History Of Two Nations Part 1 Of 2Presentation Transcript
History of two nations In the island of Srilanka Part 1 of 2 SINHALA TAMIL
Sri Lanka is the name of the island
earlier known as Ceylon
Situated off the south eastern tip of India, separated by 22 miles of sea called the Palk Strait.
It covers an area of 25,322 square miles almost the size of Ireland or Tasmania and has a total population of 18 million.
Evidence for presence of the Tamil and Sinhala people in the island dates back to over 2,500 years.
The island had three separate kingdoms when first invaded by the Europeans
1505 - Arrival of Portuguese - They first occupied the low country Sinhalese areas in the south west of the Island.
1621 - Jaffna Tamil Kingdom fell to the Portuguese (more than a century later).
1656 - Dutch occupied areas which were under Portuguese control.
1802 - Treaty of Amiens - Dutch possessions ceded to the British.
1815 - The Sinhalese Kandyan Kingdom in the central parts conquered by the British, having annexed the Tamil
Vanni Kingdom in the north.
The European Colonial Era 1505 to 1815
Two nations in one island
"Two different nations, from a very ancient period, have divided between them the possession of the Island: the Sinhalese inhabiting the interior in its Southern and western parts from the river Wallouwe to Chilaw, and the Malabars (Tamils) who possess the Northern and Eastern Districts. These two nations differ entirely in their religion, language and manners."
Sir Hugh Cleghorn, British Colonial Secretary, June 1879
1883-Two nations brought under one colonial administration
Both the Tamil People & Sinhalese people are indigenous people of Sri Lanka.
Early history records that they had their own monarchs and kingdoms. They were conquered by the colonial powers separately and in different periods in history.
They existed as separate communities until the British brought them together in 1883 under a single administration
for the very first time in their long history
The sources of the national conflict in Sri Lanka are historical, economic, cultural & religious. In the words of David Selbourne of Ruskin College, Oxford, it is "a true national question, if ever there was one".
The European Colonial Era 1833 to 1947
1833 -The British unified the island based on the recommendations of Cole Brook - Cameron Commission (purely for administrative convenience).
1931 - Donoughmore constitution - State Council elected by Universal suffrage (the first people to exercise universal suffrage in Asia).
1947 - Soulbury constitution adopted & general elections held for the parliament of Ceylon.
February 4 th 1948 Change of Colonial Rulers ----------------------->
A unified state of Ceylon was declared independent
Political power handed to Sinhala majoritarian rule driven by Sinhala/Buddhist supremacy
as advocated by Mahavamsa & Anagarica Tharmapala
Sinhala Occupation of Tamil Eelam ended British Occupation
The Sinhala-Colonial Era 1948 to 1956
1948 - British grant independence under the Soulbury constitution. The parliament, with its entrenched Sinhalese majority, legislates to disenfranchise Tamils of [recent] Indian origin who have lived there for generations and have always exercised their franchise. The Tamil people lost almost half of their representation in the parliament. 1948-ON WARDS - The state aided colonisation of Sinhalese people in Tamil areas promoted to annex Tamil homelands and further reduce Tamil representation in the parliament.
1956 - The Sinhalese Language made the only official language by legislation, effectively making the educated Tamil people illiterate at a stroke denying them equal access to education and employment in the unified island. 1 st Step of the Genocide – dehumanisation started
The Sinhala-Colonial Era 1957 to 1958
1957 B - C Pact between the Sinhalese Prime Minister SWRD Bandaranaike and Tamil leader SJV Chelvanayakam QC to meet some of the demands of the Tamil people.
1958 – The Tamils living in the South are murdered and their property destroyed by Sinhala mob as the police and armed forces stand by – The Next step in Tamil Genocide is taken.
The B-C Pact unilaterally abrogated by Mr Bandaranaike to pacify the extreme elements among the Sinhalese Buddhists.
1959 – Banadaraniake assassinated by Buddhist monk for negotiating with the Tamils.
The Sinhala-Colonial Era 1965 to 1971
1965 D - C Pact - entered into, with another Sinhalese Prime minister Dudley Senanayake and SJV Chelvanayagam was never implemented by the Sinhalese government.
