentarians now took their seats in Westminster and so now had homes in London rather than Dublin. London was now the political Capital. Dublin was still an important Irish city of course.
  • 160. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
    • Relative peace did occur in the first half of the new 19 th century after the Act of Union was passed.
    • The Land laws stayed the same leaving mainly Landlords in rich powerful positions however.
    • Some new rights were now granted to the native population to bring laws in line with Westminster.
    • Dublin had become by now a fine Georgian City.
  • 161. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
    • Westminster was now able to pass new powerful coercion bills on its people in Ireland.
    • Powers of arrest, imprisonment, internment and transportation increased. This was under the new direct rule of Westminster as Britain sought to assert control over her Empire.
  • 162. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
    • One Improvement did occur the corrupt old Dublin Parliament was no more, as the new Act of Union provided some fairer laws in theory for all the citizens of the newly established United Kingdom. And Irish MP’s who had ruled rough-shod over the Irish people would now answer directly to Westminster.
    • This system did remove direct autonomy though for Ireland, and to some it would be seen as yet a further infringement on Irish liberty and freedom.
  • 163. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
    • These laws which were made by Westminster for the entire population, not just for the protestant ruling classes as before, that was how it was put to the Westmisnter parliamentarians at least.
    • However the old Protestant ruling class MP’s took up their respective seats in Westminster – instead of Dublin, and would still have a majority voice over Catholics for many years to come.
  • 164. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
    • King George III was the first King of this new United Kingdom. Dublin was still the 2 nd City of the Empire.
    • The Union was also supported by the Roman Catholic church as it was hoped that this would bring peace.
    • New Rights to Catholics were granted in 1827.
    • The British class system very much remained in place.
  • 165. King George III George III was known as a mad and extravagant King. King George III also became quite popular after the Act of Union.
  • 166. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
    • A Dublin protestant Robert Emmet attempted a rising in 1803 but it failed and he was hanged, then brutally drawn and quartered and then finally beheaded.
    • The Napoleonic wars and the creating of a civil police force “ the pealers”.
    • Sir Robert Peal (Old Bill) freed the army to fight at Waterloo 1815 many thousands of Irish men also fought and died in France at Waterloo.
  • 167. The Grand Duke of Wellington
    • The Duke of Wellington a fine General to King George III also a Irish man who won a great battle for the King’s forces at Waterloo finally defeating Napoleon Bonaparte and protecting the Empire.
    • Many Irishmen joined up regiments in the British army at this time.
    • A monument (right) to Wellington was built to his fine and famous Victory in Phoenix Park Dublin.
  • 168. Daniel O’Connell MP
    • Daniel O’Connell was a successful Catholic Lawyer educated in France and he won the Clare bi-election and became the Westminster member of parliament for Clare, he famously gained Catholic Emancipation for Ireland in 1829 .
    • This was done via the Duke of Wellington’s Catholic~Relief Bill at Westminster.
  • 169. Wellington & Daniel O’Connell
    • The Duke of Wellington, the Irish born General, was now Prime Minister of Great Britain, he realised the danger of mass revolt in Ireland, so he pushed the Catholic~Relief Bill through the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and it received Royal assent from King George IV.
    • This Act removed all institutional discrimination against Catholics in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
  • 170. The Catholic~Relief Bill
    • A Large quota of Irish Catholic Soldiers had also fought for Wellington at Waterloo, the duke noted, and historians comment that he repaid the Irish people with the emancipation of their religion.
    • Access now was only denied to some of the very highest offices of government and state, Catholics could now be employed, in theory on an equal footing with Protestants.
  • 171. Dublin and Ireland in the 1800’s
    • Some voting-rights for the small 40shilling farmers were abolished, reducing the Irish electorate by 80% thus disenfranchising many of O’Connell’s most loyal supporters this counterbalanced some of Wellington’s powerful Bill.
    • Any Catholics appointed to office in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales had to take an Oath to the King, (King George IV) for any position of government or high office, like a clerk of the peace, sheriff or a magistrate.
  • 172. Dublin and Ireland in the 1800’s
    • The King remember was the defender of the Protestant faith since Henry VIII and was unconnected to the Pope and the Vatican in Rome*, though still a Christian faith.
    • It was now allowed for Catholics to practise their religion freely, without any hindrance in their respective churches.
    • The different Christian Churches Catholic and Protestant now functioned side by side, with possibly some lingering distrust from one to the other resonating from the 1641 rebellion for the Protestants and from the Cromwellian onslaught in 1649 for the Catholics.
    • *with the exception of James II the English Kings since Henry VIII were protestant. James claim to the throne was quashed by William III of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. (click on links for more info.)
  • 173. George IV
  • 174. Dublin and Ireland in the 1800’s
    • The National School System in the 1830’s was now possible, this made primary education available to all.
    • It was very much based on the English syllabus and textbooks, and had to be taught through the English language so the native Irish had to learn English on a massive scale across the whole island.
    • If children spoke Irish they would be punished and victimised by their teachers.
    • An English education system in Ireland had now been firmly established. Hedge schools were no longer needed.
  • 175. The English Education System
    • The system did bring good education to all of Ireland. This was maintained throughout from the 1800’s and 1900’s to the present day, and most of Ireland today speaks English as the main language.
    • The new system and institutions did almost eradicate the Irish language however.
    • To the Empire of course this was very successful policy.
  • 176. The English Education System
    • Some changes were made later in the 20 th Century when Ireland became a dominion state in 1922 and then again in 1937 , when the new Irish Constitution was drawn up allowing pupils to learn subjects through the Irish Language as a right of citizenship of Ireland.
    • Essentially however the English National Schools System established in the 1830’s, though of course since modernised remains fully intact, continuing to provide a good education to the entire population.
  • 177. The Irish Language
    • The terrible famine to come, the emigration that followed and the National Schools System were the three biggest factors in the decline of the Irish language.
    • The Gaelic League had been founded promoting Irish Culture and attempted to revive the Irish language.
    • It also promoted Irish music and dancing.
    • The organisation stressed that Ireland was a different country within the British Empire and not just a colony.
    • Great Anglo~Irish writers became established from 1800’s in Dublin.
  • 178. Emblem of Ireland The Famous old Irish Harp, still used to this day as the emblem of Ireland. It has been in use for centuries. Used by the Gaelic league as the emblem of Eire, which also appears on the Irish passport. It has also been used by the British Empire to symbolise her old links with Ireland, it appears in the Royal ensign and in the British army regimental uniform of the Irish Guards who still use this emblem today. It is used by both the Garda Siochána (The Irish Police – “guardians of the peace”.) The Police Service for Northern Ireland (formally the Royal Ulster Constabulary or RUC) also uses this emblem along with a royal crown. It is also used by the Irish State Army and the Irish government. It is very much the emblem of the whole island of Ireland. The national emblem is also used as the emblem of the Irish President at Dublin Castle and Aras an Uachtarain now the offical resident of the President in Phoenix Park.
  • 179. Dublin and Ireland by 1840
    • Between 1800 and 1840 the presence of coal and iron in Britain had led to the start of the Industrial Revolution.
    • The growth of the British cities, Liverpool Manchester, Glasgow, and in Ireland; Dublin and Cork and most notably Belfast.
    • Helped via coal from Britain as Ireland had no coal or iron.
  • 180. Dublin and Ireland by 1840
    • Ireland could only live off the land alone and via her trade status within the British Empire.
    • Ireland did have her fishing and sea trade.
    • Belfast also had the new shipbuilding and linen trades.
    • The advent of Steam Power technology was also to change things ostensibly.
  • 181. Dublin and Ireland by 1840
    • Importantly the Irish population, partly due to the British Empire’s economic success was growing rapidly.
    • The population appears to have doubled between 1800 and 1840 it may have been even 9 million by 1845.
    • Steam Power enabled new factories to be built for linen and cotton.
    • The first of the new Steam Engines were also being built.
    • Steam Power now brought The New Railways.
  • 182. The Railway
    • Steam trains made it possible to travel quickly throughout Ireland by the middle of the 19 th Century.
  • 183. Kings Bridge Station 1846
    • The very grand and imperial Kings Bridge Station Dublin now known as Heuston Station, it served to link Dublin to Galway and Westport in the west of Ireland. Cork and Limerick Tralee and Killarney in the south west and Kildare and Waterford in the east of the country. Heuston or King’s Bridge Station is based on the design of an Italian palazzo.
    English Architect: Sancton Wood 1846 & Sir John McNeill (covered train shed)
  • 184. Dublin and Ireland 1840
    • New Railways were built with Grand Central Victorian Stations in Dublin connecting the big cities, like Cork and Belfast and rural Ireland along with its prominent towns.
    • In turn this created tremendous wealth through economic commerce, trade and travel. Travel increased thanks to the Victorian introduction of time-off for health and pleasure.
    • Victorian tourism also started and grand coastal resorts were built like Bray (Co,Wicklow), Kingstown (DunLoghaire Co. Dublin) and Queenstown (Cobh near Cork) which was re-named for Queen Victoria’s Visit in 1849 .
  • 185. St. Patrick’s Cathedral
    • The magnificent St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin originally built by the Normans (though the Viking’s previously also built a Church here) . The Victorians later refurbished the Cathedral. Originally a Catholic Cathedral, it is now a Protestant Church of Ireland Cathedral, and has been since the completion on the reformation of the Church by Queen Elizabeth I
  • 186. Dublin and Ireland 1840
    • The Irish MP’s in Westminster lobbied for Home Rule so it could tackle some of it’s own problems however this was to prove impossible due to the great potato famine in 1845 and again in 1847 .
