The   Astro Schooner




            1
Egberto F. Ribeiro




         2
The   Astro Schooner




  by Egberto Fioravanti Ribeiro




THE ASTRO SCHOONER


          ©2004 – 2009 Egberto F. Ribeir...
Egberto F. Ribeiro


       International Data in the Publishing Cataloger.
       Responsible Librarian: Mara Rejane Vice...
The    Astro Schooner




                      INDEX

NUMBER        CHAPTER             PAGE    DIALOGUE
         Preface...
Egberto F. Ribeiro




                         PREFACE



          The
                            Iberian people aggreg...
The     Astro Schooner

           The Islamic revelation in Yathrib was soon preached over all Arabian
nations and neighb...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

          The Infant Don Afonso Henriques (Dom Afonso II), at 14-years-old,
assumed a Divine commitmen...
The      Astro Schooner

fight against the Islamic Jihad. The commercial engagement brought by the
Jews (New Christian) co...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

          Supplied with papal edict and royal obsession, the infant Dom
Henrique developed the Indian ...
The     Astro Schooner

         The Spanish Diego Garcia Herrera started to explore the Canary
Island in 1476. Spain rece...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

         The terms of that agreement was extensive in space and perpetual
on time. The Tordesilhas sig...
The     Astro Schooner

Spain which committed successive mistakes. Portugal wanted to keep the
division line, the closest ...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

region's governor, without to offer valuable gifts. Vasco should only to keep
commerce agreements in C...
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         The imposing Portuguese disembark on the island at the entrance of
Porto Seguro's bay was ...
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several employee and soldiers.
          Cabral applied severe retaliation on Calicute. Two days of ro...
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fleet departed on October 08, 1515 with real destination kept in secret. The
small crew and low fo...
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the south of Bolivia by the Peabiru Way and by the Chaco. He arrived to the
silver mines of Potosi and...
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loaded with blaze-wood and his brother Pero Lopes de Souza applied heavy
night fight against Frenc...
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islands. That new border had been moved from Laguna to the Parana River.
Spain kept the Philippines Is...
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administration in the East territory of the Parana River. Meanwhile, the
Portuguese had founded at...
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          The new conflict with the Spanish invasion on Sacramento's Colony
and the consequent Lisbon ...
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         In the monopolist period, the Ultramarine colonies were not allowed
to deal with any coun...
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                                       I

                      THE ROOTS


         P
            ...
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business. A secret plan to escape to Brazil had been created in the century
XVI, if there were any...
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finance the Napoleon's war against England.
          The secret meetings for the Brazilian Independen...
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loading of cargoes delayed the ships for three months. It was time enough for
the ships be attack...
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Argentina and France.
          Portugal would recognize the Independence after the payment of an
inde...
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was given one part; to the Lieutenants and officers was given one part; to the
aspirant and Sergea...
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                                      II


        THE QUEEN OF SEAS


          On
               ...
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         One of the ships was chosen monthly for the mail transportation
between Rio de Janeiro, M...
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         The seizure in Brazilian sea to get the “Prize Money” caused
indignation not only on our peop...
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         “I want all the crew and passengers on deck, now!”
         “Let's open the hatches to...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

          2- The passenger steam ship “São Sebastião”


          The steamer São Sebastião was sailin...
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Two Lieutenants jump on board by the main rail asking for the Commander.
The exasperated passengers...
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            “I am the Commander and these are the documents.” The
Commander Torrezão answers and showe...
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         3- The Passengers' Steam Ship “Paquete de Santos”


         The Lieutenant Crofton was the...
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          “Sir! This brig-schooner seems to be in normal loading operation.”
          “Tie the cutter...
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waves the silhouette of two cutters in assault. The sailors approach in silence
to aboard the ship...
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          5- The Confrontation in Pereque's Beach


          On May 16th, 1850, the quick weather cha...
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advantage of the south wind. On the beach, they gathered at a bonfire to dry
the wet clothes, to c...
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         6- The brig-schooner “Malteza”


         On July 18, 1850, at ten o'clock in the morning, th...
The        Astro Schooner

          7- The brig-schooner “Conceição”


          In the break of the day June 20, 1850, t...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

          8- The brig-schooner “Rival”


          On June 26, 1850, the HMS Cormorant kept its paddle...
The      Astro Schooner

          “They are climbing on board by the main stay, sir.”
          “Here is the ballast ingo...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

          “I don’t know! He was shot on his face.”
          After some time, the Customs boat approac...
The   Astro Schooner

place to begin shooting.
          “Have a look at the cutter.” A man in a boat said.
          “The...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

          9- The Brig-Schooner “Velha de Dio”


          On July 04, the brig-schooner Velha de Dio l...
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          The police officer is the authority in several cities where there is no
National Guard...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

             “Mr Brito, this casualty will happen in tragedy.”
             “Let them to go in peace, ...
The     Astro Schooner

          “We hope you may understand the reasons why we are against the
English sailors.”
       ...
Egberto F. Ribeiro




                                      III


THE SAGAZ DEPARTURE


         The
                    ...
The   Astro Schooner

Market where the men were taking victuals for sell. A known black young boy
walked singing to announ...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

          A fast trotting of horses stopped the loud voices and folk songs,
taking the people's attent...
The    Astro Schooner

          “The doctor has come to see how healthy the passengers and the
crew are.” The agent told ...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

          “The infant D Pedro was always happy and beloved by everyone. His
death was a great loss.” T...
The     Astro Schooner

         “There is no reason for a shipping company to pay the expensive
insurance of the Lloyd's,...
Egberto F. Ribeiro

Everything is according the law.”
         “The Commander Nascimento has arrived to Rio on May, 10 wit...
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The Astro Schooner

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The English war ship HMS Cormorant was arresting three sailing boats when was advised to stop by blank shots, the answer was the most important sea fight in Brazilian South.
Novel on heroic event happened in Paranagua Bay.