1969 – Tamils seek redress through the judiciary and the Privy Council in London directs the Supreme Court in Sri Lanka to review the constitutionality of the Official Language Act, since it violated s.29(2) the constitution.
1971 - The government responds by abolishing appeals to Privy Council. Another non-violent path is closed by the Sinhalese government.
1972 new Sinhala constitution imposed on Tamils
1972 - The new Republican Constitution was adopted and imposed on the Tamil people without their consent.
The only legal safeguard provided by the entrenched section 29(2) of the Soulbury constitution, described by the Privy Council in London that they "represent the solemn balance of rights between the citizens of Ceylon, the fundamental condition on which inter se they accepted the constitution; and these are therefore unalterable under the constitution", was scrapped.
Tamil parties walked out of the constituent assembly. With this, Tamil participation of the democratic process in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) came to an end.
Marginalisation and oppression of Tamils continue…….
1973 - Through a process of standardization the government restricts entry of Tamil students to universities and institutions of higher education.
The Tamil Youth who had hitherto stayed away from politics enter the fray The Thamil Maanavar Peravai (Tamil Students Form) is borne.
The members of this non violent Tamil Students Forum are arrested and detained without trial by the Sinhala State. The 4 th Floor of the Sri Lankan CID becomes a chamber where the Tamil youth are kept incommunicado and tortured.
1974 - The 4th International Tamil literary conference in Jaffna was violently broken up by the police, where many died and several were injured.
Every year, the memorials for those died in this massacre are desecrated and demolished methodically, by the Sinhalese Forces stationed in Jaffna, following reconstruction at each anniversary. Tamil youth are driven further and further away from the non violent democratic path.
Birth of the Tamil armed resistance in response to 25 years of State Terrorism
25 years denial of legitimate Tamil grievances
Discriminatory and oppressive policies of the Sinhala regime
Broken promises of successive governments
Recurrent and state sanctioned mob Violence
Use of state armed violence against non-violent protests.
The Tamil youth loose faith in passive means to win their rights.
1976 The Tamil Armed Resistance Movement started. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) is borne (originally named Tamil New Tigers)
'... whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law ...' - Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1976 Turning Point Vaddukkoddai Resolution
1976 - All the main Tamil political parties unite as Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) under the leadership of SJV Chelvanayakam QC and at their First National Convention declare:
"The Convention resolves that the restoration and reconstitution of the Free, Sovereign, Secular, Socialist state of Tamil Eelam based on the right of self-determination inherent to every nation has become inevitable in order to safeguard the very existence of the Tamil nation in this country."
1977 - Historical mandate of the Tamil people
1977 - The TULF used the Sri Lankan election as a referendum on the 1976 Vaddukkoddai Resolution. The Tamil people gave a clear mandate at the general elections to establish their sovereignty. The manifesto called for:
"… in the general Election the mandate of the Tamil Nation to establish an independent, sovereign, secular, socialist State of Tamil Eelam that includes all the geographically contiguous areas that have been the traditional homeland of the Tamil-speaking people in the country.
"The Tamil nation must take the decision to establish its sovereignty in its homeland on the basis of its right to self-determination. The only way to announce this decision to the Sinhalese Government and to the world is to vote for TULF. The Tamil-speaking representatives who get elected through these votes while being members of the National State Assembly of Tamil Eelam which will draft a constitution for the state of Tamil Eelam and establish the independence of Tamil Eelam by bringing that constitution into operation either by peaceful means or by direct action or struggle".
The Sinhala Response to Democratic Mandate of Tamils in 1977
Tamil People living outside Tamil Eelam were attacked by organised Sinhala gangs armed with clubs and machetes. Tamil businesses were set alight. The thugs had the backing of the Sinhala state who provided them with voters list to identify Tamils.
Thousands of Tamils lost their lives and millions worth of Tamil’s property were looted or destroyed. Yet again, the lives of Tamils living outside Tamil Eelam could not be guaranteed where neighbour turned against neighbour.
Tamils who escaped death fled to Tamil Eelam for safety.
The Sinhala Response ctd.
