Rio LLC District Cooling

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  • READ SLIDE DISTRICT COOLING – WHAT IT IS? It is basically a central plant that sells chilled water Selling chilled water is not a regulated utility activity in Florida
  • READ SLIDE Another good fit could be large charter schools where the city owns the school and may not want to deal with the operations and maintenance of the facility. If the central plant could serve other facilities near the charter school, the economies get much better.
  • Reasons for district cooling? Why do people like this? There are several reasons – but just to name a few …… READ SLIDE
  • Another reason is a city or county government, a college or school district could use the district cooling plant as an economic development incentive or a revenue-generating enterprise. There are tax benefits if you can keep the cost of capital to build the plant tax-exempt and also keep the electric and gas meters free of taxes. Currently in Florida, there are a few cities and county governments evaluating district cooling just for these reasons.
  • Now some project criteria to take into consideration READ SLIDE I’m currently involved with a large project planned for downtown Tampa near Channelside, where the district cooling company will sell both chilled water and hot water to the developer. The developer will re-sell the commodities to the site tenants. In order to include a large portion of the development on the central plant, the cost of the chilled water will be a flat rate because it is not worth the effort and cost to meter “small users” such as condos and small retail shops.
  • Window Units! Cheap, easy to install *CLICK*(usually--install dangers) Sometimes you have to be creative *CLICK (book holding AC) Transforms the outward appearance of early-to-mid 20th Century Buildings’ facades (*Click--NYC air) By 1955 one in 22 homes had some form of AC In South the figure more like one in 10 1960 census shows AC in 12.4 percent (18% in Southern States) Florida Stats 1960 18.3% TX: 30.3% !
  • Rio LLC District Cooling

    1. 1. The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works We Provide Comfort In Life
    2. 2. District Cooling The New Challenge In Cooling World The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    3. 3. Why Air Condition : The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    4. 4. Air Condition Why Air Condition : The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works Which of the appliances in your Life would be the hardest to live without? The most frequent answer to that question in a recent survey was
    5. 5. <ul><li>Keeping cool has been a human preoccupation for millennia, but until the 20th century most efforts were ineffective. People tried everything from draping saturated mats in doorways to the installation of water-powered fans. Even Leonardo Vinci designed and built a mechanical ventilating fan, the first of its kind. The modern system—involving the exchange of hot, moist air for cool, dry air by way of a circulating refrigerant—was first used in industrial settings. Indeed, a North Carolina textile engineer named Stuart Cramer, impressed with how the latest system of controlling the heat and humidity in his plant improved the cloth fibers, coined the term &quot;air conditioning&quot; in 1906. Since then comfort of cool is no longer considered a luxury but a fact of modern existence. </li></ul>History of Air Condition The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    6. 6. <ul><li>1902 Comfort Cooling System Installed at the New York Stock Exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>1902 First Office Building with an Air-conditioning system Installed. </li></ul><ul><li>1904 A self-contained mechanical refrigerator is displayed at the St. Louis World’s Fair. </li></ul><ul><li>1906 First office building specifically designed for air conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>1906 Patent Filed for “Dew Point Control” System. </li></ul><ul><li>1906 First Air conditioned hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>1907 Air-conditioning equipment installed in dining and meeting rooms at Congress Hotel in Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>1914 Air cooled; electric, self-contained household refrigerating unit is marketed. </li></ul><ul><li>1916 Flash-freezing system for preserving food products developed. </li></ul>History of Air Condition The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    7. 7. <ul><li>1923 electrically refrigerated ice cream dipping cabinet is marketed. </li></ul><ul><li>1927 Gas Fired household absorption refrigerators become popular. </li></ul><ul><li>1927 First refrigerator to be mass produced with a completely sealed refrigerating system. </li></ul><ul><li>1928 Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants are synthesized. </li></ul><ul><li>1929 First Room cooler goes on the market. </li></ul><ul><li>1930 Smaller air-conditioning units appear on trains. </li></ul><ul><li>1931 ‘Hot-Kold” year round central air-conditioning system for homes on the market. </li></ul><ul><li>1931 A heat pump air-conditioning system in Los Angeles office Building </li></ul><ul><li>1932 First overnight train with air conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>1936 Albert henne Synthesizes refrigerant R-135a </li></ul>History of Air Condition The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    8. 