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4 Cosmic Objects
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4 Cosmic Objects

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  • VLA at 327 MHz This is the full extent of the radio source, about 80 kpc end-to-end. The inner lobes and jet can just be seen as the red structures in the center (and the nuclear black hole sits in the center of this inner structure). This picture thus covers an area larger than the optical galaxy; we are studying the inner region of the Virgo cluster. The galaxy, and its radio halo, sit in a large atmosphere of hot, X-ray loud gas (as detected by the EINSTEIN and ROSAT satellites).
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    • 1. Cosmic Objects http://www.aoc.nrao.edu/~fowen/M87_halo.html
    • 2. Variable Stars
      • Vary in luminosity on a regular basis
      • Cephid variables period is related to magnitude
      • Knowing magnitude you can compute distance
      • "yardstick to the universe"
      Henrietta Leavitt 1868 – 1921 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/baleav.html
    • 3. Neutron Stars
      • ~100 million in our galaxy alone
      • 1-2 solar masses, 10 km diameter
      • Emit high energy: X-rays and Gamma-rays
    • 4.  
    • 5. Pulsars
      • Rapidly spinning neutron stars
      • Pulses light due to enormous magnetic field
      • Magnetars are super magnetized spinning neutron stars
    • 6.  
    • 7. http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/pulsars.html
    • 8.  
    • 9. http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0403/hudf_hst_big.jpg
    • 10. Galaxies
      • Our solar system is a small part of a larger galaxy made up of billions of stars- like our sun
      • Millions even billions of galaxies are part of our Universe
      • Galaxies take on shapes: elliptical, spiral, and irregular
      • Galaxies occur in groups (local group), clusters many clusters form a super cluster
      • ~100 billion stars
    • 11. http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/9906/ngc1365_vlt_big.jpg
    • 12. Active Galaxies
      • Extremely violent processes taking place
      • Unusual appearance, particularly of the nucleus
      • Jets emanating from the nucleus
      • High luminosity
      • Rapid variability from compact energy source in the nucleus
      • Differences in viewing angle influence how we see them
    • 13.  
    • 14. Radio Galaxies
      • Powered by black holes
      • Give off lots of energy in the radio wave portion of EM spectrum
    • 15.  
    • 16.  
    • 17. Odd Galaxies
      • Quasistellar Radio Sources (star-like radio sources)
      • or Quasistellar Objects objects QSOs
      • Quasars are powered by black holes consuming stars at even greater rates than those in radio galaxies
      • Quasars typically are farther from Earth than radio galaxies
      • Quasars can be formed during galactic collisions
    • 18.  
    • 19. Earth Region of Normal Galaxies Region of Active Galaxies Region of Quasars to 10 Mcy to 1 Bcy