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The Astro Schooner

  1. 1. The Astro Schooner 1
  2. 2. Egberto F. Ribeiro 2
  3. 3. The Astro Schooner by Egberto Fioravanti Ribeiro THE ASTRO SCHOONER ©2004 – 2009 Egberto F. Ribeiro 1st Edition Curitiba – 2009 Author – Publisher ISBN 978-85-906811-3-7 3
  4. 4. Egberto F. Ribeiro International Data in the Publishing Cataloger. Responsible Librarian: Mara Rejane Vicente Teixeira. Parana Public Library - Curitiba - Pr - Brazil. Ribeiro, Egberto Fioravanti. The Astro Schooner / Egberto Fioravanti Ribeiro. Curitiba: E. F. Ribeiro, 2007 – 245 pages. ; 21 cm. Includes bibliography. 1. Brazilian Literature. Parana. 2. Movie Screenplay. 3. Book. I. Title. CDD ( 21º edition) B869.35 Search, Text, Pictures, Typing, Translation, Reviewing, Edition, Licenses are by the author. Register applied for Book and Screenplay, by the Brazilian National Library. Register number 329.978. August 20, 2004 – Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. Movie 1st Treatment: 120 minutes – 245 Pages – 280 Sequences – 1561 Dialog Takes. The original book is written in Portuguese with the name “A Escuna Astro” and was translated into International English and reviewed in both languages by the author. Translated into English by the Author. Digital Format in PDF – BrOfficeOrg Curitiba, April 2009 © 2004 – 2009 Egberto Fioravanti Ribeiro egfior@hotmail.com 1st Edition 2009 – Curitiba Author – Publisher 4
  5. 5. The Astro Schooner INDEX NUMBER CHAPTER PAGE DIALOGUE Preface 6 TAKES I The Roots 24 - II The Queen of Seas 30 152 III The Sagaz Departure 52 145 IV To Put About the Ship 68 123 V English to See Ships 79 102 VI Laura 87 143 VII South Seas 102 48 VIII The Pilot 107 58 IX Birds of Prey 113 27 X The Seizures 116 102 XI Headquarter 125 62 XII The Ransom 133 86 XIII The Great Militia 143 82 XIV Sunday in Pray 152 68 XV Scuttled Schooner 162 36 XVI Artillery 166 60 XVII Effulgent Justice 179 183 XVIII Ships in Flames 207 41 XIX Funeral Service 213 29 XX The Triumph 220 14 XXI The Parana Province 224 - XXII Epilogue 228 - TOTAL Bibliography 231 1561 5
  6. 6. Egberto F. Ribeiro PREFACE The Iberian people aggregates millenarian culture, from distinct pre-historical inhabitants, to nations founders of cities as the Phoenician in Cadis and the Grecian in Rosas and Sagunto. The invasions by the barbarous Celtic settled between the rivers D'Ouro and the Tejo. Iberia also became rich province belonged to powerful nations, as Carthage in Hannibal's time and Rome during Julio Cesar's Empire, when several cities were founded. After the falling down of the Roman Empire, the peninsula was occupied by the Visigoth until 739 AC. In this time, Iberia suffered the invasion of the Saracen Moors, with its apogee in 929 during the Cordoba Caliphate. The province Portucalense was in persistent battles, when in 1139 in middle of ceaseless war against Moors and Castile's armies, flourished the Portuguese nation. The Lusitania heroes have been sung by Camões as the ancestry Celtiberian warriors. The spiritual feelings of the Christian Visigoth and the Jewish capitalism dressed up Iberia with God’s armor to fight against the Islamic warriors. 6
  7. 7. The Astro Schooner The Islamic revelation in Yathrib was soon preached over all Arabian nations and neighbors countries. The Islamic faith was to be spread out very fast in few years from Mediterranean Sea to Europe and Asia. The appealing Islamic system to share the despoil among the army, was soon accepted by all followers. That practice had begun against the Jews in Yathrib, the city that received the name of Medina (Prophet's City). At the end of the period of darkness, the Koran was being recited on two thirds of Iberia. On the high of the mosque's tower, the Sheiks convoked the followers for daily prays in the Caliphate of Cordoba. The best lands from the South of Spain to Galizia had been taken by the Islamic followers under power of swords, not caused by religion, but for political power. The low acknowledge about the religion showed a large war affair, that was much more important than to go to Mecca. The Islamic political domain, in name of the religion caused indignation inside the Spanish kingdom in 729AC, when the king began the war called "The Reconquest". In 904, the King Don Afonso began to cast out all the Saracen. The villages, castles and cities were being abandoned by the Islamic that soon were settled by the remaining of the Christian Celtic, Jews converted as New Christian and inhabitants from Galizia. The large victories were much more than the losses on uncountable battles that stimulated Europe's nations to send the first Crusades to Palestine. The Spanish troops had pushed back the Moors from Iberia, restoring part of Don Afonso's kingdom. Two hundred years later, the Castile's king had given to his daughter Dona Teresa, the Portucalense Province. Dona Teresa married the count Don Henrique de Borgonha and they had a son, Don Afonso Henriques. The old king died and a conflict among the heirs raised up. Just after the death of the count Don Henrique, father of Don Afonso, the young prince decided to become a knight to fight against the Moors. 7
  8. 8. Egberto F. Ribeiro The Infant Don Afonso Henriques (Dom Afonso II), at 14-years-old, assumed a Divine commitment in the Zamora's Church on the Pentecost day of 1163 (Spanish Calendar). He dressed the knitting armor the helmet and laid hold of the sword from his grandfather to lead the Spanish army against the Moors Saracen. In three years of battles, he had restored the Spanish domain from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. Under the strong arms of this Infant, Portugal was born in 1139 (1177 Spanish Calendar) fighting against the Moors for several centuries. (In the beginning of Rome, the foreigners people were being settled in the region known as Lazio, at the south of the Tiber River. These people kept a solid union in wars against the invaders and built the Roman Empire. The conquest began two centuries and a half before Christ with the Province of Sicilia. The several languages in Lazio were being unified in a Popular Latin, originating the Classic Latin as political identity). In the reconquest war by Don Afonso I, the former Roman Province Portucalense received citizens from Galizia to be settled in the city of Coimbra. After the death of the king Dom Afonso II, the reign was ruled by his son Dom Sancho I. He began a new administrative structure over the Lusitania land. The young nation adopted the notable linguistic contribution of the Galician to edify its new political identity in Iberia. These facts are very well observed in Portuguese grammar. The first known poetic verses are from 1189 with “A Ribeirinha” (The Little Brook Girl) by Paio Soares de Taveirós. The nobility will incentive the Portuguese language with too many poems, as those written by the king Dom Sancho and by the king Dom Dinis with 137 poems. The war supplies were not only by troops, but also on international tribunals, so the necessity of jurists and medical assistance in battles influ- enced Dom Dinis to install the University of Coimbra in 1290. The courage and Christian spirituality of the Celtic people built the valuable Lusitania army to 8
  9. 9. The Astro Schooner fight against the Islamic Jihad. The commercial engagement brought by the Jews (New Christian) consolidated Portugal as worldwide powerful nation. The Catholic Verona Council in 1183 established “The Inquisition”. Much more for economic causes than religious were the reason for a entire family be executed by the Dominican Fathers; smashed under torture machine or in bonfire executions. The Jewish people in Europe had built the new social class: the bourgeois. They became victims of people who had taken their money as loan. For such people, the only way to clear all debts, would be after the deaths of all creditors. After the execution, their properties were given to the government and church. The Portuguese kings saw advantage on that despair and allowed their immigration as citizens, if they accepted to translate their names and to be baptized as New Christians. The Jews non converted and remaining Moors were subjugated by Acts and treaties in obvious discrim- ination for their commercial power. In Brazil, the Jews descendants were called “Marranos”. They were hated for their richness, for their friendship with the royal family and because they didn't join to the Republican party-liner. The Military Order of São Bento de Avis was a knighthood organization founded at the beginning of Portugal to fight against the Muslins. Dom John had received the knight honor from Avis and the disputed Portuguese throne in 1385 (The Avis Dynasty). In the battles against Spain, the Portuguese had improved the craftsmanship of cannons with the metallurgy technical developed by the Moors Saracen (malleable steel). The often Moors invasions over Portugal were causing heavy damage on the maritime tax paid by ships in transit at the Lusitania coast. Dom John and his sons succeed on a secret and large invasion over Ceuta in 1415. The Christian attack on the Islamic Africa eliminated the Muslim's dream to become Caliphs (religious leaders) over the entire Europe. 9
  10. 10. Egberto F. Ribeiro Supplied with papal edict and royal obsession, the infant Dom Henrique developed the Indian Plan, to open fire against the Muslims on their own lands. The imprisonment and death of his brother, Dom Fernando in Tangier, made his mind to become much more defined on this purpose. The Plan consisted to turn round the Moors to block their rearguard. It was to impede their often escape to deserts and mountains after every battle. In 1418, the Infant Dom Pedro undertook to do a trip of ten years to Europe and Middle East. He got maps and the book written by Ruticello telling about Marco Polo's trip to Asia. As the invention of gun powder in China had been brought to Europe by Polo, the book received credit of the Avis Dynasty. Despite of in Europe, readers were considering it as a chapter of The Thousand and One Nights or a joke. The king's Dom John family began to believe that the prophecies by Daniel about the 5th Empire would be accomplished by Portugal. The restoration of Israel in 1948 was by a Brazilian in UN, son of a Portuguese family (Spider), Mr Osvaldo Aranha. The execution of the Plan of India only would be done by ocean. It required large maritime knowledge to set sail on unknown seas. Dom Henrique contracted navy technician, cosmographs, cartographers and opened the Sagres School in his own house. “The population welfare is in to produce” (Dom Henrique). The successive discoveries of the oceanic isles and lands at the African coast rewarded the Portuguese Nation with 20° of territory extension. The navigator Gil Eanes has been to the Canary islands in the trip when discovered the Cape Bojador in 1434. From that limit began the unknown sea with different currents of wind. “From fixed Pole, where still does not know which another land begins or ends the sea” (The Lusiads 5,14). 10
  11. 11. The Astro Schooner The Spanish Diego Garcia Herrera started to explore the Canary Island in 1476. Spain received the Pope's support to vindicate the right “Uti Possidetis” on the Canary Islands (the land belongs to whom lives in and explores it). The Lusitania performance was observed by the Holy See. Portugal became the main allied to send the gospel on new lands. The Pope Eugene IV signed a Bull giving to Portugal as mercy, the God's lands not yet discovered. These lands should be kept in Christian domain, while the Islamic religion had not yet been reached by those inhabitants from such islands. The nations didn't believe to exist anything beyond the Bojador and Portugal received absolute rights since the Canary border to the south. For Rome, the world belonged to God and the lands not yet discovered should be Christian and assured the peace with the Bull Intercaetera. That divisor line was over the parallel 27° (horizontal) that crosses the south of the Canary island and Florida in America. The discovery of America in the parallel 23° was by Christopher Columbus on October 12, 1492. The coordinates shown in Europe revealed that the New Lands were in Portuguese territory, 50 miles north of the tropic of Cancer. That discovery took all of them to Tordesilhas for a new treaty. The largest international agreement, without any other equivalent on earth's face was signed in the city of Tordesilhas on June 4th,, 1494. This treaty firmed among the Catholics kings; Fernando and Isabel from Castle and the representatives from Portugal; Dom John and Dona Leonor. The new Meridian would be moved from 100 to 370 leagues West from the Cabo Verde Islands. (...that inasmuch as among the said lords their constituents, there is a certain difference over what each one of the said parts belongs, from what until today, day of the making of this capitulation, is to discover in the Ocean Sea...). The Treaty of Tordesilhas. 11