8. <ul><li>1938 A window air conditioner using Freon is marketed </li></ul><ul><li>1939 Air conditioning offered as an option in a Packard automobile. </li></ul><ul><li>1947 Mass-produced, low cost window air conditioners become possible. </li></ul><ul><li>1969 More than half of new automobiles are equipped with air conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>1987 Minimum Energy Efficiency requirements set. </li></ul><ul><li>1987 The Montreal Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>1992 Minimum Energy efficiency standards set for commercial buildings. </li></ul>History of Air Condition The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    9. 9. History of Air Condition <ul><li>Nowadays </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    10. 10. History of Air Condition <ul><li>Answer will be later ……... </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    11. 11. Methods to Produce Cooled Air <ul><li>Methods of producing cooling effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Vapour Compression Refrigeration </li></ul></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    12. 12. <ul><li>Methods of producing cooling effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Absorption Refrigeration </li></ul></ul>Methods to Produce Cooled Air The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    13. 13. <ul><li>Methods of producing cooling effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Solid Absorption System </li></ul></ul>Methods to Produce Cooled Air The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    14. 14. <ul><li>Methods of producing cooling effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Thermoelectric Cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) Others </li></ul></ul>Methods to Produce Cooled Air The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    15. 15. Heat Absorption and Rejection <ul><li>Classification on Heat Absorption at Evaporator </li></ul><ul><li>a) Direct heat absorption by the refrigerant </li></ul><ul><li>b) Heat absorbed by the water which is subsequently cooled by the refrigerant </li></ul><ul><li>Classification on Heat Rejection at the Condenser </li></ul><ul><li>a) Direct heat rejection by air cooling of the Condenser </li></ul><ul><li>b) Heat is absorbed by water at the condenser and then water to the ambient air </li></ul>Vapour Compression System The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    16. 16. Six types of heat rejection system as follows: -   Air cooled condensers Evaporative condensers Direct sea water Indirect sea water cooling towers closed-circuit cooling tower Heat Rejection System The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    17. 17. <ul><li>Types of Common Air Conditioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)       Individual Room Air Conditioning System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b)       Package Air Conditioning Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c)       Central Hydraulic Air Conditioning System </li></ul></ul>Common Air Conditioning System The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    18. 18. <ul><li>Common Air Conditioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)       Individual Room Air Conditioning System </li></ul></ul>Window AC Units <ul><li>Window air conditioning unit or through-the-wall unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Operating (on/off), temperature by the occupant. </li></ul><ul><li>Overtime work at night of one room. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply fan, cooling cool, air filter, compressor, condenser… </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling capacity usually in kW or Btu/hr. </li></ul><ul><li>Timer for the automatic shutting off of the unit </li></ul><ul><li>Some can provide warm air during heating season </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    19. 19. <ul><li>Single, self-contained package units or split systems. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be a split ac system with indoor unit with fan, filter, and DX-coils and the outdoor condensing unit </li></ul><ul><li>It may be a central system with supply air duct with diffuser and DX-coil for cooling </li></ul>Types of Common Air Conditioning System <ul><ul><li>b)       Unitary Package Air Conditioning Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Air Conditioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b)       Unitary Package Air Conditioning Systems </li></ul></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    20. 20. Indoor Unit – Split AC system Outdoor Unit – Split AC system The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works <ul><li>Common Air Conditioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b)       Unitary Package Air Conditioning Systems </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Split AC Units The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works <ul><li>Common Air Conditioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b)       Unitary Package Air Conditioning Systems </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22.     