Economy Grew As more people arrived economy grew Some items could only be exported to England Export: to send goods to another country to sell or trade Imported cloth, metal tools, glass and machines from England Import: to bring goods from another country for sale or use
Colonial Economy Agriculture: The business of farming Agriculture major way of life for most colonists 9 of 10 colonists made their living this way Free Enterprise: An economic system in which a person may start any business they wish. They decide what to make, how much to produce, and what price to charge. Supply and Demand Each region had its own Natural Resources
Southern Economy Hot humid climate good for growing cash crops Grew and exported tobacco, rice, and indigo Indigo: used in dye – major cash crop Large Plantations Developing: Depended on slavery to profit
Slavery in south Made up the largest part of the economy in South Slave Codes: rules that took rights away from A.A.’s helped whites ‘control’ them Not allowed to practice religion, learn to read, marry, or own property Eventually made it legal to treat enslaved people as animals 1 of 4 whites owned slaves in South Planters owned over half of slaves in South
Plantations Much like a small village Hundreds of people lived and worked Page 239. “Big House” – where the planter and family lived House slaves – slaves that worked in the big house Slave Row – small, run down cabins near fields where slaves lived
Planters Planters were wealthy, enjoyed luxury Most were men, some women Life as a slave depended greatly on where you lived Held high position in community Could get the courts to agree that the economy would fail with out slavery
The Slave’s Life Overseer – boss of the plantation Boss and punisher of slaves – often cruel Often indentured servant, or slave Sometimes got share of profits Forced slaves to work day and night, no food/water Dirty, back braking work in fields, took care of animals, cooked, cleaned Skilled workers made furniture, shoes, glass
A slaves life Cont. Owners would separate those who spoke the same language Captain William Smith, “By having some of every sort on board, there will be no more likelihood of their succeeding in a plot.” Work never really ended Had own chores to do Found time to talk, tell stories, sing songs Secretly sent messages (to meet or escape) in songs Secretly learned to read and later wrote about experiences
Slave Rebellion Some refused to work – were killed Worked slowly or broke tools Some escaped Hunted down Beaten, whipped, or killed Planters feared slave rebellion Willing to die for freedom Organized raids, burned houses, and killed people Planters strengthened slave codes to stop rebellions
Middle Colonies “Bread basket” of the colonies for growing so much wheat and corn Looked South to the English colonies in the West Indies for a place to sell surplus grain West Indies: needed grain to feed slaves Had good growing land, but used it all for cash crops like sugarcane Jamaica and Barbados: colonists had huge farms with hundreds of enslaved African workers
New England Colonies
New England Economy Turned to thick forests and seas for living Wood for ships, England was too expensive Fishing and ship industry building best in world Industry: all the businesses that make one kind of product or provide one kind of service Triangular Trade: Port cities grew quickly Did not rely on slavery
Triangular Trade Go to the Map on Page 231 Draw Your own Version of This map In your Notes.
Triangular Trade Leg One: Boston, New York Traded rum, guns, tools Leg Two: West Africa Traded gold, ivory, African captives Middle Passage: the middle part of the journey Thousands of Africans died on this journey Leg Three: West Indies Traded molasses (syrup made from sugar cane) Molasses then made into rum in N.A.
Go to Map on Page 232 What were the major exports of the… New England Colonies: Wood Products, fish, ships Middle Colonies: Grain Southern Colonies: Rice, Indigo, Tobacco
Summary Questions 1. How did using the ocean help New England to grow and become successful? 2. Why do you think colonists wanted control of their own economy? 3. What do you believe will be the effect of colonists wanting to run their own economy? 4. What role did A.A.’s play in the South’s economy?