    • Fungal Blight ruined the potato crop in 1845 .
    • Then again in 1846 the potato crop failure was total causing terrible and great suffering, starvation and poverty.
    • The effect of the crop failure was to be catastrophic particularly by 1846 and 1847 .
  • 187. Famine 1845 ~ 1846 ~ An Gorta Mor
    • The first response was to let the poor into Workhouses established 1838 by the “Poor Law”.
    • These were provided as indoor relief for the destitute poor, the old, the sick and children under 15yrs old.
    • The Workhouses were already filled to capacity before the crisis hit hard.
    • The Workhouse Holding 1,000 people each, with infirmary and fever hospitals attached, they were grim places, disease and infestation were rife.
  • 188. Famine 1846 ~ 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor
    • The Second government response was to provide outside relief with soup kitchens in return for public work.
    • Public work schemes to build roads and other improvements were introduced, in theory a charitable idea, but of course the people were by now completely starving and not able to work well at all.
    • The Corn laws were changed allowing cheap Corn & maize to be imported.
    • There was not enough though to feed the starving population and people began to die in their thousands.
  • 189. Famine 1846 ~ 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor
    • Religious organisations tried to help in particular Quakers helped and won a place in Irish hearts.
    • Some groups required conversion to Protestantism nicknamed: “taking the soup”.
    • Queen Victoria herself, contrary to some commentators did donate large sums of money to charity, but it was not enough.
  • 190. Famine 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor
    • The potato crop failed again in 1847 and the crisis reached a terrible breaking point.
    • Daniel O’Connell pleaded with the British government to try and help more he proclaimed: “Ireland is in your hands, your power. If you do not save her she can’t save herself, I predict that one quarter of the population will perish unless you come to her relief.”
  • 191. Famine 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor
    • This episode now sparked huge Emigration.
    • In 1847 3 million a day were going to the soup kitchens.
    • The prosperous Irish Landlords now started to carry out brutal Evictions as tenants were unable to pay the rent.
  • 192. The Famine 1846 - 1847
    • A starving poverty stricken woman with her two children.
    • Mass departure at the quayside at Cork
    • Early emigrant ships at Cork harbour in the 1840 & 50’s.
  • 193. Emigration 1846 - 1847
    • After the Famine in 1846~49 emigration continued now to be a fact of life in rural Ireland.
    • To survive, emigrants now left to look for work in the United States of America and Britain.
    • Queen Victoria did see the Irish as her people, but she was unable to persuade her parliament to do enough to save them from starvation. The Westminster Parliament seamed to just ignore the problem whenever they could.
  • 194. Emigration 1847-1849
    • The pattern of emigration established in the 1840’s was maintained right through the remaining 19 th century and and continued on large scale until very recently, during almost all of the 20 th century.
    • In 1847 100,000 emigrated to Canada alone.
    • By 1849 900,000 were now in the workhouses in Ireland.
    • Thousands emigrated to America or died trying.
  • 195. Emigration 1845 - 1847
    • The United States took a huge influx of emigrants who would famously go through the austere American Immigration Halls at Ellis Island in New York.
    • Plenty of ships never made it to America, the ships that tried were nicknamed “The Coffin Ships”, the Atlantic weather proving very cruel and some ships not prepared or made for the journey.
    • Some skippers also now saw an opportunity using the famine as a way to make a quick buck, and profiteered from the plight of the Irish people.
  • 196. Emigration 1847 - 1849
    • Large British Cities such as Glasgow and Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham now had large numbers of Irish settling down there in the post~famine period.
    • Belfast, Cork and Dublin were the main departure ports for America and Britain.
    • Thousands more including women and children now emigrated.
  • 197. Emigration 1847
    • The Britannia Steamship 1847 ~ later steamships became outstandingly more luxurious, faster and better equipped for the journey.
    • Government Inspectors Office 1847
  • 198. Irish Famine Emigrant Ship “Jeanie Johnston” 1847 – Replica (above) Launched 2003 Tralee Co.Kerry. Unlike other emigrant ships of the era, not one person died on board, an amazing record, thanks to the ship’s captain, Captain Castletownsend born James Attridge, and the very experienced Ship's Doctor: Dr Richard Blennerhassett.
  • 199. Dublin 1845 - 1899
    • By the nineteenth century, Leinster was already the richest and most populous province.
    • Dublin was spared the full brunt of the Famine and the later depopulation through emigration.
    • It retains that position of relative wealth today, with a large conurbation centred on Dublin, but extending into the neighbouring Leinster counties of Wicklow, Kildare and Meath.
  • 200. Dublin 1845 - 1899
    • From 1838 there were large workhouses in Dublin where the destitute were fed and housed. During the potato famine they were overwhelmed by the numbers fleeing starvation in the countryside and the West of Ireland.
    • Soup kitchens had to be set up in the streets to try and feed the masses of people.
    • Although the population of Ireland fell sharply after the famine the population of Dublin actually rose because of the number of starving people fleeing to the city.
    • People still emigrated from the city of course as the population increase was only partially beneficial to the local economy.
  • 201. Imperial Dublin 1900
    • The Four Courts and Dublin Castle
  • 202. Victorian Dublin 1900
    • A very turbulent century began in the aftermath of the famine, which was still been felt throughout the country.
    • It is estimated that 4 million people had left by 1900.
    • Death was on a large scale, 35% of the population had completely gone.
  • 203. Victorian Dublin
    • Victorian Ireland began to recover from this however.
    • Some public unrest post~famine occurred, small uprisings and some large land protests by the Irish Land-League.
    • Dublin became a place to visit and people now used the trains to take short holidays.
  • 204. Victorian Dublin
    • Queen Victoria’s Imperial Reign in Ireland had brought substantial peace again and Dublin again prospered.
    • Some bitterness towards the British government did remain however due to the then still recent Irish famine, questions were asked; “how could the world’s richest and largest and greatest empire allow such a terrible catastrophe to happen on her dearest and closest neighbour, the starvation of her own people, right on her doorstep”.
    • Questions were asked both on the British “mainland” and in Ireland, for the general public at large wondered how could their government let this happen.
    • The British public wondered if the government were only interested in making money, whatever the cost, in the pursuance of “laisse~faire” politics. The government was thought to be not thinking of the welfare of its public at large, and thanks to the Industrial Revolution and moderate improvements in medicine that population was growing in vast numbers.
  • 205. Victorian Dublin
    • Imperial travel greatly swelled the numbers of foreign people from across the Empire and tourism increased thanks to the new huge steam passenger liners being built at British shipyards.
    • British goods ~ imported produce from across the Empire were now readily available in Ireland. This due mainly to the increase in exports, with the advent of steam power on merchant shipping. It was also due to the consolidation of peaceful relations within the Empire as a whole.
    • Britain it seamed, now stood for greater liberty and fairness, slavery had been long abolished, the Royal Navy had helped a great deal in ending this tyranny and the American War of Independence and her Civil War was also long over. Britain’s relations in Asia and Africa also improved notably in her Jewel of Empire ~ India and Burma.
  • 206. Victorian Dublin
    • The Empire’s Industrial Revolution and new travel companies also helped develop the new British economy in Ireland. The Industrial Revolution brought new employment opportunities in the now vast big English and Scottish Cities, mainly in the north of England and southern Scotland, south Wales, London, Birmingham and the Midlands. New work was also found in Northern Ireland thanks to the Belfast Shipyard “Harland and Wolf” and the Irish Linen industry.
    • There was some new industrial industry in other Irish cities, but not quite on the scale of Belfast, the rest of Ireland remained largely rural. Biscuit and cake factories were to be found in Dublin and Cork, and of course shipping was also to be seen in Cork, in particular, the new transatlantic trade with a booming America also brought further work opportunities and prosperity to the wealthy in Ireland. Most Irish people still found work in the big English and Scottish cities.
  • 207. Victorian Dublin
    • Dublin remained fashionable and rail travel increased.
    • Queen Victoria visited Dublin in 1861 via Cork and stayed at Muckross House in Killarney and then again Dublin in 1900.
    • The Queen also visited Queenstown in Cork in 1849 and again in 1853. (now renamed Cobh)
  • 208. Queen Victoria 1837 - 1901
  • 209. Queen Victoria’s visit to Dublin 1900 Queen Victoria was not only Queen but also the Empress of a vast Empire now stretching across the globe. She was named The Empress of India. The Empire now included Australia, Canada, Egypt and much of Africa and the Middle East and Ireland. “Britannia” via the Royal Navy now compressively “ruled the waves”.
  • 210. Charles Stuart Parnell
  • 211. Charles Stuart Parnell
    • Charles Stuart Parnell, Cambridge educated, was High Sheriff of Wicklow in 1874.
    • Parnell campaigned for Home Rule with Prime Minister Gladstone at Westminster.
    William Ewart Gladstone Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1868 ~ 1874 and 1880 ~ 1885 (resigned) and returned to power in 1886 and again in 1892 ~ 1894. Gladstone died of cancer on 19 th May 1898, he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
  • 212. Prime Minister Gladstone
    • Gladstone introduced three Home Rule Bills, which went before Westminster,
    • Only by the third time that this Bill was put to the House of Lords, did it succeed.