VRV System The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works <ul><li>Common Air Conditioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b)       Unitary Package Air Conditioning Systems </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works <ul><li>Common Air Conditioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b)       Unitary Package Air Conditioning Systems </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works <ul><li>Common Air Conditioning System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b)       Unitary Package Air Conditioning Systems </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Air is cooled by coils filled with chilled and hot water. </li></ul><ul><li>Water specific heat capacity is much larger than air </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated and expensive equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>`Direct digital control’: Electronic sensors send signals to microprocessor operated and control modules which actuates dampers, valves and relays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c)       Central Hydraulic Air Conditioning System </li></ul></ul>Common Air Conditioning System The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    26. 26. <ul><li>To understand better, air conditioning system can be divided into five subsystems or loops: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air-side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chilled water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat rejection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls </li></ul></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works <ul><ul><li>c)       Central Hydraulic Air Conditioning System </li></ul></ul>Common Air Conditioning System
    27. 27. 45 o C, 28 o C Conditioned space The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works 27 o C 45 o C 25 o C
    28. 28. 13 o C 13 o C 45 o C, 28 o C Air side system The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works 27 o C 45 o C 25 o C
    29. 29. 13 o C 13 o C 12 o C 7 o C 45 o C, 28 o C 7 o C 12 o C Chilled water system The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works 27 o C 45 o C 25 o C
    30. 30. 13 o C 13 o C 12 o C 7 o C 3 o C 38 o C 49 o C 10 o C 45 o C, 28 o C 7 o C 12 o C Refrigeration equipment The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works 27 o C 45 o C 25 o C
    31. 31. 13 o C 13 o C 12 o C 7 o C 3 o C 38 o C 49 o C 10 o C 35 o C 29 o C 45 o C, 28 o C 7 o C 12 o C 29 o C 35 o C Heat rejection The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works 27 o C 45 o C 25 o C
    32. 32. 13 o C 13 o C 12 o C 7 o C 3 o C 38 o C 49 o C 10 o C 35 o C 29 o C 45 o C, 28 o C 7 o C 12 o C 29 o C 35 o C Control Loop Heat rejection Refrigeration System Chilled Water System Airside System 27 o C 45 o C 25 o C
    33. 33. <ul><ul><li>c)       Central Hydraulic Air Conditioning System </li></ul></ul>Common Air Conditioning System The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    34. 34. <ul><li>District Cooling System (DCS) </li></ul><ul><li>It distributes chilled water from a central chiller plant to a number of buildings, whose building owners / operators have subscribed the DCS service. </li></ul><ul><li>After connection with DCS, these service purchasers would no longer require to keep or use their own existing chiller plants. </li></ul><ul><li>The absorbed heat from the user buildings is rejected by either sea water cooling or evaporative cooling towers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c)       Central Hydraulic Air Conditioning System </li></ul></ul>Common Air Conditioning System The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    35. 35. <ul><li>Centralized Piped Supply System for Condenser Cooling (CPSSCC) </li></ul><ul><li>The centralized piped supply system for condenser cooling (CPSSCC) is a large scale central sea water pumping system </li></ul><ul><li>It supplies sea water via the distribution piping network to a number of potential users within the district for heat rejection of their air conditioning systems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c)       Central Hydraulic Air Conditioning System </li></ul></ul>Common Air Conditioning System The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    36. 36. Cooling – Basics- COP The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    37. 37. Cooling Statistics <ul><ul><li>80% of commercial and institutional buildings in USA and Japan have Comfort Cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><50% in EU, but rapidly expanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 50% of the total cooling demand relates to process cooling in commercial and institutional buildings, computer cooling etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of the global electricity production is user for cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chillers create summer power peaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average temperature is raised with 1-4 degrees in city areas partly due to rejected condenser heat from local AC </li></ul></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    38. 38. What is District Cooling? <ul><li>Produces a commodity: chilled water at a nearby or onsite chiller plant </li></ul><ul><li>Local “air conditioning utility” </li></ul><ul><li>Circulates chilled water through Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>facilities to provide cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Used in institutional systems serving several buildings owned by one entity </li></ul><ul><li>Also used in downtown areas and other high-density urban locations </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    39. 39. WHAT IS DISTRICT COOLING? District Cooling is a utility which provides chilled water to customer buildings via a metered and controlled process.
