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  • Septic tanks & Pomme Frittes
  • Key Message: demand management can be divided into four categories Now, we move from the conceptual to real experience. The strategies explored in the scanning study were categorized into four groupings. We will discuss each in turn, to define techniques within each and provide European and US examples.
  • Key message: special facilities and access controls can influence demand It might be odd to think about infrastructure as a demand strategy, but of course, HOV lanes are a prime example. Special lanes for buses, carpools and vanpools, bicycles, and even delivery trucks (as in this photo from London) have been used in throughout the world. Park-and-ride facilities are another way to encourage ridesharing and transit use. Finally, access control to restrict automobiles has been used in the U.S. and throughout the world as well. Rome has combined access control in its historic center with pricing for resident and worker access. While Rome implemented access control for preservation and environmental reasons, it is also a key component of its regional mobility plan.
  • Key message: special lanes can increase throughput The Netherlands, a small country at the crossroads of Europe, is experiencing tremendous growth in travel demand, for both goods movement and people. As a short-term response (in the longer term they are considering national road pricing), the have created a number of special use lanes. First, “rush hour” lanes allow peak period use of the hard shoulder. “Plus” lanes involves re-stripping lanes to add an additional narrow lane with lower speeds on the whole facility. The Dutch have installed over 100 kms of these lanes and plan for almost 500 kms, or over one-quarter of their automated network. The Netherlands also uses reversible lanes and bus lanes in key areas of the Randstad.
  • Key message: managed lanes can combine many strategies A unique combination of innovative strategies being combined in the U.S. is Bus Rapid Transit using managed lanes. In San Diego, the HOT lane facility on I-15 is being expanded to four lanes and will include BRT service to downtown. Five stations are being constructed along the way, with parking and feeder transit connections.
  • Key message: operational strategies improve the efficiency of traffic flow and can have an impact on demand Operational strategies include techniques to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. This includes improved travel information and travel options, such as public transit. The image on the left is from Cologne, where drivers approaching the city get real-time information on the travel time by car and light rail into the center. Traffic and parking management can manage traffic today and influence travel choices in the future. This includes photo speed enforcement on highways. Finally, these strategies are not only appropriate for day-to-day operations, but are being applied to large-scale events and emergencies and to highway reconstruction projects.
  • Key message: Active Traffic Management is an integrated approach to improving efficiency You’ll be hearing more about this, but one concept that is being embraced in many parts of Europe is Active or Dynamic Traffic Management. One large-scale application of this on the M42 motorway, a radial route around Birmingham. It combines many techniques, such as variable message signs, lane speed control, photo enforcement, use of the hard shoulder, and real-time traffic information.
  • Key message: ramp metering improves flow and can influence demand In the U.S., ramp metering is a common operational strategy. A rather well-known study in Twin Cities involved the legislature requiring that ramp meters be shut down. MnDOT did evaluation and found these impacts, leading to a new, responsive ramp meter timing system. Do ramp meters affect demand? Yes, it impacts time, route and even mode choice. At my ramp meter in San Diego on I-15, I can sit for 10-15 minutes tacked onto a 30 commute to downtown.
  • Key message: pricing is perhaps the purest form of demand management While congestion pricing is debated in the U.S., several European cities have implemented pricing schemes to limit traffic in congested core areas and to manage truck traffic. Since high taxes on cars and fuel are not reducing demand, these cities are using pricing to reduce emissions. User acceptance and payment schemes are key factors in program success. In the U.S., it is more common to use incentives, such as alternative mode subsidies.
  • Key message: the Stockholm pricing pilot exceeded expectations Many of you are now aware of the so-called Stockholm Trial. Last year, central Stockholm tested a cordon pricing scheme around the city center, with 18 charging points. Drivers were charged up to about $3 every time they crossed a cordon. Tracking and charging were accomplished with both photo enforcement (ANPR – automated number plate recognition) and transponders (OBU = on-board units). Travelers were provided with a new option in the form of new park-and-ride bus routes. The results were greater than anticipated. Last September, voters in the City of Stockholm voted to continue the pricing scheme.
  • Key message: financial incentives are more common in the U.S. In the U.S., financial incentives are more common. In Atlanta, as well as several other regions around the U.S., commuters are offered a cash incentive to switch from driving alone. Research shows that most continue their new mode after the cash incentive expires.
