Karl Heinrich Marx <br />(May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a German philosopher, political economist, historian, politica...
Karl Heinrich Marx
Karl Heinrich Marx
Karl Heinrich Marx
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Karl Heinrich Marx

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Karl Heinrich Marx

  1. 1. Karl Heinrich Marx <br />(May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a German philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, communist, and revolutionary, whose ideas are credited as the foundation of modern communism. Marx summarized his approach in the first line of chapter one of The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848: " The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." <br />Marx argued that capitalism, like previous socioeconomic systems, would inevitably produce internal tensions which will lead to its destruction. Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, he believed socialism would, in its turn, replace capitalism, and lead to a stateless, classless society called pure communism. This would emerge after a transitional period called the " dictatorship of the proletariat" : a period sometimes referred to as the " workers state" or " workers' democracy" .In section one of The Communist Manifesto Marx describes feudalism, capitalism, and the role internal social contradictions play in the historical process:We see then: the means of production and of exchange, on whose foundation the bourgeoisie built itself up, were generated in feudal society. At a certain stage in the development of these means of production and of exchange, the conditions under which feudal society produced and exchanged...the feudal relations of property became no longer compatible with the already developed productive forces; they became so many fetters. They had to be burst asunder; they were burst asunder. Into their place stepped free competition, accompanied by a social and political constitution adapted in it, and the economic and political sway of the bourgeois class. A similar movement is going on before our own eyes.... The productive forces at the disposal of society no longer tend to further the development of the conditions of bourgeois property; on the contrary, they have become too powerful for these conditions, by which they are fettered, and so soon as they overcome these fetters, they bring order into the whole of bourgeois society, endanger the existence of bourgeois property. <br />Marx argued for a systemic understanding of socio-economic change. He argued that the structural contradictions within capitalism necessitate its end, giving way to socialism:The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable.—(The Communist Manifesto) On the other hand, Marx argued that socio-economic change occurred through organized revolutionary action. He argued that capitalism will end through the organized actions of an international working class: " Communism is for us not a state of affairs which is to be established, an ideal to which reality will have to adjust itself. We call communism the real movement which abolishes the present state of things. The conditions of this movement result from the premises now in existence." While Marx remained a relatively obscure figure in his own lifetime, his ideas and the ideology of Marxism began to exert a major influence on workers' movements shortly after his death. This influence gained added impetus with the victory of the Bolsheviks in the Russian October Revolution in 1917, and few parts of the world remained significantly untouched by Marxian ideas in the course of the twentieth century. Marx is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science. <br />Mollucas Island<br />The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands) are an archipelago in Indonesia, and part of the larger Maritime Southeast Asia region. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi (Celebes), west of New Guinea, and north of Timor. The islands were also historically known as the " Spice Islands" by the Chinese and Europeans, but this term has also been applied to other islands.