    • Third time lucky – perhaps – but the Bill although made an Act of Parliament was never enacted, creating a great impasse in Irish politics.
  • 213. Prime Minister Gladstone
    • Vitally, in a historical context: The Third Home Rule Bill was then put on hold due the outbreak of war with Germany, this delay was to be a tactical error for British rule in Ireland. Gladstone may not have wished for such a drastic delay, especially as he had worked so hard to get the bill passed since the late 1800’s.
  • 214. Prime Minister Gladstone
    • It seamed to the Irish population that yet again Britain had reneged on yet another promise to “Britain’s friends in Ireland”.
    • It should perhaps be noted here that Britain still regarded Irish people as it’s subjects, within it’s Imperial Empire, though the bill would have brought some form of fairer independence, (similar in part to Scotland today).
  • 215. 20 th Century Dublin
  • 216. 20 th Century Dublin
    • Emigration continued on a large scale as Irish workers were needed in the increasing industrialised Britain and US and there remained little work at home.
    • A big event early into the new century was that of ocean liner “The Titanic” which had been carrying hundreds of Irish emigrants in her lower decks, sank in April 1912 , with a huge loss off life.
    • Queenstown in Ireland had been her last port of call before hitting an iceberg mid~Atlantic on her maiden voyage to New York.
  • 217. Emigration to the USA in the Early 1900’s
    • Transatlantic Liner in Liverpool dock (above)
    • State Line Poster advertising voyages from Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin, Londonderry, and Liverpool these ships took many thousands of Irish Emigrants to new lives in the US leaving their homeland behind them, often forever. They did travel in relative luxury though now.
        • The new liners emulated the British Class system.
    • Cabins below decks (above-right) most emigrants travelled third class, but not all did.
    • Dublin’s harbour was not deep enough for the New Big Liners so emigrants had to travel by train to Queenstown near Cork or board the ferry from Dublin to Liverpool.
  • 218. The Famous Titanic 1912
    • Steamship Liner RMS Titanic
    Titanic, built at the Belfast Shipyard Harland and Wolf ~ left her anchor at Queenstown (Cobh) April 1912 ~ on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York in the U.S. ~ Queenstown, Co.Cork was her last port of call before her fatal sinking ~ RMS Titanic struck an iceberg in the Atlantic Ocean ~ with great loss of life ~ 15 th April 1912.
  • 219. Dublin’s Famous Irish Writers
    • WB Yeats Oscar Wilde Samuel Beckett George Bernard Shaw
  • 220. Ulysses James Joyce and Dublin
  • 221. James Joyce
    • Although Joyce only began writing Ulysses in 1914, he had been laying the plans for it since 1906. His intention was to create a fictional Everyman-- Leopold Bloom-- to rival the classical figure of Homer's Odysseus (aka Ulysses). His Odyssey, which Joyce admired as the most well-rounded portrait of a human in literature. But he took the tribute a step further by making Bloom's adventures parallel Ulysses's, on a much smaller scale.
    • The action takes place in 18 chapters spaced approximately one hour apart, starting at 8:00am on Thursday 16 June 1904, and ending in the early hours of June 17.
    Bloom by Joyce
  • 222. Bloomsday
    • The central parallel to Homer is that Bloom's wife Molly-- like Penelope in Homer-- is being courted by a suitor, the dashing Blazes Boylan. In order to win her back, Bloom must negotiate twelve trials-- his Odyssey.
    • "It is an epic of two races (Israelite - Irish) and at the same time the cycle of the human body as well as a little story (storiella) of a day (life). ...It is also a sort of encyclopedia. My intention is to transpose the myth sub specie temporis nostri. Each adventure (that is, every hour, every organ, every art being interconnected and interrelated in the structural scheme of the whole) should not only condition but even create its own technique. Each adventure is so to say one person although it is composed of persons-- as Aquinas relates of the angelic hosts." 20 September 1920
    James Joyce
  • 223. Odyssey
    • Homer’s Odyssey - Dublin
  • 224. The Great War 1914 ~ 1918
    • In 1914 the first world war broke out and Lord Kitchener declared he would build a new army from civilian volunteers raised from all areas of the British Isles ~ “Kitcheners Men” by the end of 1914:
    • 1,200,00 men had enlisted for the war effort.
  • 225. The Great War 1914 ~ 1918
    • Home Rule was to be the reward for loyalty to the British Crown in war.
    • Irish Unionists led by Sir Edward Carson a Dublin Lawyer gambled that to demonstrate loyalty and fight would grant them sympathy in Britain, though he and the Unionist did already agree to the Irish Home Rule Bill in 1914.
    • Sir Edward Carson, it turned out, was completely opposed to Home Rule however fearing that it would destabilise the Union with Britain. “Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right”
  • 226. Home Rule
    • John Redmond from the Irish Home Rule Party also supported the War Effort. He sought only limited Irish self-government, considering it undesirable that Britain and Ireland should be wholly separated, and he had no wish to see the dismemberment of the British Empire.
    • Redmond was deeply opposed to the use of physical force.
    • Redmond was committed to political change by constitutional means.
    • Redmond’s Irish Party did want full devolution and self~government for all of Ireland, whilst remaining part of the British Empire.
  • 227. The Home Rule Bill
      • John Redmond (left) and Sir Edward Carson (right)
  • 228. Home Rule
  • 229. Home Rule Opposition
    • Sir Edward Carson’s campaign opposing home rule.
    Unionist Rally at the Ulster Hall in Belfast
  • 230. The Ulster Covenant
    • Sir Edward Carson and Sir James Craig sign the “Ulster Covenant” declaring complete opposition to home rule in Ulster (Northern Ireland)
                                                                                                                                        
  • 231.  
  • 232. Home Rule
  • 233. Home Rule Act 1914
    • Third Home Rule Act (or Bill ), and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914.
    • It intended to provide self-government ("home rule") for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland .
    • The Act was the first law ever passed by the British parliament that established devolved government in a part of the United Kingdom.
  • 234. Home Rule Act 1914
    • The Act’s implementation was postponed however for at least 12 months after the outbreak of war with Germany.
    • The delay in implementation was to continue throughout the war.
    • If implemented it would have granted Home Rule to all of Ireland and would have avoided partition, as the Unionists, despite their fervent protests; would have had to except the democratic decision of the vote buy Westminster MPs and the Lords.
  • 235. Home Rule Act 1914
    • The King had signed the Act into law allowing it on to the Statute Book at Westminster. The Act was not implemented!
    • It may then have been a stepping stone to further independence, from the Irish Nationalist Party’s point of view, in the great Daniel O’Connell and Charles Stewart Parnell tradition of the Party.
  • 236. Home Rule Act 1914
    • Ireland would have remained a united entity with self~governance for itself, still remaining part of the British Empire.
    • Nationalist opinion in the Irish Party regarded this as a necessary stepping stone to further independence, it would have been (if it had been enacted) a great achievement towards independence.
  • 237. Home Rule Act 1914
    • Unionist had reluctantly accepted Home Rule as now inevitable, but were now going to fight to keep Ulster in the United Kingdom.
    • The Act was repealed in 1920 and replaced by a new Government of Ireland Act, which included partition of the Island as a means to appease unionism, and as it was thought, to ensure peace.
  • 238. Home Rule Act 1914
    • Instead of home rule, most of Ireland was to achieve independence in 1922 as the “Irish Free State”. However, the six north-eastern counties that remained within the United Kingdom as “Northern Ireland” had already obtain it’s version of “home rule” in 1920.
    • Partition had now become a reality – splitting the country of Ireland on partially religious and mainly political grounds.
    • (Go back to 1918 – home rule).
  • 239. The Great War 1914 ~ 1918
    • The Great War saw tragic loss of life, Ulster had been given its own Division 36th known to English soldiers as “Carson’s Army” This unit tragically lost 5,500 men in one day, July 1916 on the first day of the Battle of the Somme.
    • Ulster was to never turn back from this, to deviate from the Crown would be an insult they thought.
    • Thousands more Irishmen were to die in World War I.
  • 240. World War I
    • Lord Kitchener’s (middle) War Recruitment Campaign in Ireland
  • 241. World War I
  • 242. Emigration and the RMS Lusitania
    • RMS Lusitania full of Irish emigrants indiscriminately torpedoed by a German U-Boat in World War I In flames, she sank just a few hours after departure towards the Atlantic off the old Head of Kinsale in West Cork southern Ireland with great loss of life. To the right is the “Angel” monument to the tragedy in Cobh (Queenstown).
    • The sinking hardened opinion for the War against the Kaiser both in Britain and Ireland.
  • 243. Easter Monday 1916
    • Dublin before the Rising of 1916
  • 244. Dublin Easter 1916
    • In the midst of the Great War Dublin endured the long week of Easter of 1916, a few volunteers started a rising they captured prominent buildings but failed to take Dublin Castle ~ where the English Viceroy and British Army garrison had a fortified position.
    • The leaders of the rebellion attempted to declare a new Republic of Ireland on the Steps of the General Post office in Dublin.
  • 245. GPO ~ Dublin
    • Dublin’s General Post Office – symbolic of Irish Independence, the site of the declaration of a Republic during the ill-fated Easter Rising of 1916.
  • 246. Dublin Easter 1916
    • The British responded with heavy artillery and a Gun boat ! The Helga sailed up the River Liffey and shelled Dublin. This extraordinary use of force by Britain against its own citizens in one of its own cities appalled the general public both in Britain and Ireland.
