Public Communication Chapter Nine
Characteristics of Public Communication <ul><li>Formal, preplanned messages </li></ul><ul><li>Large audience, often unknow...
Functions of Rhetoric <ul><li>Discovering facts </li></ul><ul><li>Testing ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Advocating positions </l...
Evaluating Public Messages <ul><li>Take context into account </li></ul><ul><li>Consider relationship between speaker and a...
Evaluating Contextual Factors <ul><li>Judge how message fits: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical setting, medium and occasion </li...
Structures in Mind of Audience Members <ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core </...
Kelman: Three Kinds of Attitude Change <ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Complian...
Kinds of Change (Internalization) <ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience accepts argument </li></ul></ul><...
Kinds of Change (Identification) <ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience feels a personal relationship with ...
Kinds of Change (Compliance) <ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience feels they will gain or lose something by a...
Using Toulmin Model to Evaluate Public Messages <ul><li>Claim – speaker’s proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifier – certainty...
Types of Arguments <ul><li>Authoritative argument </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational argument </li></ul><ul><li>Substantive ar...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Love and belongingness </li><...
Fallacies <ul><li>Ad hominem </li></ul><ul><li>Slippery slope </li></ul><ul><li>False dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>Straw man ...
Fallacies (cont) <ul><li>Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Plain folks </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwagon </li></ul><ul><li>Ad populum <...
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Ch 1. 9

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Ch 1. 9

  1. 1. Public Communication Chapter Nine
  2. 2. Characteristics of Public Communication <ul><li>Formal, preplanned messages </li></ul><ul><li>Large audience, often unknown to speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Sender speaks for a relatively long time </li></ul><ul><li>Sender is separated physically from audience </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on community issues </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of Rhetoric <ul><li>Discovering facts </li></ul><ul><li>Testing ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Advocating positions </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Building community </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing power </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evaluating Public Messages <ul><li>Take context into account </li></ul><ul><li>Consider relationship between speaker and audience </li></ul><ul><li>Judge message appeals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Evaluating Contextual Factors <ul><li>Judge how message fits: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical setting, medium and occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Historical context (argumentational history) </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetorical situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exigence, audience, constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitting response </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Structures in Mind of Audience Members <ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral component </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kelman: Three Kinds of Attitude Change <ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul>
  8. 8. Kinds of Change (Internalization) <ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience accepts argument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on speaker credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker exhibits expertness and trustworthiness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Kinds of Change (Identification) <ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience feels a personal relationship with speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on speaker attractiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker exhibits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>familiarity, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>similarity, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical attractiveness, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>liking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Kinds of Change (Compliance) <ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience feels they will gain or lose something by agreeing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on speaker power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker exhibits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control of rewards, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to act coercively </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Using Toulmin Model to Evaluate Public Messages <ul><li>Claim – speaker’s proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifier – certainty of the claim </li></ul><ul><li>Data – evidence for the claim </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant – reasoning that connects data and claim </li></ul><ul><li>Backing – evidence in support of warrant </li></ul><ul><li>Reservation – conditions under which claim does not hold </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Arguments <ul><li>Authoritative argument </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational argument </li></ul><ul><li>Substantive argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Love and belongingness </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul><ul><li>(Curiosity and Aesthetic needs) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fallacies <ul><li>Ad hominem </li></ul><ul><li>Slippery slope </li></ul><ul><li>False dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>Straw man </li></ul><ul><li>Nonsequitur </li></ul><ul><li>Glittering generality </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fallacies (cont) <ul><li>Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Plain folks </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwagon </li></ul><ul><li>Ad populum </li></ul>
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