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Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
Types%20of%20 Welding[1]
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Types%20of%20 Welding[1]

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  • 1. Report for MTE521 Metallurgy in Welding By ndrilon 2009 Types of Welding
  • 2.  
  • 3. What is WELDING <ul><li>in engineering, any process in which two or more pieces of metal are joined together by the application of heat, pressure, or a combination of both. </li></ul>
  • 4. Master chart of Arc Welding and Related Methods
  • 5. Types of welds <ul><li>Bead </li></ul><ul><li>Groove </li></ul><ul><li>Fillet </li></ul><ul><li>Surfacing </li></ul><ul><li>Tack </li></ul><ul><li>Plug </li></ul><ul><li>Slot </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul>
  • 6. Bead weld <ul><li>Produced by a single pass </li></ul><ul><li>Stinger Bead - which is made without weaving motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Weave Bead- made by side-side oscillation </li></ul>
  • 7. Groove weld <ul><li>Groove welds are simply welds made in the groove between two members to be joined. </li></ul>
  • 8. Surfacing welds <ul><li>a  surfacing  weld  is  composed  of  one  or  more stringer  or  weave  beads.  Surfacing,  sometimes  known as hardfacing or wearfacing. </li></ul><ul><li>is often used to build up worn shafts, gears, or cutting edges. </li></ul>
  • 9. Fillet weld <ul><li>This weld is used to join two sur- faces that are at approximately right angles to each other in a lap, tee, or comer joint </li></ul>
  • 10. Plug and Slot weld <ul><li>are welds made through holes or slots in one member of a lap joint. </li></ul>
  • 11. Tack weld <ul><li>  is a weld made to hold parts of an assembly in proper alignment temporarily until the final welds are made. </li></ul><ul><li>they are normally between 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch in length, but never more than 1 inch in length. </li></ul>
  • 12. Basic Welding Positions
  • 13. Common Welding Types <ul><li>Arc Welding (AW) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxyfuel Gas Welding(OFW) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance Welding </li></ul>
  • 14. Types of ARC Welding <ul><li>Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) </li></ul><ul><li>Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) </li></ul><ul><li>Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW or TIG) </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW or MIG) </li></ul>
  • 15. SMAW <ul><li>is performed by striking an arc between a coated-metal electrode and the base metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Flux- the coating of the metal electrode will form as shield to the molten metal. </li></ul>
  • 16. Shielded Metal Arc Welding
  • 17. SMAW OPERATION
  • 18. Arc Welding MAchines
  • 19. Electrode and Holder
  • 20. Advantages of SMAW <ul><li>High quality welds are made rapidly at a low cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used easily even to thick and wide work piece to be joined. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used from thinner to thicker materials. </li></ul>
  • 21. Disadvantages SMAW <ul><li>Consumes bigger electric current </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty work finish </li></ul><ul><li>Root pass is lower than TIG and MIG </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to slag inclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Weld deposits is prone to blue holes </li></ul>
  • 22. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW) <ul><li>Is a process in which is done by an automatic electrode feeding machine wherein the tip of the electrode is submerged into a granular flux which shields the arc and the molten metal. </li></ul>
  • 23. SAW operations
  • 24. SAW Welding Machine
  • 25. SAW block diagram
  • 26. SAW APPLICATIONS <ul><li>widely used in heavy steel plate fabrication work. </li></ul><ul><li>welding of structural shapes. </li></ul><ul><li>longitudinal seam of larger diameter pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>manufacture of machine components for all types of heavy industry. </li></ul><ul><li>manufacture of vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>pressure and storage tanks. </li></ul>
  • 27. Advantages of SAW <ul><li>high quality of the weld metal. </li></ul><ul><li>extremely high deposition rate and speed. </li></ul><ul><li>smooth, uniform finished weld with no spatter. </li></ul><ul><li>little or no smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>no arc flash, thus minimal need for protective clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>high utilization of electrode wire. </li></ul><ul><li>easy automation for high-operator factor. </li></ul><ul><li>normally, no involvement of manipulative skills. </li></ul>