  12. 12. Egberto F. Ribeiro The terms of that agreement was extensive in space and perpetual on time. The Tordesilhas signatories, their heirs and vassals should have to accomplish the treaty, under penalty of ex-communion. Although, a treaty with that magnitude had been established on unknown lands. It should be displeased by all citizens in both nations, under war for three centuries. It should not be acceptable for those who even didn't imagine what was going on. By this way, the treaty could not be perfect and suffered some alterations. The causes of the conflict that began in 1470 only ended after several agreements. The main conciliation finished the 5 years war, after the definitive resignation of the Portuguese king pretension to rule over Castle. (The king Dom Afonso V of Portugal had a marriage not accomplished with his niece Joana of Castle, a princess from the Asturias, royal title in the hierarchy of Castle. Joana was daughter of the king Henrique IV from Castle and Joana de Avis from Portugal. She received her title in 1462, being obeyed to cede her position in favor of her brother, Dom Afonso in 1464, who died four years later. To follow the successive order, the right was for her sister, that disobeyed one of the rules for the Spanish throne. She married a pretender from Aragon and not from Castle. The personal concern of Dom Afonso was to take advantage on his marriage and to join Portugal and Castle. The Castile's repulse was general, it was unacceptable for Spain to be ruled by Portugal and a new conflict was started by Dom Afonso V in 1474, that was five years long. The peace was reached after the capitulation of the princess Joana who gave up the Castile's throne and the consequent annulment of the marriage. The Treaty of Alcassova on September, 04 of 1479 detained the belligerent animation.) The Lusitania sailing knowledge was producing good results with thousands of miles at the African coast. The Portuguese technical expertise, acquired by the infant Dom Henrique, for so many time overcame those by 12
  13. 13. The Astro Schooner Spain which committed successive mistakes. Portugal wanted to keep the division line, the closest to Europe as possible, to let the Spanish domain to finish on the empty Pacific Ocean, far from the rich spice islands in Asia. The Treaty of Tordesilhas established the border meridian from pole to pole at 370 leagues (1.110 miles) from Cabo Verde's island to west. That archipelago had been cited on nautical charts for too many centuries as the zero grade meridian that divided Orient and Occident, but it was not so clear. Although, Portugal believed in the studies by Dom Henrique according the Marco Polo's trip. Consecutively, all the antipodes islands rich in spices should be owned by Portugal. Spain claimed and Portugal, at least, recognized that fail in the Tordesilhas' Treaty. The Azores islands were adopted as the starting point for the unknown lands and the divisor meridian was defined at 370 leagues to west. The clever Portuguese didn't want to reveal what in Tordesilhas had been written about the divisor line. The Treaty cited “Unknown Lands”, but the archipelago of Azores had been discovered in the first quart of that century. The Portuguese Bartolomeu Dias made good use of the wind currents from African coast to southwest, beyond the Bojador. The Captain- major also discovered the atmospheric currents that blow to southeast, taking the sailing boats in windward to few miles from South Africa. Bartolomeu sailed very far from the coast on a tack to South and went beyond the Good Hope Cape. However, a strong wind from Antarctic and a mutiny on board have taken him to sail back, till arrive on land. Notwithstanding, he was in Portuguese territory, Bartolomeu placed in the South of Africa, two stone patterns with the Christ Military Order (The Malta Cross). Vasco was a nobleman and had been entrusted to explore a new tack to India. He applied the knowledge offered by Bartolomeu Dias and succeeded on that trip and arrived to Calicute. Vasco was introduced to the 13
  14. 14. Egberto F. Ribeiro region's governor, without to offer valuable gifts. Vasco should only to keep commerce agreements in Calicute and to install a trade factory in that port. The Samorim was very disappointed with the frugal gift received and kept him detained along with some other sailors in his palace. The Captain of Vasco's vessel kept as hostages some visitors from Calicute which intended to deal on board, among them was the Samorim's brother. The freedom of Vasco da Gama was negotiated after three days of detainment, when he was released and sailed back to Portugal to give those bad news to king Dom Manuel. As soon as the news brought by Vasco da Gama arrived to Portugal, the king Dom Manuel I felt outraged. The king sent in the following year, the Captain-major Pedro Alvarez Cabral 33, to define its domain in Calicute. The Portuguese empire should have to subdue by power, the nations adverses to its monopolist trade inside its own domain. That was a sovereignty matter, much more important than to answer an incident suffered by a vassal. Pedro Alvares Cabral would sail to south sea under directly instructions by Vasco da Gama. He assured Cabral the existence of land signals below the Equator line. Vasco also gave him a letter with recommendation for that trip and his most skillful Captains: Bartolomeu Dias, Nicolau Coelho and others. Cabral departed with his fleet from the quay of Belem in Lisbon on March 09, 1500 with thirteen caravels, 1500 men, experts pilots and experienced Captains. That was the largest Lusitania war fleet since the invasion on Ceuta in 1415. In two weeks the fleet arrived to the coast of the Cabo Verde islands, when began the new tack to southwest. One vessel was lost, despite of the warning cannons blank shots by the flag ship. After six week of trip from Belem, as had been said by Vasco da Gama, the signals of land were seen floating on the waves. On the following day, the first shout “land at sight” was thrown in Brazilian waters on April 22, 1500. 14
  15. 15. The Astro Schooner The imposing Portuguese disembark on the island at the entrance of Porto Seguro's bay was very well received by the Indians. The solemn thanksgiving with field mass on the following Sunday has been registered on the letter by the public notary Pero Vaz de Caminha. The fleet was at anchor for ten days among a savage people, but with friendly treatment. At the departure, some young sailors remained on land by their will and some banished criminals were ordered to stay to learn the language. The Captain- major was triumphant when he sent back to Portugal, Gaspar de Lemos with the Letter written by Caminha, to announce to the king the discovery of the “Island of Vera Cruz”. On May 2nd, the resolute Cabral continued his mission, ordering the vessels to weigh anchor and to set sail with tack to southeast. Under the fair convergent winds, the fleet quickly arrived to the African coast on May 24. Bartolomeu Dias had discovered that coast, but as he had suffered with the gusty wind, he called that coast as the Cape of Storms. But, the Portuguese king understood that the name should be changed to “Cape of Good Hope”. The Cabral's fleet arrived to the extreme South of Africa under heavy storm. After five days of boisterous sailing, Cabral was notified about the disappearance of four caravels and the inevitable losses of precious lives, among them, his friend Bartolomeu Dias. The Cabral's crossing to the African oriental coast assured to Portugal the exclusive trading domain in the Far East for an entire century of commerce with Asia. Cabral arrived to the Samorim's Calicute to install a trade factory and to cease the Arabian trade in that Portuguese territory. The order for the Arabian to discharge their ships and to leave the port caused an immediate uprising. The just arrived Portuguese were treachery attacked by the Arabian in the streets of the city and near forty person had been murdered, among them was the notary public Pero Vaz de Caminha, the factory governor Aires da Cunha, some catholic fathers and 15
  16. 16. Egberto F. Ribeiro several employee and soldiers. Cabral applied severe retaliation on Calicute. Two days of round shots on the city result in five hundred deaths and fifteen sunk Arabian ships. After to conclude the replying, Cabral left the destroyed city and sailed to Cochin, where installed a trade factory and went back to Portugal in January with six loaded ships. On the next year, Vasco da Gama sailed to Calicute with an exceptional destruction power, sealing the Lusitania trading domain in the Far East. In 1504, the Samorim from Calicute organized an allied force to fight against the Portuguese factory in Cochin. Duarte Pacheco Pereira had only 70 men, four ships, 18 cannons of long range and a small fort. The Samorim was defeated with his army of 5000 men aboard in 150 ships gunned with bombards which were sunk. The Samorim did not cause harm against the commander Duarte and left his government in India. After the domain on Cochin, too many Portuguese expeditions sailed to Orient, to register all the islands until the east border of the territory. After the discovery of Brazil, some factories had exceeded the production targets established by the Portuguese crown. Although, the incursion of French traffickers in association with Indian tribes to explore the pau-brasil (blaze- wood) should be stopped. The Moluccas islands were discovered by the Portuguese Francisco Terrão in 1512, when established in Ternate a factory to produce spice. That news arrived from Asia was a surprise to Spain. The king Charles I from Spain, as he knew about Terrão discovery, organized a secret expedition in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, at the south of Seville to dominate the Moluccas Islands. Three caravels and 60 men, under the command of the Captain-major Juan Dias de Solis, the substitute of Amerigo Vespucci whose death in 1512 had been a large lost to Spain. The 16
  17. 17. The Astro Schooner fleet departed on October 08, 1515 with real destination kept in secret. The small crew and low food supply and few barrels of water didn't raise suspect that they were going to undertake a circumnavigation. The tack to Canary Islands didn't reveal the great Spanish interest to sail 5.100 miles beyond the Tordesilhas Treaty through any channel at the south of Brazil. The Solis fleet was anchored in Rio de Janeiro, Cananeia and Santa Catarina. That was an evident tentative to get information from Indians dwellers, shipwrecked or colonizers about any crossing to west, or the silver mines. Solis relegated to second field the mission to Pacific. The Captain-major sailed southward till find the large river. They arrived to the river and got a new tack to west, exactly as they had been noticed. Solis and his men have disembarked at the north coast of the big river, but they were attacked, by probably the Charruas (plough). The remaining crew on board saw how they were annihilated. The small garrison of survivors was enough to set only two caravels. The pilot Francisco de Torres, Solis brother-in-law commanded one of the caravels. The other caravel was under the command of the pilot Aleixo Garcia. Aleixo was a Portuguese navigator dweller of Spain. They were touched with that tragedy, but not frustrated , they were far from home, but near to Potosi. The young explorers didn't intend to go back without to conclude the last Solis purpose. Aleixo headed with his caravel against the rocky island of Ducks' Port (Sta Catarina) and shipwrecked at the south of the island. It was easier to explain for the Spanish king a shipwreck than a mutiny. Aleixo and ten survivors lived among the Carijohs Indians and built new families. Aleixo and his fellows did several expeditions at seashore, thinking they were in Spanish territory. They have been to Paranagua bay where Aleixo named it as “Baya de la Corona de Castilla”. In 1521, Aleixo went back to Ducks' Port and organized a troop with two hundreds Indians and headed to 17