    • The rest of Ireland did not join in, in this rebellion.
  • 247. Easter 1916
    • Dublin in flames following the British gun ships onslaught of shelling in the city.
    Sackiville Street – from Parnell Square.
  • 248. Dublin Easter Rising 1916
    • Britain and Ireland were still engaged in a bitter and terrible war in the French trenches against the Kaiser’s Germany however, and had no time or sympathy for the behaviour of the rebels.
    • General Sir John Maxwell quickly quelled the rebellion and using martial law raised Dublin to the ground in retribution.
  • 249. Easter Rising 1916
    • The Shelled out GPO on Sackville Street (now O’Connell Street) The gun boat Helga had orders to shell all rebel positions in Dublin.
  • 250. Dublin Easter Rising 1916
    • Pearse the leader surrendered. An occupying navy sailing into a city and laying waste to its own civilians was too much for many to bear.
    • Pearse, though very brave had misunderstood the British resolve to maintain control in Ireland.
  • 251. Dublin Easter Rising 1916
    • Most of the leaders were then executed by firing squad, at Kilmainham Jail the British government then halted them, in response to a wave of public revulsion across Ireland, the US and Britain.
    • Unfortunately for Britain the damage had already been done and Ireland had new generation of martyrs yet again.
  • 252. Kilmainham Gaol (Jail)
    • Kilmainham Gaol Dublin, where members of the Easter Rising of 1916 were shot by firing squad under martial law.
  • 253. Dublin Easter Rising 1916
    • Then unbelievably though via judicial process this time more executions came right through the following summer. Some 3,400 were arrested and interned into English prisons and a Welsh prison camp.
    • Some leaders did avoid execution, Eamon DeValera and Countess Markievicz, who was spared as she was a woman. DeValera’s execution was suspended fearing a wave of revulsion due to his American citizenship.
  • 254. Dublin Easter 1916
    • The Easter Rising of 1916 was not supported by all in Ireland especially while many Irishmen were still at war on Britain’s side against Germany.
    • The treason executions changed this mood a little though as the public gave sympathy to those executed apparently with little trial, and were now seen as political prisoners as apposed to just fenian rebels as before.
  • 255. The Helga
    • Helga's roles after Rising of 1916
    • While the gunboat Helga is best-known as the ship that sailed up the Liffey and shelled Liberty Hall and the GPO, it had a role in another major incident two years later. It was one of the rescue ships that went to the assistance of RMS Leinster, the Dublin-Holyhead mail-boat, when it was torpedoed by a German U-boat on October 10th, 1918.
    • On board the Leinster was a crew of 77 plus 680 passengers, 500 of whom were soldiers. When three torpedoes struck the ship 501 were killed, making it the greatest loss of life from a sinking in the Irish Sea.
    • The Helga was later bought by the Irish Free State and, having been renamed the LE Muirchu, it became a fishery protection vessel.
    • It was eventually scrapped in 1947.
  • 256. 1918 ~ 1922
    • The aftermath of The Great War
    • The 1918 British General Election
    • The Home Rule Bill (1914)
    • The War of Independence
    • The Anglo ~ Irish Treaty
    • The Irish Free State
  • 257. 1918 ~ 1919
    • Great War finished in 1918 causing a general election this time just Home Rule already voted for by Westminster was now not enough for some and opinion hardened before the end of the war when Britain attempted to introduce conscription.
    • The Home Rule Party withdrew from Westminster over this issue. The Home Rule Act then had another delay causing even more frustration.
    • Hundreds of thousands of Irish men had also died in the horrendous allied trenches of “The Great War” or WW I.
  • 258. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland
    • At this post war British general election 73 seats went to Sinn Fein (the new republican party, begun in the early 1900’s which later split into three different parties after the Irish civil war in 1921, only the much smaller one being staunchly republican, in the final analysis).
    • Other seats went to 26 Unionist Party members and only 6 Home Rule Irish Party. The new Irish nationalist party Sinn Fein won vast support in Ireland now the largest of the Irish Political Parties, winning the democratic support of the Irish Nation.
  • 259. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland
    • The executions and the deportations in the aftermath of the 1916 Rising fuelled popular hostility in Ireland towards Britain.
    • They also increased sympathy in Ireland for the use of force to achieve independence as well as support for an independent Irish Republic.
  • 260. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland
    • Other aspects of the British government’s policy in Ireland reinforced these trends - it persisted with nationwide martial law until November 1916; it arrested prominent and articulate critics of its administration and it threatened to impose conscription, so causing deepening resentment, especially among young men. In these circumstances, the appeal of the moderate nationalist Irish Parliamentary Party declined further.
  • 261. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland
    • John Redmond’s old Home Rule Party had virtually lost nearly all their support.
    • It had been damaged by its continuing failure in wartime to achieve Irish self-government. It was not until 1917 that the Irish Parliamentary Party’s 50-year domination was challenged.
  • 262. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland
    • The delay in the decline of Redmond’s Irish Party was because its militant nationalist opponents were divided and split into numerous separate organisations, with their own programmes and priorities, and also because the leaders of these had been imprisoned after the Rising.
  • 263. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland
    • The process of forming a single cohesive political force to challenge the Irish Parliamentary Party was begun with their gradual release from the prisons in December 1916.
    • It was the Sinn Féin party which eventually displaced the IPP. Sinn Féin was not directly involved in the Rising, but benefited immensely from it. It was quite wrongly associated with the outbreak by the Irish public. This was because the role of the Irish Republican Brotherhood Military Council in planning the insurrection was not widely known.
  • 264. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland
    • Sinn Féin was believed to be involved as it was the best-known, openly anti-English, nationalist propaganda body in Dublin.
    • As admiration for the rebels grew, it had become by mid-1916 a ‘magic name’ in Ireland, instantly recognisable with powerful appeal.
    • In the course of 1917, the movement was transformed. First its organisation changed: it coalesced with and absorbed other militant nationalist bodies and its party branches spread nationwide.
  • 265.
    • The December 1918 General Election was the Sinn Féin movement’s supreme test. Its manifesto offered voters a republic. It also stated that the party would refuse to attend Westminster and set up an Irish assembly as ‘the supreme …authority’. It would make use of ‘every means available to render impotent the power of England to hold Ireland in subjection’ and appeal to a post-war peace conference ‘for the establishment of Ireland as an independent nation’.
    Sinn Féin
  • 266.
    • Sinn Féin was well organised and led; this was vital as the Irish electorate had trebled since the previous election in 1910. Moreover, Irish voters now aspired to a greater measure of independence than the limited self-government on offer from the Irish Parliamentary Party.
    Sinn Féin
  • 267.
    • Sinn Féin acted quickly to fulfil its far-reaching manifesto pledges. It summoned those elected to meet in Dublin on 21st January; 27 of them did so, all of them Sinn Féin members (most of its other successful candidates had been arrested).
    • The occasion was historic. It was the first session of the promised assembly of Ireland (Dáil Éireann).
    • It immediately approved a provisional Irish constitution and then ratified three statements.
    Sinn Féin
  • 268.
    • The first; proclaimed the establishment of an Irish Republic.
    • The second; was an appeal for recognition and support addressed to all the ‘free nations of the world’.
    • The third; the ‘Democratic Programme’ stated that Ireland would be governed by principles of ‘Liberty, Equality and Justice’, that the government’s first duty would be to the nation’s children, and that all citizens should enjoy an ‘adequate share’ of its wealth.
    • Unfortunately, due to forthcoming circumstances these aspirations were to be neglected as a priority, in the struggle for Irish independence which consumed the next three years. This was because irrespective of the General Election result, Britain had other ideas it was not about to lose Ireland without a fight!
    Sinn Féin’s Three Statements January 1919
  • 269. Sinn Féin’s First Dail
    • The first session of Dáil Éireann (Assembly of Ireland) was held at the Mansion House,
    • Dublin 21st January 1919
  • 270. 1918 ~ 1919
    • Lloyd George became The British Prime Minister for the Liberal Party.
  • 271. 1918 ~ 1919
    • Sinn Fein, (NB*not the same as the current Sinn Fein Party, the party later split to become Fianna Fail and Fine Gael and much later the Progressive Democrats too.).
    • The new Sinn Fein Party, however now refused to sit at the Westminster parliament and decided to meet in Dublin instead in protest of not been granted Home Rule in 1914 or thereafter in the 1918 General Election. It formed the first Independent Irish Parliament, Dáil Éireann (Assembly of Ireland).
  • 272. 1918 ~ 1919
    • * The Sinn Fein name was later taken by the party better known in Northern Ireland as we know of today; the Sinn Fein Party as led by it’s current President Gerry Adams.
    • They attempted to set up their own parliament in Dublin. This was supported by their Irish Volunteer Army and became known as the First Dail (Gaelic for parliament) this collapsed as it was not at all recognised by Britain.
  • 273. Home Rule
    • Sir Edward Carson had earlier, before the great war broke out, proposed the exclusion of the 9 counties of Ulster in any agreement.
    • He had hoped that this would make Home Rule unpalatable and that all of Ireland could remain completely in the union with Britain.
    • Home Rule within the British Empire was not acceptable to him or his Unionist Party.
    • The Home Rule Bill 1914
  • 274. War of Independence 1920
    • An impasse had now been created by the set up of an “illegal” parliament at the Mansion House in Dublin, which the Unionist and the Irish Home Rule Party refused to attend.
