1. Weapons of
2. Weapons of
An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy,
Technology, and History
Eric A. Croddy and James J. Wirtz, Editors
Jeffrey A. Larsen, Managing Editor
Foreword by David Kay
Volume I: Chemical and Biological Weapons
Eric A. Croddy, Editor
Santa Barbara, California Denver, Colorado Oxford, England
3. Copyright 2005 by Eric A. Croddy, James J. Wirtz, and Jeffrey A. Larsen
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Weapons of mass destruction : an encyclopedia of worldwide policy, technology, and history / Eric A. Croddy and
James J. Wirtz, editors.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-85109-490-3 (hardback : alk. paper)—ISBN 1-85109-495-4 (e-book)
1. Weapons of mass destruction—Encyclopedias. I. Croddy, Eric, 1966– II. Wirtz, James J., 1958–
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Manufactured in the United States of America
Weapons of Mass Destruction
An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History
Volume I: Chemical and Biological Weapons
Preface: Weapons of Mass Destruction, ix
Editors and Contributors, xiii
A-to-Z List of Entries, Volumes I and II, xvii
Introduction: Chemical and Biological Weapons, xxv
Chronology: Chemical and Biological Weapons, xxxi
Chemical and Biological Weapons, Entries A to Y, 1
Key Documents: Chemical and Biological Weapons, 341
Senior Research Analyst, Potomac Institute,
The importance of this encyclopedia was under- Washington, D.C., and former Director,
scored by the fact that virtually the only area of Iraq Survey Group (2003–2004)
agreement in the 2004 U.S. presidential campaign
between the two major candidates, President
George W. Bush and Senator John F. Kerry, was that
the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction
poses the most serious national security threat with made new classes of weapons possible. But scientific
which the next president would have to deal. progress marches at a very fast rate, leaving behind
While the prospect of chemical, biological, radi- old, but still dangerous, knowledge. For example,
ological, or nuclear weapons falling into the hands the secrets regarding methods for enriching ura-
of terrorists or regimes hostile to the United States nium were simply bought by the Iraqis from the
and its friends is indeed a frightening prospect, how U.S. Government Printing Office. That office could
many of us understand exactly what this means? not imagine that there was anything important in a
When were such weapons first developed? Which 40-year-old project from the dawn of the U.S. nu-
states and scientists are leading these developments? clear program.
Have these weapons actually been used in the past? In another remarkable case, uranium enrichment
How often and with what consequence—not only technology was stolen from a commercial company
for the populations they were used against, but for in Holland by A. Q. Khan—a rather ordinary Pak-
those that used them, as well? Do these weapons re- istani who went to Germany to earn an engineering
ally give states a decisive edge over their adversaries? degree. Khan subsequently used this technology to
How easy are they to develop and use? Does the ease develop Pakistan’s nuclear weapons and then sold the
of development or use of such weapons by states, same technology to North Korea, Iran, and Libya.
like North Korea, differ from the obstacles faced by The techniques of gene modification, which less than
terrorist groups, like al-Qaeda? What are the tools 20 years ago were the stuff of Nobel prizes, are now
available to the United States to halt the spread of routinely taught in American high schools and com-
such weapons? Have we had any success in limiting munity colleges and have opened up whole new
the spread of these weapons? Are there any protec- classes of biological weapons. As this study also
tive measures that individuals can take to lessen makes clear, even the safe disposal of weapons of
their vulnerability if such weapons are used? mass destruction following a state’s decision to aban-
These are but a few of the questions that the au- don or limit their programs presents serious chal-
thors of this authoritative two-volume study at- lenges of preventing the weapons and associated
tempt to answer. This encyclopedia will have endur- technology from falling into the hands of terrorists.
ing importance as states and societies attempt to The thousands of Soviet-era nuclear weapons and
come to terms with the consequence of the collision the engineering talent that created them represent a
of scientific progress with the failure to develop a re- clear and present danger with which the world has
liable global security structure. The initial develop- not yet completely dealt. The readers of this work will
ment of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, find numerous examples of the lowering of the bar-
as this study makes clear, often involved scientific riers to the acquisition by states and terrorists of these
and engineering breakthroughs of the highest most terrible of weapons.
order. The paths to enriching uranium and geneti- But this study does not simply present the horrors
cally modifying pathogens are but two examples of of a world filled with weapons of mass destruction. It
such successes, scientific breakthroughs that have also catalogs and illuminates the various methods of
6. viii FOREWORD
attempting to control and constrain these weapons— the few efforts made in this regard, it is hard not to
including treaties and agreements such as the Nuclear come away with a sense of dread for the future. Most
Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Chemical Weapons control efforts have been aimed at states, not at ter-
Convention, as well as intrusive inspections, such as rorists operating outside of the control of states.
the efforts of the United Nations to hunt such Hopefully students and policy makers using this
weapons in Iraq after the first Gulf War. As will be book a few years hence will be able to record more
clear to the reader, such endeavors have had both suc- progress toward meeting this new challenge.
cesses and failures. Much remains to be done to en- The authors and editors have done an important
sure that their effectiveness matches the problems service by pulling together such an illuminating
posed by the proliferation of such weapons. The study at exactly the point when there is a broad po-
largest gap in effective mechanisms of control and re- litical consensus of the importance of the problem.
sponse to the acquisition of such weapons is with re- One can only hope that our citizens and our politi-
gard to the efforts of terrorists groups to acquire the cal