  • Key message: managing demand has created new approaches to institutionalizing travel choices Finally, new ways to institutionalize demand management into planning, management and operations are being employed, including new public/private partnerships to deliver services and information, “travel plans” to reduce car use to key destinations, coordination mechanisms, and new policies that embrace demand management.
  • Key messages: new collaboratives can develop innovative solutions One example of a new partnership to coordinate travel to a major destination are the airport transport forums being implemented in the U.K. The first of these was at Heathrow where the newly formed Forum created a Surface Access Strategy to coincide with the development of the Heathrow Express rail service. Using a surcharge on airport parking, the strategy has led to a significant decrease in car use and an increase in transit and carpool use by employees. The Heathrow program has been consistent with the national “Smarter Choices” travel awareness campaign.
  • Key message: build TDM into new developments Perhaps one way that demand management is institutionalized in the U.S. is through trip reduction requirements on new developments, only now being explored in Europe. Many local jurisdictions require or negotiate trip reduction strategies to be implemented in order to reduce the negative impacts of new traffic generated by the development or to reduce parking requirements.
  • Key message: demand management should be integrated into transportation But the real key to maximizing the impacts and benefits of demand management is to integrate them into all relevant aspects of the transportation system. This requires integrated demand management into both planning and management and operations.
  • Key message: integrated packages of measures should be developed In terms of planning integration, the scan study learned about the City of Lund in southern Sweden. This university-town, already famous for bicycle use, decided to develop and implement a comprehensive approach to reducing car use in order to make the town more livable and to embrace the “sustainable travel” philosophy.
  • A long time ago in India there lived six men.  Though they were no longer young and had all been blind since birth, they would compete with each other to see who could tell the best story. One day, however, they started arguing.  The object of their dispute was the elephant.  Now, since each was blind, none had ever seen this mighty beast, so to satisfy their minds and settle the dispute, they decided to go and seek out an elephant. Having hired a young guide, they set out early one morning in single file along the forest track, they came to a forest clearing where a elephant was standing contemplating. The six blind men became quite excited; at last they would satisfy their minds.  Thus it was that the men took turns to investigate the elephant's shape and form. As all six men were blind, neither of them could see the whole elephant and approached the elephant from different directions.  After encountering the elephant, each man proclaimed in turn: 'O my brothers,' the first man at once cried out, 'it is as sure as I am wise that this elephant is like a great mud wall baked hard in the sun.' 'Now, my brothers,' the second man exclaimed with a cry of dawning recognition, 'I can tell you what shape this elephant is - he is exactly like a spear.' The others smiled in disbelief. 'Why, dear brothers, do you not see,' said the third man -- 'this elephant is very much like a rope,' he shouted. 'Ha, I thought as much,' the fourth man declared excitedly, 'This elephant much resembles a serpent.' The others snorted their contempt. 'Good gracious, brothers,' the fifth man called out, 'even a blind man can see what shape the elephant resembles most.  Why he's mightily like a fan.' At last, it was the turn of the sixth old fellow and he proclaimed, 'This sturdy pillar, brothers' mine, feels exactly like the trunk of a great areca palm tree.' Of course, no one believed him. Their curiosity satisfied, they followed the guide back to the village.  Once there, the blind men began disputing loud and long.  Each now had his own opinion, firmly based on his own experience, of what an elephant is really like.  For after all, each had felt the elephant for himself and knew that he was right! And so indeed he was.  For depending on how the elephant is seen, each man was partly right, though all were in the wrong.