    • It sparked a vicious war of Independence with Britain from January 1919 ~ December 1920.
  • 275. War of Independence 1920
    • The British now sought again, to coerce Ireland into obedience using the Police, The Royal Irish Constabulary, supported by former soldiers hardened by the horrors of war and who unable to get work after their demobilisation ~ namely the Black and Tans and Police Auxiliaries (the latter being the better behaved ex~British Army Officers).
    • Home Rule it was decided could not be discussed until peace prevailed.
  • 276. War of Independence 1920
    • The war of Independence became a nasty guerrilla war and with inhuman savagery on both sides. The IRA and the British forces alike both carried out terrible atrocities during this period.
    • To the ordinary public however the Irish rebels were originally a nuisance. But then the Black and Tans, now behaving outside the law and attacking innocent civilians amongst the outlaws, turned the public’s opinion against the crowns forces.
  • 277. War of Independence 1920
    • Some of the good relations and spirit gained since the Act of Union 1800 and lasting up until the end of the Great War 1918 was now fading.
    • Though some of this spirit did remain in the towns and cities and in villages throughout the country, but independence was what the majority wanted.
  • 278. War of Independence 1920
    • The public now saw the rebel volunteers and some of the Crown’s old proper police force, the Royal Irish Constabulary as their only means to safety. The regular Police were also better behaved, having served the Irish people against crime and disorder. The Black and Tans were out of control and unruly.
    • Prime Minister Lloyd George did want peace with the Irish however, and sought to meet Eamon deValera in Dec 1920, the treaty negotiations of 1921 followed that final meeting.
  • 279. 1920 ~ 1939
    • After the War of Independence the Government of Ireland Act 1920 was passed establishing parliaments in Belfast, for the province of Northern Ireland, and Dublin in the South.
    • This Act was a variation on Gladstone’s 1914 Home Rule Act in which the north this time would be fully partitioned ~ however both parts would still remain officially in the Union with England Scotland and Wales.
  • 280. The 1921 Peace Treaty
    • The 1921 Anglo~Irish Treaty sought to peacefully provide; (from London’s point of view) Home Rule for Ireland in line with the new 1920 Act.
    • Home Rule would be for both north and south within the British Empire, and it was hoped this would also now create peace in Ireland.
    • Prime Minister Lloyd George and the new Irish leader Eamon deValera engaged finally in informal talks in London in the Autumn of 1921.
  • 281. Lloyd George & Eamon DeValera
    • DeValera arriving at Downing St. London for talks with the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George to start the ground work for a peace treaty with Britain.
  • 282. Lloyd George & DeValera
    • Lloyd George and deValera had some success in their talks and they enjoyed each other’s company.
    • The Prime Minister regarded deValera as a real statesman and a gentleman with a sense of humour and their many meetings developed into a good rapport.
    • DeValera for his part, probably preferred Lloyd George, being a Liberal and a Welshman, historically to Any previous Conservative Prime Minister’s and warmed to his charm as did Lloyd George to deValera.
  • 283. The 1921 Peace Treaty
      • A delegation from Dublin then arrived soon afterwards at Downing Street in the run up to Christmas 1921 to discuss Home Rule and Independence for Ireland.
  • 284. Anglo~Irish Treaty of 1921
    • The first treaty between the two nations was agreed – providing Ireland with the Irish Free State and the North of Ireland with separate Home Rule.
    George Gavin Duffy, Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith. (from left to right) DeValera and other treaty delegates on the boat to England 1921 ahead of earlier detailed discussions.
  • 285. Anglo~Irish Treaty of 1921
    • Earlsfort Terrace, London 14 December 1921 during the treaty deliberations.
    Cartoon depicting the “Irish Question” dead and buried
  • 286. Michael Collins
    • Collins in London (left) during his stay whilst discussing the 1921 peace treaty with the British Government.
    Collins addressing a crowd back in Ireland; defending the virtues of the new Anglo~ Irish Treaty to the voters.
  • 287. The 1921 Peace Treaty
      • At the table talks were Arthur Griffiths MP, Robert Barton (former Irish Officer in the British Army, fully converted to republicanism) and Michael Collins (Commander~in~Chief of the Irish Volunteer Army), British Prime Minister, Lloyd George, Lord Birkenhead, Austen Chamberlain and Winston Churchill.
      • Michael Collins, unknown to the British as a person before now, proved to be a good negotiator and cleaver in his foresight for what the peace treaty could achieve for Ireland both in the short term and in the long term.
  • 288. The 1921 Peace Treaty
        • Joining them in the discussions in London were Eamon Duggan, a legal expert and a member of the Truce Committee; and George Gavan Duffy, the Dáil envoy in Rome.
        • Erskine Childers acted as secretary to the Irish delegation.
        • For the (British) government there were also Sir Laming Worthington Evans (Secretary for War), and Sir Hamar Greenwood (Chief Secretary for Ireland).
  • 289. The 1921 Peace Treaty
    • The British Government at the outset of negotiations wanted to maintain the principles of the Home Rule Act of 1914 as much as possible and to avoid Ireland leaving the United Kingdom and the Empire.
    • They also wanted to grant agreed Home Rule to Ireland under the terms of the Act that had been voted for at Westminster back in 1914 in the interest of peace.
  • 290. The 1921 Peace Treaty
    • From the Irish point of view it wanted to establish the beginnings of independence for Ireland, they decided that Home Rule alone now was not enough as it had not yet even been introduced as promised.
    • Though it was understood officially that this was due to the outbreak of the Great War, this had been seen by some as an excuse not to introduce Home Rule at all.
    • The British government however found it difficult to introduce the Home Rule Act in 1914 because of the strong Irish Unionist opposition.
  • 291. The 1921 Peace Treaty
    • Towards the end of negotiations, the the threat of “a terrible war” was evoked by Lloyd George if this treaty was not accepted.
    • Neither side of course wanted to resume hostilities and the Irish wanted peace just as much as Prime Minister Lloyd George and the British public.
  • 292. The 1921 Peace Treaty
    • The Irish and British people were also by now fed up of all the killings and violence caused by the war of independence with Irish “guerrilla style” forces and were desperate to now ensure some peace for all it’s people within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
    • For the Irish Unionist in the north and east of the country they reluctantly agreed that they would also have to accept, in the end, some form of home rule in Ireland both North and South.
    • Though the Unionists of course did not like this move, they too did not want to see any further bloodshed. The Unionist agreed and also came to the conclusion that they too wanted self-governance in their northern province of Ulster, whilst also remaining part of the United Kingdom and the British Empire.
  • 293. The 1921 Peace Treaty
    • Under the terms of the Anglo~Irish Treaty 1921 both the New Northern Ireland and The New Irish Free State (or Eire); would both remain as part of the British Empire as a whole, but would have separate Parliaments, and the Crown would have less influence in Southern Ireland, the Free State or Eire as it came to be known, would be ruled separately.
    • This for the Irish Free State was known as *Dominion Status. This was a modern concept for Britain, similar to the Canadian Dominion, and later Australian Dominion. The British Commonwealth derives from this period. This process helped Britain modernise her Empire for the new era.
    • The idea of Dominion Status started to be discussed instead of full independence, though Ireland would still have full autonomy, with an oath of allegiance to the crown remaining.
    • This oath was later not required anymore.
    * Dominion Status: meant to be self~governing within a British Dominion, This helped Britain modernise her Empire.
  • 294. The 1921 Peace Treaty
    • The break up of the British Empire was thought to also be at stake in giving full independence to Ireland even if that was only to be in the south.
    • And the new Irish delegation sent to London were not keen on full independence that did not include the north of Ireland (Ulster).
    • The British government were also worried that other countries might request more independence if Ireland got her own way.
  • 295. The 1921 Treaty
    • A compromise was sought by both the Irish and British sides to provide Ireland with a Free State within the Commonwealth.
    • Ireland was granted dominion status, like that of Canada and Australia, therefore a Governor General would be appointed.
  • 296. The 1921 Treaty
    • Most of Ireland would now have control of all of her own affairs, in all departments including economic matters with only defence of the seas being the only remaining issue.
    • Three “Treaty Ports” were to remain with the Royal Navy; Lough Swilly, Berehaven, and Queenstown and seen by Ireland at the time as an agreed transitional necessity for the defence of the rest of the United Kingdom and Ireland.
  • 297. The 1921 Treaty
    • Ireland now became known as the Irish Free State, later known as Eire or just Ireland.
    • The country formally became a republic in 1948, when Eire also left the British Commonwealth.
    • Many other former empire countries were to demand independence anyway some decades later.
    • The Unionist in the north of Ireland still want the northern province to remain part of the United Kingdom to this day.
  • 298. The 1921 Treaty
    • It was thought that the new Dominion status to be granted to the south could be a stepping stone to full independence which would in turn include jurisdiction of the North and that British rule in Ireland could be phased out completely.
    • Both sides had seen enough blood~shed and wanted to create a peaceful state within Ireland. The Irish~Free state was born.
    • Michael Collins, a member of the Irish Treaty delegation with Lloyd George at number 10 Downing street, stated that it would be the best deal that Ireland could expect to achieve at this time, both given the then current size of the British Empire and her understandable reluctance to lose control over it, it was also thought that Ireland could attain unity and full independence in time, if it so wished, and if the people desired this.