The Sri Lankan government uses its majority to draw up a constitution (1978) to placate the Sinhalese
introduces the clause “ Republic of Sri Lanka is a unitary state” in the constitution.
Buddhism is made the state religion
Tamil MPs refuse to accept the new constitution which violate the Tamil mandate boycott Sri Lankan parliament.
The Sinhala Democracy used to suppress the Democratic will of the Tamils.
Sinhala Armed forces Terrorise the Tamils
'The murders (of Tamils) are said to have been committed by police either acting without orders or with the connivance of the police' - Sir John Foster Q.C., David Astor, Robert Birley, Louis Blom-Cooper, James Fawcett, Dingle Foot & Michael Scott; The London Times 20 September 1977.
Civilians injured in an attack by policemen I heard the A.S.P. (Asst. Superintendent of Police) shouting 'shoot them like dogs. It is either they or we'... - M.R. Joseph, witness at the Sansoni Commission (Sessional Paper No. VII-1980; p 97)
There is considerable body of evidence that the army kills innocent (Tamil) civilians.' - Robert Kilroy-Silk M.P. & Roger Sims J.P., M.P; Report of Visit to Sri Lanka on Behalf of the (UK) Parliamentary Human Rights Group; February 1985
THE EVIDENCE STUDENTS KILLED IN JAFFNA 1980
1979 - Emergency Regulations & Prevention of Terrorism Act to give draconian powers to brutalise Tamils to give impunity to the armed forces. " The South African Terrorism Act has been called 'A piece of legislation which must shock the conscience of a lawyer.' Many of the provisions of the Sri Lankan Prevention of Terrorism Act are equally contrary to accepted principles of the Rule of Law." - Virginia Leary; Ethnic Conflict and Violence in Sri Lanka: Report of a Mission to Sri Lanka on behalf of the International Commission of Jurists, July/August 1981 This Prevention of Terrorism Act is still in force and so far an estimated 70,000 Tamil civilians have been killed by the Sri Lankan armed forces.
SINHALESE ACT TO DESTROY TAMIL HISTORY – Genocidal Intent
1981 JAFFNA PUBLIC LIBRARY which housed irreplaceable ancient Tamil Palm leaf (Olai) manuscripts and 90,000 Volumes of books, was set ablaze by the Sinhala Armed forces, personally directed by two cabinet ministers – A wanton act of genocidal intent to destroy the history of an ancient people.
'If any state could virtually declare war against a section of its own people, and do it unashamedly, it happened in Sri Lanka this year. Imagine a rowdy band of reserve policemen being brought all the way from the south to the Tamil capital city of Jaffna, and in the unusual presence in the city of two Cabinet Ministers, setting fire to the biggest cultural possession of the Tamils - the Public Library housing 95,000 volumes, some of them rare manuscripts...'
Jaffna public library burnt out Prof. Virginia A Leary; Ethnic Conflict and Violence in Sri Lanka; Report of a Mission to Sri Lanka on behalf of the International Commission of Jurists (July-August 1981) 1 st June 1981
KILLING OF TAMILS LIGITIMISED
'At present the armed services are under restraint because in any incident that may result there can be inquiries by coroners which may even lead later to trials before law courts. This puts the services at a great disadvantage... In order to free the (armed) services of these disabilities, security regulations will be published. They will remove the obligations to have coroners inquests following any shooting incidents by Armed Services' - Bulletin of the Sri Lanka Department of Information 4 June 1983
Source Amnesty International Report June 1984)
BLACK JULY 1983
The TV cameras of the world press, for the first time, record one chapter of the ongoing genocidal programme against Tamils. The advent of satellite TV makes it possible to show the international community the nature of the Sinhala psyche.
Part of a large scheme of ridding the island of Tamils, is recorded by the world press.