  • 28. Disadvantages of SAW <ul><li>used only to weld mild and low-alloy high-strength steels. </li></ul><ul><li>Unseen arc and puddle can cause poor penetration. </li></ul><ul><li>high-heat input, slow-cooling cycle can be a problem when welding quenched and tempered steels. </li></ul><ul><li>limited-position welding process only flat and horizontal </li></ul>
  • 29. GTAW or TIG <ul><li>Gas Tungsten Arc Welding or Tungsten Inert Gas or HELIARC Welding </li></ul><ul><li>is a process in which the joining of metals is produced by heating therewith an arc between a tungsten (non consumable) electrode and the work. </li></ul><ul><li>A shielding gas is used, normally Argon. </li></ul><ul><li>normally done with a pure tungsten or tungsten alloy rod, but multiple electrodes are sometimes used. </li></ul><ul><li>Filler metals are used such as stainless steel, Aluminum and Bronze. </li></ul>
  • 30. Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) <ul><li>is an automatic or semi-automatic electric arc welding process that uses an arc between a continuously fed flux-filled electrode and the weld pool. The process is used with shielded gas from a flux contained within the tubular electrode with or without additional shielding from an externally supplied gas. </li></ul>
  • 31. FCAW flux filled electrode and torch
  • 32. No shielding gas (FCAW)
  • 33. With Shielding Gas (FCAW)
  • 34. Two Types of FCAW <ul><li>no shielding gas </li></ul><ul><li>- using flux core in the tubular consumable electrode </li></ul><ul><li>uses a shielding gas </li></ul><ul><li>- gas that must be supplied by an external supply. This is known informally as &amp;quot;dual shield&amp;quot; welding. </li></ul>
  • 35. Uses of FCAW <ul><li>Mild and low alloy steels </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless steels </li></ul><ul><li>Some high nickel alloys </li></ul><ul><li>Some wear facing/surfacing alloys </li></ul>
  • 36. Advantages of FCAW <ul><li>FCAW may be an &amp;quot;all-position&amp;quot; process with the right filler metals (the consumable electrode) </li></ul><ul><li>No shielding gas needed making it suitable for outdoor welding and/or windy conditions </li></ul><ul><li>A high-deposition rate process (speed at which the filler metal is applied) in the 1G/1F/2F </li></ul><ul><li>Some &amp;quot;high-speed&amp;quot; (e.g., automotive applications) </li></ul><ul><li>Less pre cleaning of metal required </li></ul><ul><li>Metallurgical benefits from the flux such as the weld metal being protected initially from external factors until the flux is chipped away </li></ul>
  • 37. Disadvantages of FCAW <ul><li>Melted Contact Tip – happens when the electrode actually contacts the base metal, thereby fusing the two </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular wire feed – typically a mechanical problem </li></ul><ul><li>Porosity – the gases (specifically those from the flux-core) don’t escape the welded area before the metal hardens, leaving holes in the welded metal </li></ul><ul><li>More costly filler material/wire as compared to GMAW </li></ul><ul><li>Less suitable for applications that require painting, such as automotive body works. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be used in a rugged environment limited to shop use only. </li></ul>
  • 38. FCAW Equipment set up
  • 39. TIG WELDING
  • 40. GTAW or TIG process
  • 41. GTAW Welding Equipment
  • 42. TIG Welding Machine
  • 43. TIG Torch
  • 44. ADVANTAGES of GTAW <ul><li>most popular method for welding aluminum stainless steels, and nickel-base alloys. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces top quality welds. </li></ul><ul><li>No smoke or fumes </li></ul><ul><li>clean – no slag and spatter to be clean during welding </li></ul><ul><li>reduced distortion in the weld joint because of the concentrated heat source. </li></ul><ul><li>is very good for joining thin base metals because of excellent control of heat input. </li></ul>
  • 45. ADVANTAGES of GTAW <ul><li>especially useful for joining aluminum and magnesium which form refractory oxides, </li></ul><ul><li>excellent to use for the reactive metals like titanium and zirconium, which dissolve oxygen and nitrogen and become brittle if exposed to air while melting. </li></ul><ul><li>welding process by fusion alone without the addition of filler metal.( non-consumable electrode) </li></ul><ul><li>Used in very critical service application and on very expensive metal or parts. </li></ul>