    • However some hardliners would not agree to the Treaty ~ this despite all the good reasoning given to them, and unfortunately Civil War was to ensue.
  • 299. Anglo~Irish Treaty 1921
    • Commander-in-Chief Michael Collins of the new “Irish Free State” Army.
    • Collins had helped broker the 1921 Treaty with Lloyd George in London.
    • He had presided over the ceremony for the formal handover of power from Britain following the Anglo~Irish Treaty of 1921.
    • The British Garrison at Dublin Castle finally left after the British Empire’s Crown Forces departure ceremony at Dublin Castle 1922.
    • The new Irish Free State government met in Dublin to begin the business of governing Ireland. Meanwhile the new government in Northern Ireland also met at Stormont in Belfast to begin the business of devolved government for the 6 counties in that part of the country, as had been agreed under the terms of the 1921 Treaty with Lloyd George and the government of Ireland Act 1920.
    • Ireland had been partitioned into two states, with a border between north and south, the Irish Free State being the larger of the two and Northern Ireland being in the north~eastern part of the country.
  • 300. Anglo~Irish Treaty 1921
    • The Union Jack was lowered at the Castle and the British Army had left after being there for hundreds of years. It was for Ireland, now such a new small nation a truly historic moment in her history. A
    • A new Irish flag flew from the Castle now, a tricolour of green white and orange, signifying peace (white) between the two traditions in Ireland, the Celtic, Gaelic Green tradition and that of the William of Orange Protestant tradition.
    • The British now remaining only at the Royal Navy’s request at “strategic” treaty ports for the Empire’s defence of the Realm.
    • The British retained a small army garrison of course in Northern Ireland, north of the new border. Northern Ireland, though it now had it’s own parliament, it remained part of the United Kingdom.
  • 301. Dublin During the Civil War
    • Dublin during a fire caused by shelling during the Civil War that followed the Treaty.
    • Michael Collins was later shot in Cork by the IRA (they thought he had somehow betrayed them).
  • 302. 1920 ~ 1939
    • This created a violent Civil War. The Peace Treaty of 1921 established “ Southern Ireland” as the Irish Free State a dominion state similar to that of Canada at the time (& today), with a Governor General presenting the Crown instead of a Lord Lieutenant Viceroy, three strategic ports of Queenstown (Cobh) Lough Swilly and Bearhaven remaining British.
    • The country, later known as Eire, had gained full independence, within a British Dominion (or Commonwealth) though Eamon deValera’s 1937 constitution was a further declaration of this independence, Eire became fully self-governing.
  • 303. Eire
    • Although the origins of the name Éire are uncertain, the name Eire which is the name of a mythological divine heroine, occurs in the earliest literature in Old Irish. In 1937 it was declared by the Taoiseach (thee-shock) deValera that this would now be the official name for Ireland.
    • A Constitution for Eire was also drawn up. .
    • Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act 1920 introduced by David Lloyd George.
  • 304. Eire
      • Southern Ireland had now become a very young nation.
      • The Irish Free State, as it was then called (or Eire) then set about establishing itself as a self -governing nation. The ports Bearhaven, Lough Swilly, and Cobh (Queenstown) remained British only until 1938.
      • The return of the “Treaty Ports” that year allowed Eire to remain neutral during the Second World War, though many Irish soldiers still joined up in British regiments and the Royal Navy to fight against Hitler and the Nazi regime in Germany.
  • 305. Northern Ireland
    • The newly formed Stormont Castle Parliament in Belfast opened by King George V on the formation of the province, by the Government of Ireland Act 1920.
    • The Statue is that of Sir Edward Carson, (or Lord Carson) still a formidable figure of Ulster Unionism. His statue faces down the castle drive to all who arrive at Stormont.
  • 306. Dublin and the Second World War
    • Ireland declared neutral at the outbreak of war, after discussions with Britain.
    • The period from 1939 to 1945 in Ireland was known as: “The Emergency.”
    • In Britain, it was understood at the time that neutrality in Southern Ireland (The Free State) also meant that Ireland would not allow the country to be a staging post for any attack on Great Britain, Irish troops would defend the Irish coast.
    • Ireland would at first protect it’s borders with it’s own army to prevent a Nazi German invasion of the British Isles via this route.
  • 307. Neutrality
    • Neutrality was a way of Ireland imposing a sense of independence from the British Crown.
    • DeValera frequently linked independence with neutrality.
    • Neutrality also meant Ireland was able to closely co-operate with Britain as a friendly neighbour.
    • This status also helped Britain conduct covert operations on the German Embassy in Dublin.
    • Britain’s Royal Navy would still be able to protect both Ireland and Britain in Irish coastal waters.
  • 308. World War II
    • At the outbreak of war a new Irish defence policy was now required.
    • Diplomatic relations with Great Britain were further forged during this period; if Ireland was used by Germany as a staging post for an invasion on Britain, then Ireland would have immediately joined the war on Britain’s side.
    • Defence systems would be linked throughout the war, including the sharing of intelligence and close relations were maintained with the RAF and the Royal Navy and the British Army, some regiments were still stationed in Northern Ireland in any case, to protect against invasion.
  • 309. “ The Emergency ”
    • DeValera declared that Ireland must not be used as a staging post for attacks on any Ireland’s neighbours, meaning Great Britain of course. He stated that if either Ireland or Britain is invaded then Ireland would join with Britain.
    • It was agreed that Ireland, if invaded would also invite the British army in this event, to enable her to protect against any further invasion into Ireland and to protect Britain itself from any subsequent German invasion.
  • 310. World War II
    • Irish men in their many numbers, went to join British regiments, over the border in the North and across this Irish Sea at recruiting offices in Liverpool.
    • Thousands of Irish men and women went to work also in Britain’s munitions factories and in many British farms across England Scotland and Wales. Many also worked in the British Hospitals across the nation.
    • Irish and British women in England Scotland and Wales were now doing traditionally “male” jobs, this was to have long term implications for the job market.
  • 311. World War II
    • During the war short term work contracts were designed so as these workers could return home to Ireland every so often for a few months and then come back to work for the British war effort.
    • This policy was also to help supply the British people and the now stretched armed forces with enough food to eat, and much needed medical attention, by British and Irish nurses and doctors.
    • Many British farms were tended by Irishmen who came over to work on temporary contracts on the hundreds of farms across the United Kingdom.
  • 312. World War II
    • Ireland’s many farms also supplied without hindrance, the allied armed forces. This it was argued was not a break from neutrality, as humanitarian needs of all men and women in Britain including those fighting needed to be met. Ireland along with the United States continued to supply food throughout the war to Britain.
    • Ireland argued to it’s critics (including The German Third Reich) that Britain was an established economic neighbour, and that Ireland would continue to supply food when required for the people of Britain, as Ireland had no argument with Britain and that humanitarian needs were required, though neutral Ireland officially saw Germany as the aggressor against Britain and her European neighbours, without question.
    • Ireland’s position of support for Britain was dramatically increased after the Fall of France in 1940, by Nazi forces.
  • 313. World War II
    • Ireland’s Army in the event of a German invasion; would engage firstly with the invading enemy at first to repel them as much as possible, and then this could be supported by British Forces from Northern Ireland or England.
    • The threat from the German Third Reich became more acute after the Fall of France in 1940. The defences forces were increased to protect Ireland’s territory particularly in the south near Cork and Waterford Cities.
    • The Royal Navy did have superiority of the Sea too, which helped to defend against any possible invasion.
  • 314. World War II
    • German invasion via Ireland became a distinct possibility after Hitler failed to win the Battle of Britain.
    • Britain now still stood alone in Europe against Germany, as the United States had not yet entered the war on her side.
    • Hitler was now also planning to invade by sea. (Operation Sea Lion).
    • Hitler's Blitzkrieg (lightning war) was a real threat, The Luftwaffe was still very strong and able to inflict terrible damage. The Air war was the biggest threat from the Nazis.
    • The Royal Air Force, however devised a very cleaver method of tracking the Luftwaffe using cross pointing radio signals and the new “Radar”.
    • The RAF used this Radar defence system to great effect and won the Battle of Britain as a result.
  • 315. World War II
    • A sea invasion of Ireland would have been difficult however for Germany as the distance from northern France and the Channel Islands was considerable.
    • However if the German Navy did manage to reach the Irish coast, without losing to many casualties, and if it was supported by landing Luftwaffe (The German Air Force) then Ireland would have found it difficult to defend the Island.
    • Ireland had the distance from the French (The Reich) coast on it’s side. The Irish Coastal Defence Corp with superb day and night watch towers and watch “houses” along the entire coast, relayed all German Naval movements to the Royal Navy and the allied forces instantly.
  • 316. “ The Emergency ”
    • The United States also joined the war later on after the attack on Pearl Harbour in 1941.
    • President Franklin D Roosevelt was not that sympathetic with Irish concerns, once the US had decided finally to join and regarded Irish neutrality with distain, though the US had been neutral herself until 1941/1942 at the start of hostilities with Germany. Though the US did realise that Ireland was supporting Britain and her Allies in other ways by maintaining Coastal Defence and continuing to supply Britain with food and “humanitarian” supplies. Irishmen continued to join British regiments to fight against the evil German tyrant, Hilter.
    • Irish diplomatic relations with America deteriorated temporarily. However until it was realised that Ireland would continue to help Britain “wherever possible”. DeValera never imposed any restrictions on Irish people joining the British Army or the British war effort.