  • Much of the mobility management work points to the ‘material benefits’ such as cost savings, rather than the intrinsic goals. More materialistic individuals tend to have higher ecological footprints – so interventions that try to appeal to the pocket are unlikely to have much impact as these individuals will simply switch consumption elsewhere

Black & Schreffler   Sig10 Goteborg 09 Black & Schreffler Sig10 Goteborg 09 Presentation Transcript

  • Understanding TDM and its Role in the Delivery of Sustainable Urban Transport Dr Colin Black Contemporary Transport ™ WCTRS SIG 10 Workshop April 2009 GOTEBORG Eric Schreffler ESTC
  • Overview
    • Reflect on international review
    • Challenges for TDM professionals
    • International benchmarking to improve integration
      • Report card
    Used for education purposes only
  • What is Transport Demand Management (TDM)
    • Original US TDM definition - referred to strategies to encourage commuters to shift to higher occupancy modes, such as ride-sharing, vanpooling and public transport
    • Now generally accepted view of TDM is: “ designed to better balance people’s needs to travel with the capacity of available facilities to efficiently handle this demand ”
      • Smarter Choices (or Mobility Management) – subset of TDM
  • Understanding TDM
    • If ‘Predict and provide’ was the old way then TDM is the new way – an new paradigm in transport planning
    • BUT it means more than just ‘managing’ – implicit in the use of the term is the assumption that it is accompanied by the implementation of sustainable mobility, introduction of full cost pricing and organisational /structural measures to ensure a broad range of complementary interventions work effectively together to realise the benefits of integration
    • It is the unifying philosophy of TDM that underpins the policy objective of a more sustainable system of transport
  • TDM – more than just ‘restrictions’
    • Accepts that meeting unfettered demand for travel is impractical and that therefore the system needs to be managed
    • This demand for travel needs to be managed by:
      • Expanding supply of (more sustainable) alternatives
      • Controlling demand (use of unsustainable modes)
      • Application of effective /full-cost pricing
    • Perhaps better understood simply as ‘transport management’ – i.e. obtaining a more appropriate balance in favour of needs over wants
  • Reality of Sustainable Transport
    • Transport management is currently focussed on short-term objectives – e.g. Improved access, congestion relief
    • A sustainable transport system requires a way of focussing the benefits on a future vision that goes beyond the current short term political and operational requirements
  • The Context Needs to be Framed
      • TDM most effective when context properly identified and articulated
  • So what is ‘good’ practice?
    • UK – predominately organisational
    • US – mainly physical
    • Across Europe & US – some good one-off examples of a broad range of interventions, but particularly operational and financial
  • Four Key Categories of TDM http://international.fhwa.dot.gov/traveldemand/index.htm Physical – infrastructure to make TDM work Operational – processes to manage /influence trips Financial – using economics of affect trip choice Organisational – institutional integration
  • Physical Infrastructure Strategies
    • Providing advantages to sustainable choices with:
    • HOV facilities
    • Special use lanes
    • Park-and-Ride facilities
    • Access control (e.g., car-free zones)
  • Physical infrastructure example: Europe
    • Access Control Zone (ZTL) in Rome
      • Cordon around historic core (5 km 2 )
      • Begun in ’89, automated in ’98
      • Non-residents pay $460/yr and must have off street parking space
      • New public transit infrastructure tram lines, park-and-ride lots)
      • Parking management
      • Combined traffic and transit management
      • Impact of ZTL and pricing
      • Traffic volumes down 15-20% in zone
      • Speeds up 4%
      • Public transit use up 5%
      • Mopeds, scooters and motorcycles also up
  • Physical infrastructure example: US
    • BUS RAPID TRANSIT AND HIGH OCCUPANCY TOLL (HOT) LANES
    • I-15 managed lanes expansion in San Diego:
    • Four lanes with movable barrier
    • HOT lane operation ($/mile)
    • BRT operating on facility
    • Five stations with park-and-ride
    • Considering HOT ramps
  • Operational Strategies
    • Improving the efficiency of the transport system by:
    • Providing real-time, multi-modal information
    • Predicting travel times
    • Active traffic management
    • Traffic management centers
    • Parking management
    • Photo enforcement
    • Improved public transport
    • Managing large-scale events and emergencies