<br />Most of the islands are mountainous, some with active volcanoes, and enjoy a wet climate. The vegetation of the small and narrow islands, encompassed by the sea, is very luxuriant; including rainforests, sago, rice and the famous spices - nutmeg, cloves and mace, among others. Though originally Melanesian, HYPERLINK " http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maluku_Islands" l " cite_note-0" [1] many island populations, especially in the Banda Islands, were killed in the 17th century. A second influx of Austronesian immigrants began in the early 20th century under the Dutch and continued in the Indonesian era.Politically, the Maluku Islands formed a single province from 1950 until 1999. In 1999 the North Maluku (Maluku Utara) and Halmahera Tengah (Central Halmahera) regency were split off as a separate province, so the islands are now divided between two provinces, Maluku and North Maluku. Between 1999 and 2002 they were known for religious conflicts between Muslims and Christians but have been peaceful in the past years.<br />Spice Islands most commonly refer to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia, and often specifically to the small volcanic Banda Islands, once the only source of mace and nutmeg.The term has also been used less commonly in reference to other islands known for their spice production, notably the Zanzibar Archipelago off East Africa consisting of Unguja, Mafia and Pemba. These islands were formerly the independent state of Zanzibar but now form a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania.<br />Pamahalaang Demokrasya<br />Ang demokrasya ay, sa literal, ang pamamahala ng mga tao (mula sa Griyego: demos, " mga tao," at kratos, " paghahari" o " pamamahala" ). Nasa gitna ng iba't ibang kahulugan ng demokrasya ang kaparaanan na ginagampanan ng pamamahala nito, at ang binubuo ng " mga tao" , ngunit may mga kapakipakinabang na mga salungat ang magagawa sa mga oligarkiya at awtokrasya, kung saan mataas na nakatuon ang kapangyarihang politikal at hindi nasasakop ng makahulugang pagpipigil ng mga tao. Samantalang ginagamit sa kadalasan ang katagang demokrasya sa konteksto ng isang politikal na estado, ang mga prinsipyo na nailalapat din sa ibang bahagi ng pamamahala.Ang pamahalaan ay isang demokrasya kapag ang kapangyarihang mamahala ay nasa kamay ng mga tao. Ang demokrasya ay tunay o tuwiran kapag ang mga tao ang namamahala sa kanilang sarili sa pamamagitan ng lantarang pagpapahayag ng kanilang saloobin. Isinasagawa nila ito sa maraming pagkilos o mga pagpupulong na pambayan. Di-tuwiran, kinatawan o republikano kapag ang mamamayan ay pinamamahalaan mga taong hinalal o pinili nila. Ang Switzerland ay may tuwirang demokrasya samantalang ang Pilipinas ay isang demokratikong kinakatawan ng mga halal ng bayan.<br />Pamahalaang komunismo<br />Ang Komunismo ay isang ideolohiya na umaayon sa pagtatag ng organisasyon pangsosyal na walang estado at kantas-antas batay sa pantay na kaarian sa gamit ng produksyon. Maaring isa itong sanga ng kilos sosyalista. Ang komunista ay tumubo sa maraming uri na nangaling sa ba't ibang tao at kultura. Mga halimbawa ay ang Maoism, Trotskyism, at Luxemburgism.Si Karl Marx ang nagbuo ng isip ng komunismo sa libro niyang Communist Manifesto na tinapos ng taong 1848.Sa isang komunistang bansa, hindi pinapayagan ang mga mamamayan na makilahok sa pamamahala. Hindi sila nagtataglay ng mga karapatan at itinuturing silang walang kalayaan. Higit na tinatangkilik ng mga bansang hindi umuunlad ang komunismo. Marahil, naiimpluwensyahan sila ng paniniwalang sa lipunang komunismo, pantay-pantay ang mga tao.<br />Sa kasalukuyan, nagkakaroon na ng ilang pagbabago sa kaisipang komunismo,lalo na sa larangang pangkabuhayan at paggawa. Ilan sa mga pagbabagong ito ang pagbibigay n ibat-ibang pasahod batay sa matratrabaho ng bawat manggagawa at pinapayagan din ang mga tao na magkaroon ng sariling negosyo. Halimbawa, sa Yugoslavia at Hungary, pinapayagan na ng mga opisyal ng pamahalaan ang mga propesyonal at ang may-angking kakayahan na magtayo ng mga industriya at negosyo upang magkaroon ng kompetisyon.<br />Pamahalaang monarkiya<br />Ang monarkiya ay isang anyo ng pamahalaan na ang kataas-taasang kapangyarihan ay lubusan o naturingang inilalagak sa isang indibiduwal, ang pinuno ng estado, na kadalasang panghabang-buhay o hanggang pagbibitiw, at " buong itong hinihiwalay mula sa lahat ng kasapi ng estado." [1] Tinatawag na monarko ang namumuno sa monarkiya. Ito ang karaniwang anyo ng pamahalaan sa mundo noong luma at gitnang panahon.<br />

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