  • 317. World War II
    • The Irish Government, including Taoiseach, Eamon deValera now did take further steps to improve relations with President Roosevelt in America and with the Prime Minister in Britain Winston Churchill, whilst still keeping “neutral”.
    • The German Ambassador to Ireland was now expelled, and interned by the Gardai (The Irish Police) and the imprisoned. The Embassy in Dublin was also completely shut down. Ireland felt it was completely and wholly unacceptable to have normal diplomatic relations whilst Britain was being attacked. Ireland also stated it’s complete opposition to the attacks on Britain and that it regarded this as a potential threat to Ireland also. Ireland stated at the UN it’s opposition to Germany’s attacks across Europe and Africa.
  • 318. World War II
    • Irish Coastal Defence:
    • The Irish Coastal defence system was upgraded in 1940 to protect all allied shipping, not just military shipping.
    • Already a very effective look-out for the allies, commended by the British government and the Royal Navy after the war.
    • The costal defence helped to protect merchant shipping, Ocean Liners and Naval vessels in the Atlantic St. George’s Channel (The Celtic Sea) and the Irish Sea.
  • 319. The Emergency
    • There was considerable rationing during the war as supplies became scarce.
    • Ration books were issued to the Irish population.
    • People travelled down from Belfast on the train to avail of supplies only available in the south (Eire).
    • People also travelled to take a break from the austerity of war in the North and Britain from cities like Liverpool and Glasgow for example.
  • 320. The Emergency
      • Some shops did manage to stock extra items that would not be available in Belfast or in the British Cities, as Ireland still had a strong Agricultural base, supplying itself and Britain.
      • Neutrality meant no black-out, and therefore some people chose to take a holiday in Ireland, if they could afford to, away from the austerity in Britain.
      • Irish Hotels, well known for their hospitality, brought a semblance of normality not available elsewhere in the British Isles at the time. The attraction of Dublin’s lights and a warm welcome were considerations. Irish Hotel’s also were able to offer a full hearty meal as they were exempt from some of the harsh rationing.
  • 321. Defence of a Nation
    • Ireland came close to breaking her “official neutrality” on a few occasions during the war:
    • Notably when the Dublin government sent the Dublin Fire Brigade over the border up to Belfast City to help after the Luftwaffe bombed the City killing hundreds.
    • DeValera claimed it was only for humanitarian reasons at the time and that neutrality had not been broken.
    • It was considered to drop the “neutral position” also when Dublin was “accidentally bombed” by the Luftwaffe, apparently the Germans mistaking Dublin for Liverpool.
  • 322. Defence of a Nation
    • The new Irish Government led by deValera also increased the size of the regular Irish Army in an attempt to see off any invasion attempt.
    • Large marches and military displays by the Nations Armed forces were organised notably in Dublin, Cork and Tralee.
    • Greater liaison work was carried out with Ireland’s British counterparts and with the British Forces.
  • 323. The Emergency
    • In the event Nazi Germany never invaded Ireland or Britain.
    • Irish people in their hundreds went north to recruiting offices in Belfast in order to join British regiments and fight against the Nazis.
    • DeValera accepted the reasons why some Irish people would want to join a British regiment, especially when people saw the terrible atrocities been inflicted by Germany on newsreels, which could now been seen in picture houses across Ireland.
    • But with regret he felt Ireland could not break her neutrality to join in the war on Britain’s side. Though he did offer his sympathy to the her plight.
    • DeValera was still unsure of Churchill’s assurances of a “United Ireland”.
  • 324. World War II
    • The bombings of London, Liverpool and Coventry in England and Glasgow in Scotland and Belfast in Northern Ireland and Dublin itself in Eire were the calling cards for new Irish recruits to the British recruiting offices.
    • The Irish coastal watches, firmly established by 1940 very efficiently informed the Royal Navy and the US Navy of all German activity around her coasts, the same service was not given to the German Navy however!
    • The Irish Coastal Watch was thanked by the Royal Navy for its diligent information work during World War II.
    • DeValera, heavily criticised, in Ireland, America and Britain for this latter step: Ever the mathematician and Christian and in typical over~precise style signed the book of condolences at the (now empty) German Embassy in Dublin, on the death (suicide) of Adolf Hitler. He did so, because Ireland (Eire) had been neutral during the war and it was he thought correct diplomacy (perhaps overly so at the time) to do so, for the German people.
  • 325. The Second World War
    • The Irish Coastal defence system sought to protect both the convoys of supplies to Britain from America and the Royal Navy, and later the US navy when they joined the war in 1941.
    • The Royal Navy formally complimented the Irish Coastal Defence Watch on their skill determination and efficiency in informing them of German naval and submarine surface movements.
  • 326. Dublin and the Second World War
    • Dublin itself was bombed in 1941 by the German Luftwaffe, killing 35 people.
    • Ireland considered joining the allies.
    • The Germans claimed it was a mistake
    • The German Ambassador to Ireland was interned and sent to back to Berlin.
  • 327. Dublin and the Second World War
    • Ireland had also continued to supply British forces with food supplies despite her declared neutrality.
    • Ireland did maintain neutrality during the war, and despite rationing some Irish hotels offered respite to the hardships of war, for those that could afford to travel to Ireland across the Irish sea.
  • 328. Eamon deValera
    • Born in New York, Irish-American, Oct 14 th 1882
    • Brought up in Limerick, Mathematician.
    • Westminster MP for East Clare 1918
    • Founder and Leader of the “Fianna Fail” Party
    • Prime Minister “An Taoiseach” of Ireland from 1932 to 1948
    • He Later became Eire’s Irish President in 1959 (right) - Died Aug 24 th 1975
  • 329. Emigration 1930’s and 1940’s
    • Emigration continued at an alarming rate during the 30’s after the great depression and it never ceased for decades. Tourism did gain a revival.
    • The Second World War made it dangerous to travel, and after the War emigration continued, Ireland was unable to provide enough work alone.
  • 330. The Dublin Ferry from England The old ferry liner to Dublin from Holyhead to Dun Laoghaire (formally Kingstown), also previously known as the “mail boat”.
  • 331. Dublin 1945 - 1955
    • Post war Ireland including Dublin was still struggling to gain a good economic stronghold and the population had been reduced drastically by this point.
    • Since the Act of Union emigration to large British cites and Dublin increased and then after the famine hit hard there followed mass emigration to America too.
    • The Great War took many hundreds of thousands in lives but also Ireland had lost some men during the Second World War too. The British Army accepted Irish men who already lived in either Britain or in Canada or who had volunteered from Ireland (Eire) itself.
  • 332. Dublin 1945 - 1955
    • During and after the Second World War Ireland began to build a peaceful relationship with Britain.
    • Dublin had gained full self-governance of Eire (Southern Ireland) and demonstrated self-management of the country.
    • There was some new development introduced to Ireland by the new government once the war was over.
    • The new Shannon scheme built in the 1930’s was now providing much needed electricity.
    • Ireland had devised the first national grid for electricity supply.
  • 333. Dublin 1945 - 1955
    • Emigration continued many men and women went to work temporarily in Britain during the war to help compensate for the lack of labour available then for Britain’s farms, factories and building trades.
    • After the war people emigrated on a more permanent basis, accepting full time jobs, as Britain had by now lost a large part of it’s workforce.
    • The new National Health Service in Britain also required a large workforce, which Britain could not supply on her own, so she looked to Empire countries and Ireland to fill the new vacancies. Other institutions and industries were also looking for employees as they had done before, since the industrial revolution and earlier.
  • 334. Dublin 1945 - 1955
    • The wartime British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had been opposed to Eire’s neutrality during the War, however he now put those differences aside.
    • Churchill was sad to see the beginning of the end of the long established British Empire, and Ireland along with other countries including Canada and India and Australia were all part of that Empire as he grew up to know and fight for it.
  • 335. Sir Winston Churchill British Wartime Prime Minister 1940 ~ 1945 Prime Minister from 1951 ~ 1955 Officer in the British Army ~ Fine Orator Nobel Prize Winner for Literature 1953 (for his historical writings) Noted Statesman & First Lord of the Admiralty. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom under King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II
  • 336. Dublin 1945 - 1955
    • DeValera and Churchill met in London, in a friendly meeting in the 1950’s - some time by then since the war was over.
    • Eire had left the United Kingdom in 1922.
    • Eire had now become fully independent from the British Empire by 1937 and formally by 1948.
    • In 1948 Eire was declared a full republic and became known as the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND or EIRE.
  • 337. Dublin 1945 - 1955
    • Ireland finally left the Commonwealth formally in 1948. The Dail, the Irish Parliament in Dublin which had been set up in 1921 now was fully established as the Republic’s Parliament.
    • Ireland now created the Presidency of the Republic. Douglas Hyde became the first president. The president is a largely figure headed role, though with some influence in foreign affairs and matters of state. The role is also ceremonial and for the hosting of foreign heads of state and dignitaries.
    • The formal residence of the President of Ireland was also set up in Dublin;
    • “ Aras an Uachtarain” in Phoenix Park, also formally the Lord Lieutenant’s Viceregal Lodge Residence until 1922. (and later the Governor General’s Private Residence until 1932 when he was moved to a smaller residence in Dublin).
  • 338. Aras an Uachtarain The Presidency of Ireland
  • 339. Ireland 1955 - 1960
    • The political divisions in Irish Politics from the Treaty of 1921 were to remain on Party lines, Fine Gael & Fianna Fail, Ireland also had a Labour Party and a Workers Party.