  18. 18. Egberto F. Ribeiro the south of Bolivia by the Peabiru Way and by the Chaco. He arrived to the silver mines of Potosi and defeated an Inca settlement which gave him pieces of gold and silver. In the way back to Ducks' Port in 1525, Aleixo entered in combat against the the Guaranis in the region of Paraguay, where he was dead. The undertaking by Solis was done by Don Francisco Garcia Loyasa that departed from Spain on December 25, 1525. The discovery of the Philippines islands in 1521, inside the Portuguese border, by the Portuguese Fernão de Magalhães (Ferdinand Magellan), on Spain service, caused a new conflict between the two Iberian crowns. The new war declaration was detained after a negotiation of right through the Saragossa Treaty in 1529. The political domain of Charles I in Europe intimidated any nation to raise guns against Spain, when the Tordesilhas line was moved for the third time. To keep good profits with spices from the Philippines, Spain had proposed to move the limit line of Tordesilhas once more. Portugal was compelled to buy for $350.000 ducat in gold, 17° of the region to the south of that invasion where were the Moluccas. That negotiation was accepted to certify the permanence of the Portuguese factory explored by Francisco Terrão in Ternate since 1512. The Saragossa Treaty on April 22, 1529 moved once more the Tordesilhas Meridian. The information about the presence of French trade factories on Brazilian coast and the lost of the Philippines islands, obeyed Portugal to send a military fleet to Brazil. The bad news about the death of Solis by Indians in the River Plate covered with care the Martim Afonso's fleet. The noblemen and brothers Martim Afonso de Souza and Pero Lopes de Souza were sent to Brazil by Dom John III to demarcate at the Parana river the alteration in 17° occurred on the Tordesilhas Meridian. They arrived to Brazilian coast on January 31, 1531 with the mission to demarcate and to donate lands, to nominate public notary and justice officer. Martim seized some French ships 18
  19. 19. The Astro Schooner loaded with blaze-wood and his brother Pero Lopes de Souza applied heavy night fight against French traffickers ships on escape. Martim sailed southward and in Guanabara's bay he established a factory to explore the blaze-wood. Martim was a land donatory (Person in the nobility who received lands with hereditary right). Martim arrived in Cananeia bringing from Portugal some stones with the mark of the Military Order of Christ, at the channel entrance he placed one mark (still exists). He placed that stone pattern was to delimit his own Captaincy, while the lands southward belonged to his brother Pero Lopes de Souza. Martim sent Francisco Chaves to an inland expedition through the Peabiru, the old way to Peru. To detain the losses of men, Martim designated some War-Captains. One expedition was destroyed by the Carijohs and another expedition went back with hundreds of arrested Indians. In September 26, 1531 they departed southward in two ships. As soon as they arrived at the Cape of Santa Maria, at the entrance of the River Plate, they suffered violent storm. Martim shipwrecked, loosing too many guns and food, fortunately there were no victims. On the north coast beach at the Silver River, Martim found a small ship abandoned by Cabot and equipped her to sail. Martim sent his brother to demarcate the 17° cited in the Saragossa Treaty. Pero Lopes should sail up the Parana River, till the farthest the ship could go. Pero should have to choose the best place to lay the stones. On December 12, 1531 Pero cast anchors at the left margin of the river, from where the waters were coming from southwest. Pero verified the sun measure and assented two stone marks with the Military Order of Christ. The pattern stones were laid in name of El Rey on the oriental margin of the Parana River on 33º 45’ South. Pero Lopes had definitively established the third Portuguese border from south to north, because the Tordesilhas line was from Pole to Pole. That demarcation near San Pedro restored 10° from the 17° Portuguese dead loss on the Philippines 19
  20. 20. Egberto F. Ribeiro islands. That new border had been moved from Laguna to the Parana River. Spain kept the Philippines Islands, while Portugal received the Parana River. (Log Book – Pero Lopes de Souza – 1531/1532) Martim sailed back to North and on January 22, 1532, he cast anchors and declared the foundation of São Vicente. On his way back to Europe, Pero found a French fortress in Pernambuco. He warned the invaders to surrender, but the answer was on round shots. Pero ordered his ship batteries to open fire. The fortress was under fire for eighteen days till be destroyed. The French Commander was hanged up on that same site and the prisoners were sent to the Algarves. The foundation of Santa Maria de Buenos Aires didn't succeed. The settlement was soon beleaguered and burnt by Indians, that caused its abandonment. Without food and defense, the Spanish colonizers escaped upward the Parana River, letting behind Buenos Aires in flames. The Spanish arrived to the Paraguay River at a pleasant place on August 15, 1537, day of Nuestra Señora de Asunción. On that settlement grew up the Paraguayan Capital. The few Spanish settlers arrived with Pedro de Mendoza were not enough to occupy all the Nova Andalusia's colony, between the parallels 25°S and 36°S, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. The solution offered by the Derecho de Indias (Spanish Act for Right of the conquered people to become Spanish citizens) was followed by Hernando Árias de Saavedra for the colonization on the East side of the Parana River. Under that system, the Spanish slavery of Indians had been badly received by the clergy. The education of the ordered Indians was applied to settle the American Colonies with Spanish citizens. Before the Iberian Union, occurred the foundation of the Province of Guayrá in 1570. Several reductions (villages) were under the Jesuit fathers 20
  21. 21. The Astro Schooner administration in the East territory of the Parana River. Meanwhile, the Portuguese had founded at the north side of the Silver River, the Colony of the Santissimo Sacramento at 30 miles from Buenos Aires. (The death of the king Dom Sebastião in 1578, at 24-years-old, in combat against the Moors in Alcacer Quibir and whose body was never found, let Portugal without heirs. The successor was his uncle, the cardinal Dom Henrique which died two years later, being the direct next of kin, the Spanish king Dom Felipe II, beginning the Iberian Union. - These facts coincide with the 5th Empire cited by the Prophet Daniel in chap 11). In the beginning of the XVII century, to assure the Portuguese right, the General Government in Bahia sent the Bandeirante Commander Antonio Raposo Tavares (paramilitary troop of 3000 men seeking for gold, diamonds and emeralds) to negotiate the Portuguese right Uti Possidetis (the land belongs to whom utilizes it). He also should had to rescue the Portuguese sovereignty in Guayrá, south of the Paranapanema river. Raposo Tavares found already built, twelve Spanish villages. He warned the Jesuits and dwellers: “This land belongs to us and not to the king of Spain”. Fifteen years later, as the villages had been partially abandoned, the Bandeirantes came back and destroyed the twelve reductions in Guayrá (North of the State of Parana). The remaining dwellers were arrested and sold as slaves in São Paulo. The gold washers’ settlement in Paranagua was elevated to the category of village in 1648. The General Government elevated the village to the category of Captaincy in 1656 and nominated the Captain-major Gabriel de Lara as Captain Settler for the occupation of the lands demarcated by Pero Lopes de Souza. In this period, Lara founded Curitiba and several others villages, reinforcing the possession over the Oriental territory till Sacramento, at 30 miles from Buenos Aires. 21
  22. 22. Egberto F. Ribeiro The new conflict with the Spanish invasion on Sacramento's Colony and the consequent Lisbon Treaty in 1681. That event took the Pero Lopes de Souza's heir, Marquis de Cascais to propose the selling of the Captaincy of Paranagua in 1709 for the donatory of São Vicente for $40.000 cruzados. The Portuguese government didn't allow the sale and paid in cash that required amount to its owner. In the following year, the Portuguese crown finished the system of Captaincy and joined Paranagua to Santo Amaro and to São Vicente, establishing the Province of São Paulo that until 1770 kept its border at the Silver River. The Silver Plate Vice Kingdom claimed for the annulment of of the border kept by both nations since 1529. The requirement sent to the Holy See for the ex-communion of the signatories and transgressors of the Tordesilhas Treaty was the way to cease the animosity of the most exalted. According the Madrid Treaty on January 13, 1750, both Iberian crowns accepted the Portuguese border at the Parana River margin. At last, Portugal had accepted the Spanish right over the Philippines. However, the border was not accepted by Spanish governor in Buenos Aires and it was enough to detonate a new conflict in the region. The Spanish invasion obeyed the crowns to sign the Treaty of El Pardo in 1761. The Spanish didn't accept any treaty and Spain declared war against Portugal. The invasions by Cevallos in 1762, Vertis and by Salcedo in 1763, whose advance was detained by major Bandeira and by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. But, the definition only happened by the Saint Ildefonso's Treaty in 1777. Portugal assumed the accomplishment to give the Oriental side of the Parana River to Spain (Uruguay, Entre Rios and Corrientes). The Badajoz Treaty in 1801 ended the war between Spain and Portugal. The border question between Uruguay e Brazil was defined by the Rio de Janeiro's Treaty in 1828, when Uruguay got its independence. 22
  23. 23. The Astro Schooner In the monopolist period, the Ultramarine colonies were not allowed to deal with any country. In this time, the Auditor Rafael Pardinho tried to promote the herb mate from Curitiba in Lisbon. He sent samples of the tea and instructions for use, but it was not accepted by the population. This man was very persistent and asked for authorization to negotiate the herb mate directly in the Silver River, where there was no interest of the Portuguese trading companies. The proposal was very well received by the crown and Curitiba began a timid commerce of herb mate, facing the better prices offered by Asunción. Stone Pattern of The Military Order of Christ. 23
  24. 24. Egberto F. Ribeiro I THE ROOTS P ortugal had begun a repressive campaign to impede the Brazilian Independence. The deaths of Felipe dos Santos in 1720 and Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, the “Tiradentes” in 1792 discouraged the Brazilian politics and assured the Lusitania sovereignty. The production of iron tools and spare parts for industries in Rio de Janeiro, was near to be self sufficient, it was a political signal of danger to Lisbon. In so many provinces of the colony, there were factories of glass, cotton fabrics for sugar bags and jute fiber for coffee bags and wool clothes. By a decree signed by the queen Dona Maria I in 1785, all those industries had been closed, to stop the colony's development. When the queen arrived in Brazil during the escape from Napoleon's invasion in 1807, people nicknamed her as The Mad Queen. During the Continental Blockade by Napoleon against England, Portugal tried to keep political neutrality for do not cause damages on its 24
  25. 25. The Astro Schooner business. A secret plan to escape to Brazil had been created in the century XVI, if there were any invasion on Portugal. London wanted the Portuguese support and persuaded Lisbon to move the court to Brazil. The plan was formalized by an agreement, according the restored England Convoy Act in 1807. The plan was executed by the English fleet of four ships, under the command of the Admiral Sidney Smith, to escort thirty ships with fifteen thousand passengers. While the Lusitania population was facing the General Junot broken troops in Lisbon streets, the Portuguese Administrative structure was arriving to Salvador in Brazil. In Elba, Napoleon declared in his memories that he had been deceived only by Dom John, when he tried to despoil Portugal. The Portuguese Aristocracy on escape to Brazil had large business in Africa, South America and Asia. Some of them were merchants, exporters, importers and ship owners. The fleet arrived to Salvador in Bahia, where was signed on January 8, 1808 the law for the opening of the Brazilian ports to friend nations. Some sugar exporters disembarked to head their business directly from their sugar industries in Pernambuco. The remaining exporters went to Rio de Janeiro where they continued their commerce to Europe, Africa and Asia, as if they were in Lisbon. The colonial Brazilian urbe in Rio de Janeiro was not provided with sumptuous palaces. The popular culture was inept for all that aristocratic refinement. The multitude of aristocrats not well lodged in those ships didn't dispose place for the transportation of their valuable silverware, masterpieces, sculptures and valuable paintings. They arrived in Brazil bringing their fortunes on hands: eighty million of Crusades, or one hundred million Sterling Pounds. The half part of the existing capital in Portugal had been strewn on the warm colony (That amount was enough to buy two hundred million bags of coffee, in today's price it means US$20 billion). That opulence was very considerable to 25
