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keynote keynote Presentation Transcript

  • CHAP 1 Languages and their status – Popular misconceptions
  • CHAP 1 Languages and their status – Popular misconceptions  Diversity – “Indian” or “Human being” ?
  • CHAP 1 Languages and their status – Popular misconceptions  Diversity – “Indian” or “Human being” ?  Primitive languages – “Primitive people” have “primitive languages”?
  • CHAP 1 Languages and their status – Popular misconceptions  Diversity – “Indian” or “Human being” ?  Primitive languages – “Primitive people” have “primitive languages”?
  • CHAP 1 Languages and their status – Popular misconceptions  Diversity – “Indian” or “Human being” ?  Primitive languages – “Primitive people” have “primitive languages”? All natural language has a highly perfected sound system, an equally well-developed grammar, and capacity for expressing intellectual and aesthetic ideas and feelings. All natural languages are capable of adaptive growth. (p.5)
  • Speech and Writing
  • Speech and Writing  Two major cultural techniques related to language – art of speaking and art of writing
  • Speech and Writing  Two major cultural techniques related to language – art of speaking and art of writing  Languages of nonliterate societies are not as perfectly formed or as precise as those of literate societies?
  • Speech and Writing  Two major cultural techniques related to language – art of speaking and art of writing  Languages of nonliterate societies are not as perfectly formed or as precise as those of literate societies?
  • Speech and Writing  Two major cultural techniques related to language – art of speaking and art of writing  Languages of nonliterate societies are not as perfectly formed or as precise as those of literate societies? Many nonliterate societies preserve oral traditions, and respect subtle and sophisticated uses of their languages.
  • Speech and Writing  Two major cultural techniques related to language – art of speaking and art of writing  Languages of nonliterate societies are not as perfectly formed or as precise as those of literate societies? Many nonliterate societies preserve oral traditions, and respect subtle and sophisticated uses of their languages. For example, “politeness” in Aymara, p.6
  • Population and language diversity
  • Population and language diversity  Before European contact – 250 languages in Canada and the US, 100 in Mexico and Central America. The total number of distinct languages for North America is close to 750 at time of European contact
  • Population and language diversity  Before European contact – 250 languages in Canada and the US, 100 in Mexico and Central America. The total number of distinct languages for North America is close to 750 at time of European contact  The precontact population – between 1 and 2 million in north of Mexico, from 5 to 25 million in Middle America, from 10 to 30 million in South America
  • Population and language diversity  Before European contact – 250 languages in Canada and the US, 100 in Mexico and Central America. The total number of distinct languages for North America is close to 750 at time of European contact  The precontact population – between 1 and 2 million in north of Mexico, from 5 to 25 million in Middle America, from 10 to 30 million in South America  Choctaw-Chickasaw (12,000, Mississippi & Oklahoma); Mimac (8,000, Canada); Creek (10,000, Alabama, Florida & Oklahoma)
  • Population and language diversity  Before European contact – 250 languages in Canada and the US, 100 in Mexico and Central America. The total number of distinct languages for North America is close to 750 at time of European contact  The precontact population – between 1 and 2 million in north of Mexico, from 5 to 25 million in Middle America, from 10 to 30 million in South America  Choctaw-Chickasaw (12,000, Mississippi & Oklahoma); Mimac (8,000, Canada); Creek (10,000, Alabama, Florida & Oklahoma)  Appendix 2 p.359-378, also in Chap 14
  • Language vitality – Reflection of historical factors and the social and cultural position of the language  For example, Quichua in highland of Ecuador – identification of “Indianness”. 1. A) Some people who have little contact with the national languages and cultures. B) Others who maintain their native language and culture for religious reasons or as one way of identifying maintaining a strong ethnicity with certain economic activities defined as Indian. 2. A) Some people are losing their native language, although they maintain a strong ethnic identity. B) Others are giving up their ancestral ethnic identification and replacing their language and culture with the national language and culture.
  • Language and Government Policy [17-19C]  17 – 18 C, Many Indian children in missionary-founded schools were instructed in their native tongue and in English. Late 19C, the federal government created the Bureau of Indian Affairs (turning Indian children away from their tribal customs and tribal languages)  A number of languages are moribund. Parents who had humiliation and hardships, often refused to speak their ancestral languages to their children.
  • Language and Government Policy [20c]
  • Language and Government Policy [20c]  Bilingual Education Act, 1968
  • Language and Government Policy [20c]  Bilingual Education Act, 1968  Native American Languages Act, 1990
  • Language and Government Policy [20c]  Bilingual Education Act, 1968  Native American Languages Act, 1990 ~~ The right of Native Americans to express themselves through the use of Native American languages shall not be restricted in any public proceeding, including publicly supported education programs. It is federal policy to “preserve, protect the rights and freedom of Native Americans to use, practice and develop Native American languages” and to “encourage and support the use of Native American languages as a medium of instruction in order to encourage and support – Native American
  • Literacy and Language Maintenance
  • Literacy and Language Maintenance  Cherokee communities -- literacy, Navajo – the literacy tradition is new
  • Literacy and Language Maintenance  Cherokee communities -- literacy, Navajo – the literacy tradition is new  Pueblo, New Mexico – oracy only (oral literacy)
  • Literacy and Language Maintenance  Cherokee communities -- literacy, Navajo – the literacy tradition is new  Pueblo, New Mexico – oracy only (oral literacy)  American Indian language is an integral part of an Indian group’s culture and identity and forms the basic medium for the transmission , and survival of the society’s culture, literature, history, religion, political institutions and values.
  • Literacy and Language Maintenance  Cherokee communities -- literacy, Navajo – the literacy tradition is new  Pueblo, New Mexico – oracy only (oral literacy)  American Indian language is an integral part of an Indian group’s culture and identity and forms the basic medium for the transmission , and survival of the society’s culture, literature, history, religion, political institutions and values.  P.13
  • Chap 1. Questions
  • Chap 1. Questions  What kinds of misconceptions do many people have for Native American languages?
  • Chap 1. Questions  What kinds of misconceptions do many people have for Native American languages?  How have those misconceptions been developed?
  • Chap 1. Questions  What kinds of misconceptions do many people have for Native American languages?  How have those misconceptions been developed?  Is writing superior to speaking?
  • Chap 1. Questions  What kinds of misconceptions do many people have for Native American languages?  How have those misconceptions been developed?  Is writing superior to speaking?  How many Indian languages were spoken in the US before the European contact?
  • Chap 1. Questions  What kinds of misconceptions do many people have for Native American languages?  How have those misconceptions been developed?  Is writing superior to speaking?  How many Indian languages were spoken in the US before the European contact?  Why do people stop speaking their native languages?
  • Chap 1. Questions  What kinds of misconceptions do many people have for Native American languages?  How have those misconceptions been developed?  Is writing superior to speaking?  How many Indian languages were spoken in the US before the European contact?  Why do people stop speaking their native languages?  Does Native American Language Act reflect a meaningful change in public attitude?