    • Highway reconstruction mitigation
  • Operational example - Europe
    • ACTIVE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT on M42 – UK
    • Use of hard shoulder
    • Break-down areas
    • Driver info panels
    • Speed control
    • Photo enforcement
    • CCTV
  • Operational example: US
    • RAMP METERING ON FREEWAYS
    • MnDOT turned off meters in Twin Cities in 2000:
    • 9% reduction in freeway volumes
    • 22% increase in freeway travel times
    • 91% decline in travel time reliability
    • 7% reduction in freeway travel speeds
    • 26% increase in accidents
  • Financial Strategies
    • Trigger economic incentives and disincentives with:
    • Cordon pricing in congested centers
    • Other road pricing schemes (trucks)
    • Revenue for improved transit
    • Subsidies for using alternative modes
    London Germany
  • Financial example: Europe
    • STOCKHOLM TRIAL
    • Legislated 7-month pilot test
    • Cordon around city center
    • 18 charging points; ANPR/OBU
    • 10-20 SEK per crossing ($1.44 - $2.88)
    • 16 new bus routes; 2,800 P-n-R spaces
    • Goal = 10-15% reduction in traffic
    • Result = 19% reduction in car traffic
    • 4% increase in transit ridership
    • Emissions reduced
    • Referendum passed in city
  • Financial example: US
    • COMMUTER FINANCIAL INCENTIVES
    • Commuter Rewards Program in Atlanta
    • $3 per day to switch from driving alone
    • Up to three months
    • 1,800 participants per day
    • Reduced 1,200 veh.trips/day
    • Reduced 30,000 VMT
    • Over 70% continued after cash expired
  • Organisational /Institutional Strategies
    • New ways to institutionalise demand management into planning, management, and operations via:
      • Partnerships
      • Travel Planning
      • Coordination
      • New Policies
  • Organisational example: Europe
    • HEATHROW AREA TRANSPORT FORUM
    • Partnership of airport, towns and tenants
    • Created Surface Access Strategy
    • During planning of Heathrow Express
    • Increased transit/carpool use (10%  19%)
    • Decreased car use (78%  70%)
    • Funded with parking surcharge
    • Drive alone share decreased
    • Transit and carpool share increased
    • Consistent with “Smarter Choices”
  • Organisational example: US
    • TRIP REDUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW DEVELOPMENT
    • Many US jurisdictions require or negotiate
    • conditional trip mitigation measures to include:
    • On-site rideshare coordinator
    • Info and promotion of alternatives
    • Links to bus, bike and walk paths
    • Shuttle to regional transit
    • Preferential parking
    • Regular reporting
    • Key is assuring programs get to commuters
  • Integration is the Key!
    • Demand management should be integrated with:
      • Long-range planning
      • Land development
      • Employer/school practices
      • Planning for operations
      • Traffic management
      • System operations
      • Performance measurement
  • Good Integration Example - Planning
    • LUNDAMATS – Lund, Sweden
      • Integrated, sustainable transport plan:
      • Sustainable town planning
      • Priority to bicycles
      • Extended transit (BRT)
      • Reduce car traffic
      • Employer and community transport solutions
  • Key professionals involved in delivering TDM
    • Enlightened Engineers – physical
      • Access control; HOV lanes; P&R; bus priority schemes; cycle infrastructure
    • Innovative IT’ers – operational
      • Real-time info; TMCs; ride matching; journey planning; dynamic speed controls
    • Exciting Economists – fiscal
      • Area pricing; workplace parking levy; permits; HGV tolls; plus financial incentives
    • Marvellous Marketers' – organisational
      • Travel planning; use of planning system; integrated with other strategies e.g. health
  • But, current ‘silo thinking’ is constraint
    • Same concept, different perspectives
      • Engineers – traffic flow /congestion
      • Economists – pricing
      • IT specialists – technological fixes
      • Travel planners – behaviour change
    • Concept of TDM has become confused as each discipline positions themselves to bring it under the jurisdiction of their silo
  • Alright, ok, I get-it! So where do I start?
    • Research has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of understanding where you are in the process of behaviour change – short-cuts don’t work
  • Organisational – a good place to start!
    • European approach has been focussed on need to move people from ‘pre-contemplation’ to ‘preparation’
    • Travel awareness programmes
    • Sustainable towns pilots
    • TDM budgets – London £30m
    • Guidance galore
    • National standards for accreditation – UK PAS 500
    • Planning guidelines for Transport Assessments
    • Urban design guidelines
  • UK reality check!