    40. 40. <ul><li>Basically, a district cooling system (DCS) distributes thermal energy in the form of chilled water or other media from a central source to multiple buildings through a network of underground pipes for use in space and process cooling. The cooling or heat rejection is usually provided from a central cooling plant, thus eliminating the need for separate systems in individual buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>A DCS consists of three primary components: the central plant, the distribution network and the consumer system. The central plant may include the cooling equipment, power generation and thermal storage. The distribution or piping network is often the most expensive portion of the DCS and warrants careful design to optimize its use. The consumer system would usually comprise of air handling units and chilled water piping in the building. </li></ul>What is District Cooling? The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    41. 41. What is required for DC? <ul><li>District Cooling has Three or Four Major Components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Cooling Plant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional Thermal Energy Storage Tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buried Distribution Piping in Well Defined Service Corridor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Connection or Energy Transfer Station “ETS” </li></ul></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    42. 42. District Cooling Components: <ul><li>Centralized cooling production </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution grid </li></ul><ul><li>Different customers </li></ul><ul><li>Energy service </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    43. 43. District Cooling Components: The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    44. 44. <ul><li>Large campuses – universities, </li></ul><ul><li>colleges, hospitals, high rise buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Theme parks, industrial complexes </li></ul><ul><li>Office buildings, shopping malls, hotels </li></ul><ul><li>New commercial facilities in high density areas with third-party owned cooling systems </li></ul><ul><li>Newly constructed cities. </li></ul>Applications of DC The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    45. 45. Applications of DC The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    46. 46. FCU / AHU T:8.9 C ETS 4.5 C 5.5 C
    47. 47. Reasons for District Cooling <ul><li>No hassle and expense of operating and maintaining chiller plant </li></ul><ul><li>More available facility space (no on-site chillers, pumps, etc.) for occupation </li></ul><ul><li>No capital to repair and/or expand existing plant or to build new plant </li></ul><ul><li>Has capital to repair and/or expand, but wants to spend money on something else </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    48. 48. Reasons for District Cooling <ul><li>Split system condenser and roof top equipment placed in separate building and hidden from view (aesthetics) </li></ul><ul><li>Noise reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Better humidity control </li></ul><ul><li>District cooling is much more energy efficient and environmental friendly cooling solution compared to building specific systems. </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    49. 49. <ul><li>District cooling is best solution for customer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not need maintenance or other activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less space demand compared to building specific cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not spoil the facade of building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price is competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds the value of building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourced cooling solution </li></ul></ul>Reasons for District Cooling The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    50. 50. Reasons for District Cooling <ul><li>Fewer customers is better! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One system customer is optimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More customers served, more complex the sales effort becomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative costs are higher with multiple customers </li></ul></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    51. 51. Centralized refrigeration plant Individual buildings The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works Reasons for District Cooling
    52. 52. Does not spoil the facade of building The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    53. 53. Without DC With DC A Dubai Hotel Parking roof top The view from the Suites & Rooms Shangri-la Parking Roof Top The view from Shangri-la’s Suites & Rooms VALUABLE SPACE SAVING The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    54. 54. Before After ELIMINATE NOISE & VIBRATION The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    55. 55. No Hazard The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    56. 56. WHY DISTRICT COOLING ? <ul><li>Load diversity enhances project economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-building campuses with day and night operations (e.g., classroom, administration, dorms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-use buildings (e.g., retail entertainment complexes, theaters, restaurants, bars) </li></ul></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    57. 57. <ul><li>Large Air Conditioning (A/C) Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of Power Generated Used for A/C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Producer of CO2 per Capita in the World </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry & Economy Growth </li></ul><ul><li>High Density of New Buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Developments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existing Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO2 Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise, Vibration, Poor Control, High Operating Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UAE is Located in One of the Best Regions in the World for District Cooling Usage & Benefits </li></ul>WHY DISTRICT COOLING ? The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    58. 58. <ul><li>Better Building Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Step Towards More Efficient Green Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves City’s Overall Look </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less CO2 Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less Refrigerant Leakage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower Government spending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Electrical Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>District Cooling is for the Benefit of Urbanization & Green Buildings </li></ul></ul>WHY DISTRICT COOLING ? The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    59. 59. <ul><li>Better quality of cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum cost effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Capital cost elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Space saving </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in sound pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly </li></ul>WHY DISTRICT COOLING ? The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    60. 60. WHY DISTRICT COOLING ? The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    61. 61. <ul><li>People are also increasingly emitting more and more heat into buildings through all types of electronic equipment that generate extra heat such as computers and various other gadgets. All this has led to a growing demand for comfort in homes and offices, a need that is directly addressed by District Cooling. </li></ul>WHY DISTRICT COOLING ? The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    62. 62. <ul><li>The economic benefits can be experienced by both the owner and the tenant, where the capital costs of control panels, internal power distribution, annual maintenance and power consumption inside the building are reduced and the cost of chillers are eliminated </li></ul>WHY DISTRICT COOLING ? The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    63. 63. <ul><li>District cooling systems provide a variety of benefits, both qualitative and economic. The qualitative advantages are perceived in terms of better comfort, better reliability, and maximized convenience. Mechanical cooling and air conditioning requirements are growing rapidly throughout the world, partly because there are many new buildings being built and partly because those buildings are being built in warm climates. However, no matter where those buildings are built, they tend to be tighter and more densely packed than they used to be. This creates a need for air conditioning even in very cold climates. </li></ul>BENEFITS OF DC.. The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    64. 64. Environment Economy Energy The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works BENEFITS OF DC..