    • DeValera was Taoiseach of Ireland or Eire for long periods since 1932 throughout the 1930’s and during the Second World War winning one general election after the next for Fianna Fail and in the 1950’s he then became the new Irish President.
    • Emigration was a big problem still continuing on significantly, on a large scale both to the US and Britain, during the 30’s, 40’s, 50’s and 60’s.
    • Ireland had a well educated youthful population which would emigrate to Britain and the US in large numbers.
    • Emigration had been a fact of life since the 1845/47 potato famine.
  • 340. Ireland 1955 - 1960
    • Ireland was still heavily reliant on imports of coal, and oil, electrical goods and clothing.
    • Britain in the 50’s and 60’s desperately needed a young labour force, as she had lost hundreds of thousands of men in the war against the Nazis and the Great War.
    • Farming methods by the 1960’s improved and were modernised in some parts of the country using new mechanisation. Other farms kept the old methods.
  • 341. Ireland and Diplomacy 1955 - 1960
    • Ireland by the 60’s had forged a new modern role in the United Nations, which continues to this day, but has remained out of NATO, though her links both diplomatically and through emigration with the United States and Great Britain kept her outlook westernised.
    • Ireland now sends many of it’s troops on UN peacekeeping missions across the world along with other fellow countries.
  • 342. Ireland 1955 - 1960
    • Since the 1950’s, The Soviet Union and the US and the West were now engaged in a manifestly dangerous “Cold War”. lasting well into the late 1980’s.
    • Though officially Ireland remained a neutral country, it could not ignore the dangers poised by a Soviet ~ US (NATO) war. This ignited the debate in Ireland into whether or not she could remain a neutral country.
    • Ireland’s links with the United States made it increasingly difficult to remain neutral.
  • 343. Neutrality 1955 - 1960
    • NATO established after the World War II as a defence organisation would bring Britain, Ireland’s closest neighbour and most of Europe into any war with the Soviet Union.
    • Ireland in this situation would feel very isolated due to her neutral position, it was argued.
    • France had also agreed to join NATO (in altered format), leaving Ireland alone in neutrality from her neighbours.
    • However Ireland did remain neutral despite all these concerns .
  • 344. The Cold War
    • Since the 1950’s, The Soviet Union and the US and the West were now engaged in a manifestly dangerous “Cold War”. lasting well into the late 1980’s.
    • An “Iron Curtain” had closed of the East of Europe from the West, notably in Berlin where the Soviet Union had constructed a huge wall dividing the war-torn City.
    • The crisis reached its height in 1962 during the Cuban Missile Crisis, in which the US President, President John F Kennedy successfully, but narrowly avoided a very possible nuclear war.
    • The world was on tender hooks for a whole 13 days.
  • 345. Travel in the 1960’s
    • Shannon Airport became an essential stop of point for all transatlantic aircraft in the early days of passenger jet aviation, increasing the links with the US even further. Both American and Irish Airlines stopped here during this period.
    • Dublin and Shannon Airports at the time were the only international airports in Southern Ireland, with Shannon having extra facilities for long-haul transatlantic flying.
    • Both Dublin and Shannon were transformed to enable to accommodate the new Boeing 747.
  • 346. US President John F Kennedy The visit of President Kennedy to Ireland in 1963 America’s First Irish ~American & Catholic US President - directly descended from Irish immigrants who had emigrated the previous century. President Kennedy was assassinated in the November of that very same year.
    • President Kennedy
    • JFK or “Jack” Kennedy
    • The 35 th President of United States of America
    • RIP
  • 347. Dublin and Ireland 1960 ~ 1970
    • Ireland then in the 60’s aligned herself with new ideology of the EEC – the European Common Market, which has now become the European Union.
    • Ireland has been an enthusiastic member of the EU throughout.
    • The “1921 Treaty Politics” was still not quite at an end though, as the North was still partitioned from the south and the parties divided on old lines.
    • The 60’s brought about new hope in Ireland, as a brief economic boom was felt, and the youthful Irish~American, President Kennedy became the first Irish~American US President bringing initially new hope to all the world, he was assassinated however and finished his presidency prematurely.
    • Unfortunately Northern Ireland suffered terrible terrorist violence from the late 60’s in particular in 1969. This period of violence became known as “The Troubles”.
  • 348. Dublin and Ireland 1970 ~ 1980
    • The 1970’s brought a dark recession after a period of heavy fiscal borrowing by the Irish Government and the 1970’s World Oil Crisis, and ongoing problems in Northern Ireland, making tourism to Ireland unattractive, despite the safety of travel to the south of the country.
    • The perception to some was that Ireland was too dangerous to travel to because of the news of violent riots and shootings in Belfast and Derry (Londonderry) and sporadic trouble along the border with Eire as well as elsewhere in the Northern Ireland Province.
  • 349. Dublin 1970 ~ 1980
    • Unemployment was very high during the 1970’s and 80’s and emigration increased yet again, with the Irish going to America and Britain again and the EEC, mainly Germany and France. Industrial improvements in the farming economy did occur however .
    • The Irish economy remained turbulent until the 1990’s .
    • Peace also was finally to prevail in Northern Ireland with the onset of various peace agreements, and then later the;
    • “ Good Friday Agreement” 10 th April 1998
    • – Easter time being a time for renewal and peace.
  • 350. Dublin 1980 ~ 2000
    • Ireland still had not found any natural recourse of fuel until the late 1980’s when it discovered natural gas field of the south coast near Cork.
    • It was still necessary however to import oil and coal from Europe as before and the Middle Eastern countries like Saudi Arabia and Iraq, but the new gas field off Cork meant that these imports could be reduced.
    • Ireland had finally moved on from her old civil war & treaty politics of the 1920’s and a modern nation had been forged.
    • Many Governments in Ireland were formed over these years using coalition and consensus politics, and the electoral voting system aimed to ensure parties received their percentage of the popular vote. The outcome of this has been the formation of many “coalition governments” whilst also making it difficult for a large party to achieve an * “overall majority” (allowing it to gain full power).
    • New relations with America the UK and Europe and were also built.
  • 351. Peace in Ireland
    • The United Kingdom Prime Minister Tony Blair and his Irish counterpart; An Taoiseach Bertie Ahern shaking hands after agreeing a peace process for the North of Ireland, Ireland and forums for discussions in the entire British Isles, to include Scotland Wales, The Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
  • 352. Peace in Ireland Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and President George W Bush of the United Stated of America Shortly after the devolution of power in Northern Ireland – within the UK , setting about a optimistic period of lasting peace for the people of Northern Ireland, the UK and Ireland. The Queen expressed her delight at the prospect of lasting peace in Northern Ireland. "I would also like to take this opportunity, on the day that has seen the formal transfer of power to the devolved Northern Ireland government, to thank you and your predecessors for your contribution to bringing peace in Northern Ireland,“ - Queen Elizabeth II She said, noting the U.S. role in bringing about the historic peace agreement. The Queen and President at a White House state dinner in Washington May 2007
  • 353. St. Patrick’s Day
    • Irish Taoiseach Bertie Ahern with US President George W Bush St. Patrick’s Day.
    • An Taoiseach is offerering the President a bowl of Shamrocks to celebrate the special national day .
  • 354. St. Patrick’s Day
    • St Patrick’s Day New York
  • 355. St. Patrick’s Day
  • 356. Dublin Today
    • Dublin toady is a vibrant Capital City of Ireland embracing the European Union, with a strong revived economy “The Celtic Tiger.”
    • Dublin today is still a beautiful Georgian City, comfortable with it’s past.
    • The City very much European in outlook, and still has strong links with the UK, through history and family and many great historical sites, poetry and theatre.
  • 357. Dublin Today
    • It is lively city boasting great atmosphere and culture with a strong music scene.
    • Dublin is a busy modern city, and since 1990 emigration has slowed down and slowly immigration from Europe has begun.
    • Dublin and Ireland though an independent Republic retains it’s strong links with the UK.
    • From the Vikings to today Dublin has a rich and exciting history and a great culture.
  • 358. Dublin’s Fair City
    • Presentation by
    • Choinnich O’ Gallchobhair.
    the end
  • 359. Dublin’s Fair City
    • Reference Library and Bibliography:
      • Concise History of Ireland - Connor Cruise O’Brien.
      • Ireland in the Nineteenth Century (Foley) & London in the Nineteenth Century.
      • Micro-encyclopaedia of Irish History.
      • Life of Cromwell - BBC History.
      • Bristol Municipal Central Library & City of Bristol College library.
      • History of English Monarchs – Crown History.
      • The Illustrated London Times.
      • Punch (19 th & 20 th Century.
      • History of the Norman Invasion.
      • The History of Britain and her Empire - Internet (BBC).
      • Complete history of Kings and Queens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
      • History of the Union of the Crowns – Scotland and England & The Stewarts. (King James I).
      • History of Great Britain and Ireland since the Act of Union 1800.
      • Ireland During World War One.
      • The Emergency – Ireland During the Second World War.
      • White Star Line / Cunard Line.
      • Dublin Tourist Board.
      • Tourism Ireland / Eire / Northern Ireland Tourist Board.
      • St. Patrick’s College Ireland – History Department.
      • Ireland – A History - Robert Kee
      • RTE Ireland / BBC History (various research was undertaken in the production of this presentation).
  • 360.