    • Organisational measures are viewed as ‘soft factors’ - by those working in other silos
    • Policy rhetoric not matched by operational reality. Importance of TDM is still under-valued, as evidenced by:
      • Less than 5% travel plans required by planning process being enforced
        • lost opportunity for over 100,000 travel plans
      • Lack of investment into developing the skills base
      • Substantial under-funding of TDM
      • Environmental Management Systems pay lip service
      • Politicians nervous about appearing to ‘victimise’ car users
      • Biased VfM “procedures” still favour road schemes
    • Whilst the symbiotic relationship between various elements of TDM might be recognised it is generally not yet acted upon
  • TDM Benchmarking – Raising Standards
    • Ongoing research is currently benchmarking progress of city municipalities around the world – eg. as used in PT and cycle planning
    • Summarises progress towards integrated TDM strategies
    • Provides a useful tool to enable comparisons to be made between different cities according to a common set of qualitative and quantitative criteria
    • The work is being used to elicit discussion and to identify opportunities for improving integration
    • Over time it will also help to identify the most vital ingredients of successful TDM strategies
    • METRIC
      • M obility E nhancement and T rip R eduction I ndex to aide C omparison
    • Detailed assessment criteria brings together a broad range of different components of effective TDM interventions
    • Developed in response to requests for TDM benchmarking by several world cities
      • To identify opportunities for improvement and what to learn from whom
      • Assist practical transfer of urban transport policy
    METRIC – the assessment tool
  • How it works
    • Criteria cover initiatives, measures, approaches that can integrate with and enhance TDM
      • possibly up to 1,000 components
    • Uses 5 point differential scale to evaluate efforts
    • Weighting then applied to specific sections
      • as agreed by recognised international experts
    • Includes assessment of qualitative and quantitative data
    • Draws upon international expertise and local information
    • Intended for use by specialist working groups – reduce bias
    • Results of each section summarised in ‘Report Card’
  • Report Card Format (based on consumer reports)
    • Covers the different components of effective TDM interventions, categorised as:
        • 1.       Physical
        • 2.       Operational
        • 3.       Financial
        • 4.       Organisational
        • 5.       Research
        • 6.       Political
        • 7.       Integration
    Possible then to analyse each aspect in more detail by reviewing the METRIC output
  • Report Card – graphics explained  = international good practice  = making good progress  = limited progress to date  = affecting ability to progress  = urgent attention required
  • Example Report Card: London
    • Good work on mobility management, especially travel plans
    • Congestion charging, significant investment in alternative modes
    • Good transit system, but more infrastructure investment required
    • Research to demonstrate positive impact still limited
    • Strong mayor, but political support patchy
    • Silo thinking prevails limiting progress
        •   Performance criteria
    Rating Physical   Operational  Financial  Organisational  Research  Political  Integration 
  • Example Report Card: Washington D.C.
    • Commuter Connections program
    • Housed with regional planning agency
    • Works with sub-regional partners
    • Supported by two states and District
    • Performs triennial evaluation
    • Big on incentives, not pricing
        •   Performance criteria
    Rating Physical   Operational  Financial  Organisational  Research  Political  Integration 
  • Other cities under consideration
    • London, England
    • Edinburgh, Scotland
    • Dublin, Ireland
    • Paris, France
    • Amsterdam, Netherlands
    • Stockholm, Sweden
    • Rome, Italy
    • Zurich, Switzerland
    • Los Angeles, CA
    • Bogota, Columbia
    • Kyoto, Japan
    • Washington, D.C. Seattle, WA
    • Vancouver, BC
    • Mexico City, Mexico
    • Melbourne, Australia
  • Final thought... change focus of MM...?
    • Currently the emphasis is on changing attitudes – perhaps for a re-focus on influencing values
    • New research emphasises the importance of engaging values and self-identity as basis for motivating pro-environmental behavioural change
    • Individuals who engage in behaviour in pursuit of ‘intrinsic goals’ (of personal growth, emotional intimacy or community involvement) tend to be more highly motivated and more persistent in engaging in this behaviour
    • Compared to individuals motivated by ‘extrinsic goals’ (for example, of acquisition of material goods, financial success, image and social recognition).
    • Some evidence to suggest that motivations which are intrinsic are more likely to lead to pro-environmental behaviour...
  • Thanks for listening!
    • Dr. Colin Black
    • Contemporary Transport ™
    • [email_address]
      • Want further information, or to include your city in the review…?
    Eric N. Schreffler ESTC [email_address]