    65. 65. Energy-Environment-Economic Synergy with District Cooling DC* * DC = District Cooling Energy Economy Environment The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    66. 66. Economic Benefits of DC <ul><li>Reduces upfront capital costs because the equipment necessary to tie into DES network costs less than stand-alone systems </li></ul><ul><li>Lower overall building operating, maintenance, and labor costs     </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    67. 67. Environmental Benefits of DC <ul><li>A central plant is more efficient than many small plants, reducing energy consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Central plants employ stringent emission controls - more so than individual buildings - providing air quality benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces peak electric power demand for air conditioning </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    68. 68. Energy Efficiency <ul><li>Industrial equipment are by far more efficient than commercial equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>District cooling systems consume far less energy than air-cooled and water cooled systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Using different techniques that help reduce the annual energy consumption by 55%. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility of using different energy sources such as natural gas, electricity etc... </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    69. 69. System Reliability <ul><li>Units used are high-tech and industrial which dramatically decreases the failure frequency compared to commercial equipment. District cooling reliability is in excess of 99.94%. </li></ul><ul><li>Standby units always available at every cooling facility. </li></ul><ul><li>The average lifespan of industrial equipment is 30 years compared to 15 years for commercial equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Round the clock operation and maintenance at the Central plant room ensuring preventive maintenance and a swift response in case of malfunctions. </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    70. 70. Tenant User Comfort <ul><li>Individual space or room temperature control using multiple indoor fan-coil units. </li></ul><ul><li>Better indoor humidity control. </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of noise and freeing space, by eliminating the need for chillers on every roof. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum maintenance requirements, giving tenants more privacy and security. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher system reliability due to a high-tech plant room design. </li></ul><ul><li>Better building aesthetics - no bulky outdoor equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>More outdoor space made available. </li></ul><ul><li>An overall high comfort factor means happy tenants </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    71. 71. End User Benefits <ul><li>Higher Value Building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthier (more productive workforce) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced equipment first cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced O&M costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher level of reliability </li></ul></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    72. 72. Reduce Electric Power Requirement Distribution <ul><li>Air conditioning equipment consume around 70% of total building energy and constitutes 70% of the peak electric demand. By shifting that load from individual houses to a central plant, the housing electric load is reduced substantially and along with it the number of electric substations and length and sizes of electric cables. </li></ul><ul><li>District cooling requires far less electric power than multiple plant rooms or ducted splits. Furthermore the plant room can house the electric substation, enormously reducing the electric works. </li></ul><ul><li>Electric demand and peak shaving are easily controlled when district cooling is applied. This especially important in the case of on-site continuous or standby power generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas engine chiller can be used for standby or peak shaving operation in parallel with electric chillers. </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    73. 73. Reduce Maintenance <ul><li>A small maintenance team can maintain the central plant, as compared to the large number of maintenance team required to maintain many smaller plants or hundreds of condensing units. Fan coil units and air handling units require minimal maintenance and rear breakdown occurrence. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced frequency of equipment replacement due to longer equipment lifetime compared to commercial equipment. </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    74. 74. Environmental Friendliness <ul><li>Improved efficiency reduces CO2 emission. Each 1 KW-Hr used from Electric utility network produces 1.05 Kg of CO2. </li></ul><ul><li>Central plant room uses ozone friendly refrigerant such as HFC-134a. Leakage from one central plant is much lower than from many scattered plants or units. </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    75. 75. Utility Benefits <ul><li>Providing Higher Value Product </li></ul><ul><li>Energy services v. kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Load on Distribution System </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Load on Central Power Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced First Cost Due to Energy Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Large Customer Under Long Term Contract </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    76. 76. Central Chilled Water Plant Sustainable Design The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    77. 77. Free energy Market / Competition <ul><li>DC is an innovative solution </li></ul><ul><li>DC competes freely with alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>DC is established without subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>Customers choose their own tailored solution </li></ul><ul><li>New energy service in a competing market </li></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    78. 78. Security of supply The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    79. 79. What is necessary? <ul><li>Create a level-playing field for competition between individual and collective systems (green certificates, CO 2 -trading, subsidies and taxes) </li></ul><ul><li>Take District Cooling into consideration in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Efficiency of Buildings Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy End-use Efficiency and Service Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security of Supply & Infrastructure Directive </li></ul></ul>The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works
    80. 80. <ul><li>Main Line completion </li></ul><ul><li>by 28 th September </li></ul><ul><li>Branches, testing & commissioning by 15 th November </li></ul>
    81. 82. Thank You The name on top of District Cooling and all MEP works Q & A

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