  26. 26. Egberto F. Ribeiro finance the Napoleon's war against England. The secret meetings for the Brazilian Independence ceased instantly, dazzled by the richness scintillating in rough rooms. The foundation of the Bank of Brazil happened four months later. The Portuguese world would offer to these businessmen their colonies to install trade establishments. However, the mercantile society decided to stay in the court, beside the king and to invest in Brazil. Three years after the arrival of the Portuguese court in Brazil, Paraguay got its Independence. The successive offensives by the Argentinean Confederation's troops, under the command of Belgrano, to restore that Spanish Province were inutile. The Buenos Aires answer was to raise a commercial blockade to impede the transportation by the Parana River of all Paraguayan products as: tobacco, cotton, leather and herb mate. To actuate against this boycott, El Supremo (the Paraguayan dictator) decided to eliminate the Spanish exporters’ class and to cease the supplying of cotton for the English industries. These events have given to Curitiba the prestige of exclusive supplier of herb mate for the thirsty consumers from the River Plate and Chile. That was a singular opportunity for the just arrived Portuguese to have good profits in Curitiba’s District. In few years, the exportation of the tea "herb mate" from Curitiba raised to equivalent 25%, compared to all the Chinese exportations of tea. The business headed the investors to inland until the lands of Guarapuava. There were investments to pavement of the Itupava's Way, hydraulic engineering on the Nhundiaquara's river, quay at the Beach Street in Paranagua and at the bay. Two shipyards were built in Paranagua for 300 tons ships and one in Morretes for small ships. The ships coming from Europe and from United States had its hull covered by copper plates, but not all of them. The lazy port operation and the 26
  27. 27. The Astro Schooner loading of cargoes delayed the ships for three months. It was time enough for the ships be attacked by the borer mollusk, as the buzano in all south ports. The Navy examination in ships revealed hundreds of holes with flow of water and the ships were condemned by the authorities. The cargoes had to be moved to another ship and the damaged sailing ships were sold on auction at very low prices. These ships were bought by ship-owners and sent immediately to be restored in shipyards. After the repairs, these ships were used for the transportation of cargoes and passengers between Rio de Janeiro and the port of Rio Grande. The commerce of firewood, lumber, sugar, coffee and rice from south ports to Rio de Janeiro was enlarged to Africa, Asia, Europa and North America. The immediate growing up of the economy in Curitiba's District in the Sao Paulo's Province attracted investors, politician and received the first immigrants from Europe. After the Royal Family’s coming back to Portugal, the succession right of the Bragança Dynasty required the Regent Prince, Dom Pedro I, in Lisbon. To impede the access of any adventurer in the Brazil's power and to keep the loyalty of the military force in Lisbon, Dom Pedro sent the Portuguese army to Portugal and ordered his throne to his daughter. Dom Pedro organized the Brazilian Navy and the Constitution Assembly. After a new warn from Lisbon, the party of the high social class in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo convinced Dom Pedro to stay in Brazil. On September 07, 1822 the Regent Prince was in a trip to São Paulo when received a message from Rio de Janeiro at the Ipiranga River. Dom Pedro took knowledge of the Portuguese measures contrary those said by him. Dom Pedro called all his followers at the river's margin and declared the Independence. That was the beginning of the First Kingdom and the search for international recognition. The first nation to agree with the Brazilian Independence was the United States of America, followed by Mexico, 27
  28. 28. Egberto F. Ribeiro Argentina and France. Portugal would recognize the Independence after the payment of an indemnity of 2 million sterling Pound, to pay for the English navy escort of the Portuguese court to Brazil. The English Freight Money Act had a tax of 2% over the transported value. The escort value was equivalent to four million bags of good coffee. The English recognition would be part of an agreement with Brazil for fifteen years: The supplying of lumber for ships. Land for Shipyards. To reduce the importation fees on English product. To prohibit the slave traffic in ships and to give to England the right to visit on board. The Emperor Dom Pedro vacillated and unfastened the friendship ties with England. A cloud of menace and the applying of force, was floating after the arrival of an English fleet to Rio de Janeiro. Dom Pedro signed on November 23, 1826 the agreement valid for fifteen years, to receive the English recognition for the Independence. On the second kingdom, on March 12, 1845 the Brazilian Emperor was Dom Pedro II, at 19-years-old. He notified England for the expired term of fifteen years for the right of “visit and search” written on that agreement signed by his father. England answered that the Parliament had voted on August 08, 1845 the Act Aberdeen, to impose on traffic ships the visit right, imprisonment and condemnation of its Commander and ship-owners on English Court. The well known expression by the Queen Victory was: “They don't exist!” The enemies ships, cargoes and prisoners arrested were evaluated by a commissary on board of the War Ships. The ships and merchandises were sold by auction in England. The gross money gotten was divided in two parts: 35% for the British Government and 65% for the crew. The money gotten by the crew was divided in eight parts and distributed among the crew of the seizer ship. The fleet Commander received one part; the seizer ship Commander received two parts; to the chief officer, boatswain and surgeon 28
  29. 29. The Astro Schooner was given one part; to the Lieutenants and officers was given one part; to the aspirant and Sergeants was given one part and for the sailors was given the last two parts. Apprehensions of great amount of Spanish galleons were profitable to pay to sailor’s wage of 400 Pounds, or four hundred month wages. The autonomy of the Flag Ship Commander and the motivation for the Royal Navy crew, induced them on Asia in 1849 to destroy 46 Chinese junk, gunned with short range cannons to defend the access to Hanoi at the Tonquim river's mouth. In this same year, another six Portuguese ships had been seized at the African Coast causing large protest in Lisbon. After the Portuguese claims, that squad was moved to Brazil. The incidents done by English cruisers at Brazilian coast were ordered to finish on July, 1850. After that, the squad did some arrests but was withdrawn from the coast. The English production of coffee in Ceylon and sugar in Mauricio’s Island with hands of work by the immigrant cooties didn’t overcome the Brazilian exports of sugar, produced by slave hands. The application of slave hands of work in the production of sugar and coffee in Brazil reduced the exporting prices and discouraged the English colonization in Asia. 29
  30. 30. Egberto F. Ribeiro II THE QUEEN OF SEAS On the spring of 1849 arrived to Brazil the English fleet under the command of the Rear-Admiral Barrington Reynolds. The squad was being moved from Africa for some arbitrariness practiced against Portuguese cargo ships. The flagship was the frigate HMS Southampton, under the command of Captain Cory, gunned with 50 artillery pieces. The fleet had other ships; the steam corvette with screw propeller HMS Sharpshooter, under the command of the Lieutenant John Barley; the steam corvette HMS Rifleman, under the command of the Lieutenant Crofton; the steam corvette HMS Tweed, under the command of Lord Russell; the steam corvette HMS Harpy, under the command of the Lieutenant Dalton; the steam corvette with side wheels paddle, HMS Cormorant, under the command of the Cap Herbert Schomberg. The cruisers had to impede the slave traffic in sailing ships at the Brazilian coast. 30
  31. 31. The Astro Schooner One of the ships was chosen monthly for the mail transportation between Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo and Buenos Aires. Also there were other ships as: HMS Crescent under the command of the Lieutenant Brantley. The HMS Hermes was under the command of the Lieutenant Fish Burnt. All these ships worked to give support for the squad with supply and coal from England. The steam corvettes were gunned with four side cannons cal 64 and two turrets on axis with cannons cal 80. The reference of the caliber means the iron round ball weight in Pounds (0,453kg). The war ships also were the preparatory schools for officers for command training, steam machine engineer, seafaring and to command artillery pieces. The King’s letter boys entered in the new career at twelve and after four years as officer apprentice working as assistant, to be approved in a knowledge examination in England. The officer level began as midshipman and aspirants. In two years, there are the examination in the Admiralty in Southampton to become Lieutenant. At 20-years-old, the Lieutenant could be promoted for ship’s command. The English Mr Hudson was the Entrusted of the British Business and for the Intelligence Service in Rio de Janeiro. He denounced to the rear Admiral Reynolds some Brazilian sailing ships and steamers as being applied to slave’s traffic: Fidalga, Imagem, Sem Nome, NV Paquete de Santos, Astrea, Santa Cruz, Paulina, Serêa, Leônidas, Astro, Rival, Velha de Dio and the Lucy Ann (Dona Ana). The changing of the brig’s name “Sagaz” to “Astro” few days before the English visit to Paranagua. The same reason for the burning of the brig- schooner “Rival" in the shipyard of Cabo Frio. It is obvious that this list was written after the ships seizure by the Cruisers, otherwise, those names would not be known. 31
  32. 32. Egberto F. Ribeiro The seizure in Brazilian sea to get the “Prize Money” caused indignation not only on our people, but also on Lord Hutt in the English Parliament. An author under the pseudonym of “Anglicus” published in English on Jun 29, 1850 in the Jornal do Commercio the verses “Lines Suggested by Recent Events”, in protest against the Royal Navy. 1- The galley “Santa Cruz” The channel between the continent and de São Sebastião Island in the Paulistanian seashore was a maritime route from Santos to Rio de Janeiro. In the morning of January 02, 1850, the galley Santa Cruz was approaching of this channel loaded with 20.000 bundles of firewood to Rio de Janeiro. The command Lieutenant Crofton of the HMS Rifleman laid aboard of the Santa Cruz. After verifying the books and the absence of traffic vestige, he let the sailing ship to continue her trip. In this afternoon, the HMS Cormorant, under the command of the Captain Herbert Schomberg, stopped the galley in front of Ilhabela. The corvette sent two cutters with gunned men to go aboard the ship. The Lieutenant Luckraft stayed on foot on the forecastle waiting for his men to take forward the ship for him to follow them out of harm's way. “All on board!” The sailors with white canvas uniform, large shirt-collar to the back, straw hat with ribbons and gunned with muskets and swords approach to the ship. They went on board by her main stay tackles. The menaces with swords scared the passengers and crew taking them to the deck. The Lieutenant Luckraft walked up on the hatches cover and ordered his men to seek for any slave traffic vestige and asked for the ship’s Commander. 32
  33. 33. The Astro Schooner “I want all the crew and passengers on deck, now!” “Let's open the hatches to verify the cargo!” Another sailor answers. “The hatchway is sealed, sir!” The sailor tells the officer. “Don’t mind! To break the seals” The Lieutenant orders. “There are too many truss-frames, baking pan and rings, sir!” “The ship is loaded with firewood, sir!” “There are too many water barrels, sir!” “This is a traffic ship!” The Lieutenant Luckraft sentences. “It is an abuse!” The boatswain claims against that. “We are taking 20.000 bundles of firewood to Rio de Janeiro as we do for years. This is the manifest cargo with the Customs stamp. The Stones and bags with sand are for the ballast, as every ship does it.” The Commander protested to the Lieutenant. “This paper doesn’t have any value. This ship is too old to be sent to England. We have order to plunder her. To disembark the crew and passengers and to set on fire.” The Lieutenant Luckraft orders. “Sir! There are too many passengers; including women and children on board.” “Let them get downstairs to the cutters and let them to disembark at the beach.” At the nightfall the cutters were sent to the beach with the crew and passengers. The scared children were watching to the lightened sea by the burning vessel in front of Ilhabela. The expression of frighten on the sailors’ face, the children's indignation eyes and the women in despair, reproduced the large shadow of menace on the Brazilian merchant fleet. 33