  • 46. Disadvantages of GTAW <ul><li>EXPENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>a. Arc travel speed and weld metal deposition rates are lower. </li></ul><ul><li>b. high price of Inert gases for shielding such as Argon and Helium. </li></ul><ul><li>c. price of Tungsten electrode is high. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Equipment costs are greater than that for other processes, such as SMAW, which require less precise controls. </li></ul><ul><li>MANY LIMITATIONS and cannot be used in full welding operations </li></ul>
  • 47. Limitations of GTAW <ul><li>SLOWER WELDING PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>slower than consumable electrode arc welding. </li></ul><ul><li>FAST CONTAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>1. During transfer of molten tungsten from the </li></ul><ul><li>electrode to the weld. </li></ul><ul><li>2. tungsten inclusion(unbalance gas shielding the inclusion is hard &amp; brittle) </li></ul><ul><li>3. During exposure of the hot filler rod to air. </li></ul><ul><li>4. When there is improper welding techniques along the line </li></ul>
  • 48. GMAW or MIG <ul><li>is an electric arc welding process which joins metals by heating them with an arc established between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work. </li></ul><ul><li>Shielding of the arc and molten weld pool is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture both inert and reactive gases. </li></ul>
  • 49. GMAW Welding Operations
  • 50. MIG Machine with Spool feeder
  • 51. GUN used in GMAW
  • 52. MIG Torch
  • 53. GMAW Weld Diagram
  • 54. Advantages of GMAW <ul><li>Produced High quality welds &amp; much faster than with SMAW and TIG welding. </li></ul><ul><li>No flux is used no slag entrapment in the weld metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little loss of alloying elements as the metal transfers across the arc. </li></ul><ul><li>Minor weld spatter is produced, and it is easily removed. </li></ul>
  • 55. Advantages of GMAW <ul><li>Versatile and can be used with a wide variety of metals and alloys, such as Aluminum, Copper, Magnesium, </li></ul><ul><li>Nickel, Iron and many of their alloys. </li></ul><ul><li>The process can be operated in several ways, including semi- and fully automatic. </li></ul><ul><li>MIG welding is widely used by many industries for welding a broad variety of materials, parts, and structures. </li></ul>
  • 56. Disadvantages of GMAW <ul><li>IT cannot be used in the vertical or overhead welding positions due to the high heat input and the fluidity of the weld puddle. </li></ul><ul><li>Has complex equipment compared to equipment used for the shielded metal-arc welding process. </li></ul>
  • 57. Oxygen Fuel Gas Welding (OFW) is a group of welding processes which join metals by heating with a fuel gas flame or flares with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal.
  • 58. Types of Oxy-fuel Gas Welding <ul><li>Oxy-Acetylene or Oxygen- Acetylene Gas Welding </li></ul><ul><li>Oxy-Hydrogen or Oxygen- Hydrogen Gas Welding </li></ul><ul><li>Methylacetone-Propadiene Gas Welding </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Gas Welding. </li></ul>
  • 59. Advantages of Oxy-fuel Gas Welding <ul><li>Easy to use both welding and cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled heat input </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled bead size </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient to use in welding thin sheets, tubes and small diameter pipes </li></ul>
  • 60. Disadvantages of Oxy-Fuel Gas Welding <ul><li>Cannot be use to weld on thick work piece. </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive gas </li></ul>
  • 61. Oxy-Acetylene Diagram Welding Equipment
  • 62. Complete Oxy-Acetylene Welding Equipment
  • 63. Resistance Welding <ul><li>  is a process in which the fusing temperature is generated at the joint by the resistance to the flow of an electrical current . </li></ul><ul><li>is  accomplished  by  clamping  two  or  more  sheets  of metal  between  copper  electrodes  and  then  passing  an electrical  current  through  them.  When  the  metals  are heated to a melting temperature, forging pressure is applied through either a manual or automatic means to weld  the  pieces  together. </li></ul><ul><li>Two common types are Spot  and Seam  welding </li></ul>
  • 64. 2 Types of Resistance Welding SPOT WELDING SEAM WELDING
  • 65. SPOT WELDING <ul><li>The metal to be joined is placed between two electrodes and pressure is applied. </li></ul><ul><li>A charge of electricity is sent from one electrode through the material to the other electrode. </li></ul>
  • 66. SEAM Welding <ul><li>is </li></ul><ul><li>like spot welding except that the spots overlap each other, making a continuous weld seam. </li></ul>

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