  34. 34. Egberto F. Ribeiro 2- The passenger steam ship “São Sebastião” The steamer São Sebastião was sailing at 19 PM on January 23, 1850 near the Ilhas dos Patos. The ship was taking several military and civilian passengers from the North ports to Rio de Janeiro; among them was the Deputy João José Moura de Magalhães and the English John L. Hook, as the Brazilian consul to Serra Leoa. On a warm summer day, the passengers had taken a sit bellow a white awning in the forecastle. Some of them were walking and talking on the deck. The groups at the main rail were seeing a battle ship approaching of them. The boatswain notices the 1st Lieutenant Torrezão, Commander of the steamer, about the troublemaker approaching. “Commander Torrezão! There is an English battleship on course to cut our tack.” “I hope the military on board don’t retort any aggression, if any English troop come on board.” “Do we have to ask for the passengers to be in their cabins?” “I don’t think so! It will put the ladies in panic.” While the ship’s Commander was giving order to the crew, the battle ship HMS Rifleman made a shot to stop the steamer. The round shot raised a water column in front of the steam ship São Sebastião. “To stop the machines!” The pilot orders the tiller man. The passengers at the main rail saw the shot on the water and ran to the cabins corridor. “Gentlemen! Let's go to my cabin, there you'll be in safe.” Two cutters with sailors from the HMS Rifleman were approaching to go on board of the steamer. The hard and exigent English sailors kept the passengers on deck while another group was ordered to overhaul the ship. 34
  35. 35. The Astro Schooner Two Lieutenants jump on board by the main rail asking for the Commander. The exasperated passengers called up for the Commander Torrezão. “Commander Torrezão! It is an insult to the Brazilian sovereignty.” The Deputy João José de Moura Magalhães of the General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro was furious with that incident. “Mr Deputy and gentlemen. I have all yours papers and also of the slave registers.” Says the Commander trying to calm down all the passengers. “Hold down, Mr Deputy Magalhães. I will talk to the English officers.” The English John L. Hook knows how to stop the sailors. “Mr John Hook! You are consul and you must consider that in first we have to wait for their decisions.” The Commander tries to persuade the Brazilian consul to Serra Leoa. “Torrezão! Why do you have gunned men on board?” The Deputy refers to some officers and soldiers on board that are returning from a campaign in the north to enter in action. “Mr. Deputy, the military troop on board is being transported as passengers. In this trip we are taking some officers and recruits from the North to Rio de Janeiro.” “I’ll do a protest speech in the General Assembly. It is as the Deputy Henriques de Rezende says: A friend not to be worth and a knife that does no cut; whether get the losing of it; the least you mind. The same was said by the Marquis of Pombal to Lord Clinton: we can live better without you than you can live without us.” The Lieutenant Crofton was followed by two sailors when entered in the Commander‘s cabin. Torrezão had come together all those illustrious passengers in his cabin. “Who’s the ship’s Commander and where are the maritime documents?” The English officer asks them. 35
  36. 36. Egberto F. Ribeiro “I am the Commander and these are the documents.” The Commander Torrezão answers and showed the cargoes manifests. “This ship does not have the Lloyd’s Register certification”. “It is according the Brazilian law, this ship is registered by the Companhia Ybérica de Seguros.” “The England Government only recognizes the Lloyd’s Register.” “Lieutenant! The English crown does not have any power in Brazilian waters.” The Deputy answers looking into his face. “I am English citizen and Brazilian consul to Serra Leoa. The Royal Navy is committing a serious mistake putting you as officer. I’ll make an official protest letter to the English Embassy in Rio de Janeiro against your arbitrary procedure.” The consul answered hardly to the officer. “We are in the accomplishment of the rear admiral Barrington Reynolds orders.” “I am sure that his orders are in reference against criminals on international waters, not against citizens and Brazilian officers in their own territory. Commander Torrezão! Would you please to follow these men to their cutters!” “Thank you Commander! We don’t need your kind help.” The Lieutenant does a signal with his hand to his sailors and raises his hat to take leave and walks backward to the door leaving the cabin. The English Commander left the steam ship São Sebastião and went on board to his cutter, while the steamer took her trip to Rio de Janeiro. 36
  37. 37. The Astro Schooner 3- The Passengers' Steam Ship “Paquete de Santos” The Lieutenant Crofton was the Commander of the HMS Rifleman. On February, 10 1850, the English corvette was anchored in front of the Palmas Island in Santos. The steam ship “Paquete de Santos” was sailing to Rio de Janeiro when was ordered by Crofton to stop. The Commander of the passenger steamer ordered to stop the machines. The English Commander ordered to lay down on sea two manned cutters to follow him to aboard the passenger vessel. The sailors row their cutters to approach the steamer main stay to go on board. “All on board!” Crofton orders while the cutters are tied alongside the ship. After the gunned men had come on board, the Lieutenant Crofton followed them and asked for the ship’s Commander to see the ship's register. The Commander gave him the registers from Brazilian Navy, but instead of to read the documents shown, the Lieutenant Crofton declared the ship as applied in slave traffic. The Lieutenant ordered the crew and passengers to leave the ship on cutters. In few minutes, men and women with their children were moved to the cutters and disembarked at the Goes’ beach. The steam ship for passengers “Paquete de Santos” was manned with English sailors and sent to come under hammer in England. 4- The brig-schooner “Polka” In the working afternoon of May, 15 1850, the brig-schooner “Polka” of 106 tons was docked at the Macae’s quay on a general cargo loading. Two cutters from the HMS Cormorant were approaching to a visit on board. “Let’s go on board!” The Lieutenant Luckraft orders his men. 37
  38. 38. Egberto F. Ribeiro “Sir! This brig-schooner seems to be in normal loading operation.” “Tie the cutters at her main stay and climb on the main rail.” The sailors come on board followed by the Lieutenant Luckraft. “Who is the Commander?” The English officer asks for. “It’s me! My name is Antonio, I'm the Master.” The master answered. “According the Brazilian and English agreement, I want to see the ship's papers.” “Let’s go to my cabin, please!” The master invites him. “Three men to follow me! The Lieutenant asks for his men. “These are the ships’ certification and the cargoes manifest and the Passenger’s Registers Book and the crew roll.” “The Certification is not from the Lloyd‘s Register.” “This ship is under the Companhia Ybérica de Seguros protection.” The Commander answers showing some papers. “Sir! Some gunned dwellers are coming.” A sailor comes at the door and notices the Lieutenant. The sailor advices him as he had seen some citizens on the ship’s way. The people were near the quay with muskets in hands walking resolutely to the ship Polka. “Have a good afternoon, Mr Commander. We are going back to the HMS Cormorant.” The sailors row their cutters and leave the ship moored at the quay, while the loading goes on. The time of work had finished in the sun set and the workers left the ship. The night was silent on the first hour of May, 16 1850. Two cutters from the HMS Cormorant approached the moored brig Polka. The Lieutenant Luckraft stands up at the cutter’s forecastle and orders the sailors to be quiet. The silvered new moon rays outline the mountains and reflect on the small 38
  39. 39. The Astro Schooner waves the silhouette of two cutters in assault. The sailors approach in silence to aboard the ship by the main stay. The sailors invade the ship and find in a cabin three black men sleeping. The Lieutenant lights a match and finds a candle in the cabin. The men were awakened to answer some questions. “Are you slaves?” “We are sailors registered in this ship's crew” “Where are the other sailors and the Commander?” The Lieutenant Luckraft asks for the ship's officers. “They are sleeping in their houses.” A scared sailor answers. “You must to abandon the ship.” The officer orders them. “No! We can't leave the ship!” They answer in one voice. “Take these three men out of the ship!” Luckraft orders his men to cast out the sailors from the ship. The English kick the Brazilian sailors that run out the ship to warn their Commander. “Take off all the hawsers and springs! Bring the ship’s tow-rope to the cutters and let’s tow her to open sea.” Luckraft orders them. The cutters are towing the ship while the sailors are tolling the warning bell to notice the people about the ship. The warning bell sounds in the night and soon the Commander arrives running on the quay, while buttons his coat. The Commander Antonio Claudio Pereira was very sorry when he saw his ship being taken away. The furious man was brandishing in the air his clenched fist, while the people with muskets arrived to face the English sailors. “England has lost its dignity. Now, they are no more than a feebly thieves gang!” The Commander shakes negatively his head. 39
  40. 40. Egberto F. Ribeiro 5- The Confrontation in Pereque's Beach On May 16th, 1850, the quick weather change is a nature advice to fishers telling them the mullet’s shoals are arriving. The region of Pereque in Santos is a pleasant place with a beach closed by mountains. Some groups of fishers with their nets of two fathoms high by one hundred fathoms long run to the beach. They wait for the arrival of mullets shoal at the Pereque beach. While the fishers wait for the signs by a person in charge to spy the shoals arrival, they talk and drink cachassa to warm their body against the wind and drizzly rain in the veranda of a house. One spy on the high of a rock at the seashore looks to the waves. Without his known cry, the man runs to notice his fellows. “Leonil! Leonil! A cutter with a lot of English sailors has arrived on our beach.” “They are the thieves that stole the steamer Paquete de Santos. Let’s leave the fishing nets aside and call everyone who has guns at home. We’ll cast out these pirates invaders.” The sailors were the crew of the English cutter, under the command of the midshipman James Kingston Ryan. They had been sent by Lieutenant Crofton, Commander of the HMS Rifleman, to seize any Brazilian cargo ship coming from Santos. The midshipman didn’t know that the warm wind in the morning would change to bad weather by the afternoon. All the fishers at the coast know how to interpret these natural signals. The warm wind in the morning and the agitated movement of clouds and thin rain at afternoon warn the peoples at the beaches and in downtown that it is time for the arrival of mullets shoals. The rain started falling when the English cutter was near the sailing boats route. The midshipman Kingston decided to go ashore, taking 40
  41. 41. The Astro Schooner advantage of the south wind. On the beach, they gathered at a bonfire to dry the wet clothes, to cook some food and to wait for the weather changing. There were near forty fishermen with guns approaching in silence through the trees. Each one had prepared its musket with buttered paper filled with powder and bullet. They would have to do a heavy attack as the sordid apprehension of the steamer Paquete de Santos. “Let’s approach in silence at shot reach.” Leonil orders. “We are going to reply the insult.” A fisherman says while walks slowly with his musket ready to shoot. “We are ready to shoot!” The fishermen answer. “Attention, fire!” Leonil commands the first discharge. The order to break out the shooting was given, but the sailors under a rain of bullets run seeking for shelter behind the cutter. The muskets gun fire on the ten sailors was followed by cries of pain and the order to cease fire was given by Leonil. A sailor with a shot on his head lies dead on the sand and another with a bullet shot on his shoulder is helped by his fellows. The midshipman Ryan asks for the cease fire to help his men. “Sir! Joseph Veneer is dead and Albert is injured.” “Let’s wave the hats to call for a cease fire.” The sailors take the dead man and the wounded one to go on board of the HMS Rifleman. The dead man and the wounded were taken on board of the HMS Rifleman. The Commander Crofton denounced to the English consul in Santos the attack suffered at Pereque beach. The Lieutenant asked for a severe punishment for the fishermen. Leonil and forty fishers were imprisoned, but in few days they were put in freedom. Only Leonil was kept in the fortress prison, but the Santos’ citizens had recognized his heroic action against the English Navy. Everyone wanted his freedom, even his enemies. 41
  42. 42. Egberto F. Ribeiro 6- The brig-schooner “Malteza” On July 18, 1850, at ten o'clock in the morning, the Brazilian brig- schooner Malteza was stopped by the HMS Sharpshooter. That war ship was under the command on the Lieutenant John Barley, nearby the Cabo Frio fortress. Two cutters approached the schooner to stop her and to go on board. “Go aboard!” The sailors gathered the passengers and crew on the deck while the ship’s installations were being verified. The Commander Barley asked the ship’s documents to the master and declared the apprehension. “This ship is being arrested by the British crown.” The Lieutenant sentences the ship destiny. “This ship isn’t transporting any slave, only general cargo and passengers.” The Commander tries to defend his property. “All the crew and passengers must go to the cutters and moved to the Sharpshooter.” The scared passengers and crew were moved to the war ship. The fortress had done two shots on the waves, but the vessel withdraws towing the schooner. On the next two days, the English sailors moved all the cargoes, sails, rudder, tiller, instruments and the anchor from the cargo ship to the HMS Sharpshooter. At down of June 20, 1850, the crew and passengers on board the war ship saw the Malteza be sunk at sight of the fortress. 42
  43. 43. The Astro Schooner 7- The brig-schooner “Conceição” In the break of the day June 20, 1850, the brig-schooner Conceição was sailing at nine miles from Cabo Frio. The HMS Sharpshooter ordered the Commander of the schooner to lower sails. The English crew came on board and gathered the Brazilians passengers and crew on the deck while his sailors were breaking the holds lockers with the Customs seal. “Who is the Commander?” “I am the Master José Netto!” “This ship has too many water barrels.” “It is salty water for ballast as all commanders do.” “All the crew and passengers must go to the cutters to be moved to the Sharpshooter to join the crew and passengers of the brig-schooner Malteza. You all will be sent to an open trial in England.” “We are in Brazilian waters doing the transportation of goods and passengers as we do for more than twenty years. This ship is not being applied in any slave traffic.” “We’ll be at anchor near the Itaipu Island while the schooner is being prepared to set sail to England. I’ll go to Rio de Janeiro to take orders from the rear admiral Reynolds.” The passengers and the crew were sent by the cutters to the war ship. The Lieutenant went to the flag ship HMS Southampton in his cutter and came back at night. He received orders from the Rear-Admiral Reynolds to send the ship to England and to disembark the Brazilians from the two arrested ships. The anguish was on the passengers’ face when they saw the schooner Conceição set sail to England with all their belongings. At 10 AM of Jun 22, all the passengers and crews were put off at the Santa Luzia’s beach. 43
  44. 44. Egberto F. Ribeiro 8- The brig-schooner “Rival” On June 26, 1850, the HMS Cormorant kept its paddles on and all her gunnery turned to the fortress in front of Cabo Frio. The Lieutenant Luckraft approached at the fortress with three cutters. The Lieutenant disembarked at the beach and gave a copy of the English Treaty to the Sergeant. “Sergeant, this is a copy of the treaty between Brazil and England. We are getting in the channel to verify any presence of traffic ships. The HMS Cormorant will be waiting for us at the entrance of the river.” The Lieutenant asked permission to enter. “Well! As there are no traffic ships inside the channel, you are allowed to cross to the river.” The three cutters entered the river and soon they saw a brig- schooner with two masts and right set of sails at anchor in front of a shipyard in her building final stage. The schooner “Rival” belonged to the ship’s owner Francisco Gonçalves Lages. Too many carpenters and crew were working on deck. The English cutters rowed directly to the schooner. “Look at the brig-schooner! She has near one hundred feet long!” An English commented. “Let’s approach to go on board.” The Lieutenant said. On the ship’s deck, the carpenters noticed the English sailors approaching to the main rail. The workers didn't allow the English sailors to go on board. They all cried to the English to keep away from the schooner. “I won’t allow you on board! There is nothing to be seen by a cruiser when a ship is being built.” The boatswain told to his carpenters. “They are near fifty gunned man.” A fearful carpenter warned him. “Give me an iron ballast ingot.” The master asked. 44
  45. 45. The Astro Schooner “They are climbing on board by the main stay, sir.” “Here is the ballast ingot, sir.” “The English are imposing a climate of terror in our territorial sea. Let’s see if his cutter bears this iron bar.” The boatswain dropped the ingot on the cutter with several sailors. “You did a perfect shot on the cutter, sir.” “The cutter won’t sink because she has floating tanks in the castles.” The boatswain said as they saw the river water to invade the cutter. “They are coming on board with sword and gun shots.” “Do we have to abandon the ship, sir?” “Why does the Commander of that fortress doesn't do anything?” “They are casting out from the ship all the crew and carpenters under sword stabs.” “Help me to move this trunk to my cutter.” The boatswain asked. “To abandon the ship!” The boatswain ordered to leave the ship before anybody were wounded. While the boatswain was giving orders to his men, he didn’t notice an English officer coming on board by the main rail. Luckraft jumped on deck and walked slowly with two flintlock pistols at full cock in his hands. “Halt! You have damaged my cutter.” The Lieutenant Luckraft approached at thirty feet from the stupefied boatswain. The officer shot on the man's face that cried and dropped on the deck. “The boatswain was shot!” A sailor noticed, while the crew and some carpenters dived in the river and swam to the shipyard. The crew on board saw the boatswain be cowardly wounded and they walked down to the boats that approached to take them. “Ask for the doctor to help the boatswain.” Cried a sailor for a boater. “Is he well?” the boater asked. 45
  46. 46. Egberto F. Ribeiro “I don’t know! He was shot on his face.” After some time, the Customs boat approached to the Rival taking the doctor. “Keep clear from this ship!” The Lieutenant Luckraft warned the Customs boat's crew, while ordered his men to put in safe his broken cutter. “I am doctor and there is a man wounded on board.” “Only the doctor is allowed to come on board, the rest of you must wait in your boat.” Luckraft warned the rowers in the boat. The doctor approached to the boatswain and applied a bandaging on his face to stop the hemorrhage. The Lieutenant Luckraft took off the Brazilian flag from the stern ward mast and threw away on the deck to change by the English flag. “This man has to be sent to the hospital.” The doctor said. “Take him out from this ship!” The Lieutenant answered. “You should have to respect the Brazilian flag.” The Doctor said. “This flag worths nothing!” The Lieutenant said with disregard. To challenge the Brazilian, the Lieutenant drew his sword and cut the Brazilian flag in strips that fell on the deck, while the doctor was taking the boatswain out of the ship. The Customs boat withdrew to the shipyard, while the Rival was being towed to the HMS Cormorant. “Let's tow the ship by the other side of the river.” Luckraft says. “Lieutenant! Out of the channel is too shallow.” “Hurry up! The dwellers are arriving with muskets on hands. We must be out of their shots reach.” “We are grounding.” A sailor advised him while the ship headed to Northeast and grounded. “If we can’t tow her out to sea, let’s take some fuel.” The gunned dwellers approach behind the stones choosing a better 46
  47. 47. The Astro Schooner place to begin shooting. “Have a look at the cutter.” A man in a boat said. “They are leaving the Rival. A carpenter said from another boat, thinking the English wanted to leave behind the ship.” “They have left some men on board to keep in safe the broken cutter.” A sailor reconsidered the English departure. “Sir! The dwellers are gathering behind the rocks.” “They'll do nothing while the ship will be here. But very soon, they'll have bad news.” The Lieutenant answers to them. The cutter approached the HMS Cormorant and some sailors quickly walked on the stairs and came back with some buckets in theirs hands. They rowed back the cutter to the Rival where Luckraft was waiting for them. “Let’s spill kerosene over the deck! I’ll put on fire on the ship with the Brazilian flag strips.” The Lieutenant Luckraft approached his gun on a flag strip soaked with kerosene and did a shot. The fire spread over all the deck, on the ropes and sails. The cutters withdrew from the schooner Rival bursting into flames aside the channel. The exasperated population began to shot against the English sailors. The fortress Commander was without action to face the ship’s power of fire and did nothing. “Lower your bodies and answer the fire, if you want to go back alive.” Luckraft warned them. The Commander Schomberg received the Lieutenant and his men. He noticed the commissary Mr Robins to receive the report from Luckraft to evaluate the schooner Rival for the Prize Money. “Yes, Commander! I'll give a good value for this ship.” “Mr Sullivan, take the southwest course to Rio and Paranagua!” 47
  48. 48. Egberto F. Ribeiro 9- The Brig-Schooner “Velha de Dio” On July 04, the brig-schooner Velha de Dio left the port of Rio de Janeiro to Campos. That was a 102 tons ship under the command of the Master Francisco José Pimenta. The schooner was stopped by the corvette HMS Tweed, under the command of Lord Russell. The schooner crew and passengers were sent to the war ship. The cargo and instruments, tiller and anchor from the schooner were also removed to the corvette. After all the cargo had been taken, the ship was sunk on July 07, 1850. 10- The Passenger Steamer “Carioca” The dwellers in Angra dos Reis opened fire against the English sailors when they were coming at the quay to seize the steamer "Carioca". The 104tons ship belonged to the Company Ubatubense and was applied in the transportation of passengers. The boatswain of a ship in cargo loading at the quay called for the police help. “Officer, Officer! Three English cutters are near the port and the Master Mr José Narciso de Almeida has only 16 men. He will need our help.” “Let’s ring the alarm Bell to call gunned dwellers.” The English sailors in the cutters heard the bell's sound and some shots. They knew what had happened in Pereque and didn't want to suffer the same aggression. “Sir, the dwellers are shooting with muskets.” “Let’s go backward!” The Lieutenant ordered them to go back. “Cease-fire! The English cutters are going back to their ship”. The police officer gives orders to his men. “They know what the Brazilians are going to do.” 48
  49. 49. The Astro Schooner The police officer is the authority in several cities where there is no National Guard Quarter. For more than 300 years, the dwellers were organized in militias to defend the land against any invasion. 11- Undesirable People The English treachery action in Cabo Frio broke the good relationship with the Brazilian people. A climate of hostility took place in Rio de Janeiro. In the boat station of São Domingos at 6 PM on July 07, 1850, three English sailors were waiting the Niteroi boat , to the court and people began a physical aggression against them. “English thieves!” “Let’s teach them for do not steal ships.” “Let’s hit them with firewood piece!” “Take this thieve!” A man hits one of the sailors and soon all of them are being hit. “Are you all crazy? This matter won’t be resolved with aggressions.” A merchant from Niteroi faces the population to protect the sailors. “Mr Brito! You know that beating is the only one language the English understand.” “So, let’s hit them.”Cries a young man while another angry man with a wooden baton hits on the sailor's head that falls down on the soil and from the wound some blood drops on the ground. “You must to wait for the General Assembly decision”. “Mr Brito! We have to teach these thieves what their fathers didn’t have taught them”. “You don’t have to aggrieve the legal proceedings in Rio de Janeiro. Go back home!” 49
  50. 50. Egberto F. Ribeiro “Mr Brito, this casualty will happen in tragedy.” “Let them to go in peace, please. Go back home!” Mr Brito says taking the sailor by his arm to help him to stand up. “Thank you, sir!” The English sailors thank him by the help and under Mr Brito’s protection they wait for the barge in the quay. In this same time in front of the Hotel Le Pharoux in Rio de Janeiro, three English officers were leaving the Hotel. They suffered a sudden aggression by transients. The Police arrived in a hurry and finished the fighting. In the Public Square at the quay, a sailor was insulted by person that approach to him with pieces o firewood in their hands. “You all take care of your goods! There is an English thieve in the vicinity!” “This one has plundered the Queen a lot and now he steals our ships.” “You are a lucky man for do not be in Arabia. Otherwise, the Muslims would have cut off your hand.” The sailor was being knocked down by hands and firewood’s hit till he fell down. The man understood he was being hit because he could be an English sailor, so, he noticed them he was not English. “Eh! I’m not English, I’m German!” The man explains with strong Germany ascent. “What did he say?” “Don’t hit this man anymore!” “I am German!” The aggressors were very ashamed and helped the sailor to stand up. The man got a scarf to clean his blood on his mouth. “Would you please, excuse us, but you have a Briton face.” 50
  51. 51. The Astro Schooner “We hope you may understand the reasons why we are against the English sailors.” “On your place every one will do the same, perhaps the worst!” 51
  52. 52. Egberto F. Ribeiro III THE SAGAZ DEPARTURE The afternoon of June 06, 1850 was an usual busy day. There were several ships on the anchorage in the Guanabara’s Bay. The brig-schooner Sagaz was in front of the Largo do Paço (Broad Square) waiting for the Customs dispatch and the last maritime Agent's instructions. The Schooner “Sagaz” was 175 tons DWT, two masts and right set of sails. She was on time to depart southwards. The boatswain was busy giving tasks for the sailors. The seamen run on the deck to climb on the high masts and to prepare the sails in the right set masts to leave the port. The quay at the Largo do Paço had several small boats doing the transshipment of goods to the sailing boats on the anchorage in operation to load and unload. Too many men were carrying bags on their heads, small boxes and roll barrels. Near the square, alongside the beach, was the Fish 52
  53. 53. The Astro Schooner Market where the men were taking victuals for sell. A known black young boy walked singing to announce his coconut cakes on a tray. “Coconut cakes, vicinity!” “It’s made of coconut-of-Bahia.” Two black men were bringing some soap boxes on two wheels carts and laid the boxes at the quay’s border in front of a man writing with a pencil on a notebook with hard cover. “Look! It's the coconuts' Nhonho.” “Do you have a coin of ten?” Asks a man who carried the cart. “No!” Answered the other worker while was piling up some boxes with soap on the quay. “Do you want coconut cakes?” The man with the notebook asked looking serious to them. “Yes, sir!” “Nhonho! How much does it cost?” The man asked. “It's ten réis each one!” “Give two cakes for both of them, please.” The man took from his pocket two coins and gave to the boy that uncovers the tray and offers the cakes to the workmen. The small gang thanked the man with white shirt and blue necktie, that continued checking a cargo list. The slaves discharged the cargo and went back to a warehouse alongside the Hotel Pharoux. They were taking a full lot of a hundred boxes to the city of Campos to be loaded in another ship. The man worked to the Customs as foreman and had the responsibility to count and verify the cargoes weight moved by the gang. The slaves belonged to some owners and were required daily by the agents of merchant ships. The paying to their owners was by a tax established by the Customs and paid by the exporters. 53
  54. 54. Egberto F. Ribeiro A fast trotting of horses stopped the loud voices and folk songs, taking the people's attention to keep clear. A two horse-drawn carriage with bent awning approached speedily to the quay at the Largo do Paço. A passenger wearing white suit looked the ships on the anchorage, he was seeking for the “Sagaz”. As they approached to the quay, the man hit on the side of the carriage with a walking stick, signalizing to stop. He could to identify the ship's name, painted with white letters on a black wooden board with brown frame. “That one is the Sagaz! The schooner which is leaving today to Rio Grande.” The man with heavy Lusitania accent talked to the passengers in the carriage. He spook them pointing to a schooner at anchor amid a cluster of ships in the anchorage near the Ilha das Cobras (Snacks Island). The carriage stopped in front of the Pyramid Fountain and three men get off and contemplated the beautiful and varnished schooner. The man with a white suit coat was the maritime agent. He was taking a leather briefcase and had a walking stick that shook in the air to call for a boatman. Another young man had a white dust-coat and brought a leather valise. The third man dressed a gray suit coat and also brought a leather valise. A rowboat approached to the stairs to take them to the Sagaz. They walked down the stone stairs to go aboard. After two hundred yards, the rowboat arrived to the schooner. The three men were received by her Commander on the top of the gangway. “Good afternoon, Mr Souza!” “Good afternoon, Mr Franco! I want to introduce you Dr Mendes. This is Mr Samuel, the Customs Guard-major that has come to verify the hatch seals before the departure.” The agent spoke while shook hands with Franco. “Nice to meet you. You are welcome on board!” The Commander received them with wide smile. 54
  55. 55. The Astro Schooner “The doctor has come to see how healthy the passengers and the crew are.” The agent told him. “Of course! You are allowed to see all of them.” “Thank you, Mr Commander!” The doctor said. “Mr Samuel, the cargo has been fastened and all the hatch covers have been sealed by another Guard-major.” The Commander explained. “This is our usual last verification.” The Guard-major said. “Please, Commander! Ask for the passengers and crew to come on the deck, I need to see them.” The doctor asked for help. “Boatswain! Call for the passengers and crew on deck.” “Yes, sir!” “The city of Rio de Janeiro is seriously infected by this fever and there are no medicines to cure the people. The general use of mercury to wash the throat and massages don't grow better the health of people under cure.” The doctor commented. “People talk about the French war ship that left Rio de Janeiro and was in quarantine in Uruguay. The newspaper say that five men died and other forty suffered with that fever, isn't it?” Franco said. “Yes! It happened to the French crew in the steamer warship “Gassendi”. I’ve read in the newspaper from Montevideo about tenths of deaths in another warship from USA, from France and also from England.” Mr Souza answered him. “It is very grievous to happen for any crew in ships. The fever in Rio de Janeiro is being very cruel. Every one just now weeps over the lost of the young prince D Pedro Afonso. The princess Dona Isabel also was contaminated by the fever. Fortunately, the princess has survived.” The doctor noticed them. 55
  56. 56. Egberto F. Ribeiro “The infant D Pedro was always happy and beloved by everyone. His death was a great loss.” The agent commented. “Excuse me sir, but the passengers are arriving.” The doctor said. The passengers sat down on some chairs put on the deck. A blond curly-haired young woman followed by a young servant, took the Commander Franco attention. They look at each other and Franco smiled and raised his hat to salute her. “I have the manifest cargoes and the authorization for the “Sagaz” to leave the port, Mr Commander.” “Please, Mr Souza, let’s go to my cabin.” The Commander moved his arms to the cabin’s door. In a last glimpse to the passengers, Franco noticed the young woman looking to him, but she deviated her eyes to look on the island. The shipping-agent got into the cabin and put his hat and his walking stick on a hat rack attached at the wall. He opened his briefcase and took some papers to give to the Commander that was taking his seat behind the table. “Please, be seated Mr Souza!” The Commander said. “Thank you! Commander Franco. Here are the registers of the passengers, the servants, Maritime Police permission and manifests. The manifests are clean and with the Customs stamp. The Insurance certificates are from the Companhia Ybérica. Only the goods are under insurance, because its price is lower than those by the Lloyd’s Register. However, for economy reason, the ship is without insurance. We all know the rivalry between these insurance companies. England has difficult with the Companhia Ybérica de Seguros and by the way, in few years nobody will hear about the Lloyd’s Register in Brazil.” 56
  57. 57. The Astro Schooner “There is no reason for a shipping company to pay the expensive insurance of the Lloyd's, while there is the Ybérica offering insurance policy at lower price. Anyway, this ship only does navigation along the coast and we all know very well the bays, channels, stones and ports. Mr Le Blon has been here by the morning to verify the goods.” Franco told him. “He is the inspector for Buxarco & Romaguera that is the broker of the Ybérica. Does Mr Coelho have noticed you for a port call in Santos to buy coffee for our customer from Rio Grande?” “Yes! He brought to me in this morning the money for the payment of one hundred bags of coffee and to pay the taxes in Santos. I will buy five hundred bundles with packages of herb mate and two hundred bags of rice in Paranagua. If there were not too many taxes, the owners’ profits with the selling of jerked beef and leather would be higher.” “The Empire tax of 12% is too high and several dealers in Rio de Janeiro have claimed against the privilege of 8% given to England. Any way, if there were any lumber seller interested in the transportation to Rio Grande, place it at the backward low hold.” “Mr Coelho has told me about new seizure of cargoes ships done by some English war cruisers, isn't it?” The Commander Franco asked. “Really! The situation is dangerous after the arrival of this English squad that was in Africa. Now the Brazilian ships in our coast do not have peace. The passengers are thrown on the beaches and the ship's owners are not in safe. I ask God to protect you, for do not happen anything bad in your trip.” “Thank you, Mr Souza!” Franco thanked his agent. “Did you do the sailors registration in the Port Captaincy?” “Yes! We all have been registered in the Port Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro. Mr Coelho has registered all the ship’s documents and the shipyard. 57
  58. 58. Egberto F. Ribeiro Everything is according the law.” “The Commander Nascimento has arrived to Rio on May, 10 with the yacht “Estrela Brilhante”. He will leave tomorrow to Paranagua with Commander Gio Batta Rossi and the Commander Severiano. They will surpass you near Santos. If there were any trouble, take their help.” “The Commander Nascimento has been here yesterday and we talked about what to do if there were any seizure. Any way, if everything will be all right, in two weeks we’ll be together in Paranagua.” “Excuse me sir! I’ve just seen all the passengers and crew.” The doctor and the Guard-major came in the cabin. “How do they are, doctor?” Franco asked him. “They are fine! All of them are very well and the ship is allowed to depart. If somebody will show high fever, withdraw him in a cabin.” “Mr Commander, please take this letter of congratulation for the President of the Town Council in Paranagua.” “It will be given.” “I am expressing my feelings for do not attend this honorable invitation for the solemnity to the entrance into office of the councilors. But, I declare my solidarity to the new Province. Have you all a nice trip!” The shipping-agent apologized and gave the envelope to the Commander. He stood up and took his hat and his walking stick on the hat rack and left the cabin, followed by the doctor and by the Guard-major. On the deck, the men waved to the Commander and walked down to the rowboat. “Have a good trip, Commander!” Mr Souza waived with his walking stick while walked down the gangway. “Thank you, sir!” Franco waived with his hat. The three men walked downstairs to the boat that was waiting for them and went to the Paço's quay. The rowboat was moored at the stone stair 58

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