1983 anti Tamil pogrom "Motorists were dragged from their cars to be stoned and beaten with sticks... Others were cut down with knives and axes." -London Daily Telegraph 26 July 1983 "The impact of the communal violence on the Tamils was shattering... The evidence points clearly to the conclusion that the violence of the Sinhala rioters on the Tamils amounted to Acts of Genocide." - The Review, International Commission of Jurists, December 1983
1983 – THE EXODUS 'Awareness of their insecurity drove many Tamils, especially in the Colombo area, to abandon their homes and shops, and seek refuge in temples, airport hangers and improvised camps. Estimates of the numbers made homeless range upto 100,000, many in poorly provisioned 'refugee camps.' Tamils of Sri Lanka Minority Rights Group Report; September 1983 The government of India provided ships to repatriate the Tamils to Tamil Eelam and safety.
Mass evacuation away from Sinhala mob rule and carnage Aug1983 Tamil Refugees being taken in an Indian ship disembarking in Jaffna (August 1983) . The Truth: Tamils can only be safe in an independent Tamil Eelam. The Myth: Tamils live peacefully in the South amongst Sinhalese
"Witnesses also confirmed allegations made to us that whole (Tamil) villages have been emptied and neighbourhoods have been driven by the army from their homes and occupations... We can say, without doubt, that the Government is driving Tamils from their homes and does intend to settle Sinhalese people in these areas..." Robert Kilroy-Silk MP and Roger Sims MP UK Parliamentary Human Rights Group Report (1985)
Sinhala colonists and a Buddhist priest with guns This Buddhist Priest, who calls Sri Lanka 'The Sinhala Dheepa' (The Sinhala Island), has publicly exhorted Sinhala people to terrorize Tamil people into fleeing the island.
India role in the Tamil liberation movement
India became involved in the Civil War during the early 1980s when the Indian government supplied arms and funding to both the LTTE and its rival terrorist organisation, the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organisation, or TELO. It is thought that through arming both independence parties the Rajiv Ghandi's government sought to follow a 'divide and rule' strategy. Exerting control over the independence movement India stood to gain influence in Sri Lanka while quelling the calls of Tamils in India for a similar independent state.
Read more: "India in Sri Lankan War: History of India's Involvement with Tamil Tigers" - http://indian-history.suite101.com/article.cfm/india_in_sri_lankan_civil_war#ixzz097X5h9Kz
Indo-Sri Lankan Peace Accord July 29 1987
Negotiations were soon held between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President Junius Richard Jayewardene, which lead to the signing of the Indo-Sri Lankan Peace Accord on July 29, 1987. The Sri Lankan government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, including a devolution of power to the provinces, a merger of the North and East into one state, (invalidated in 2006) and the institution of Tamil as a national language. India, in return, was to cease aiding Tamil militants, and establish a peacekeeping force in the Tamil-majority area of Sri Lanka.
Read more: "India in Sri Lankan War: History of India's Involvement with Tamil Tigers" - http://indian-history.suite101.com/article.cfm/india_in_sri_lankan_civil_war#ixzz097bFGiLm
12 October 1988 Indian forces Jaffna University Helidrop
Sri Lankan Civil War Poomalai – Pawan ( Jaffna University Helidrop ) – Trishul – Viraat – Checkmate – KokavilThe Jaffna University Helidrop was the first of the operations launched by the Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) aimed at disarming the Tamil Tigers (LTTE) by force and securing the town of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in the opening stages of Operation Pawan during the active Indian mediation in the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Mounted on the midnight of 12 October 1988, the operation was planned as a fast heliborne assault involving Mi-8's of the No.109 HU,
the 10th Para Commandos and a contingent of the 13th Sikh LI. The aim of the operation was to capture the LTTE leadership at Jaffna University building which served as the Tactical Headquarters of the LTTE, which was expected to shorten Operation Pawan, the battle for Jaffna. However, the operation ended disastrously, failing to capture its objectives -owing to intelligence and planning failures.
The helidropped force suffered significant casualties, with nearly the entire Sikh LI detachment of twenty nine troops falling to a man, along with six Paracommandos falling in battle. It has since come to be known infamously as the Jaffna Football Ground Massacre ].
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indian forces at War with Tamil Tigers – October 87 to march90
The newly created Indian Peace Keeping Force demanded that the Tamil insurgent groups agreed to lay down their arms. The LTTE, who had grown in power initially through Indian funding, now refused to disarm its forces, drawing India into a three-year full-scale conflict. During the conflict India was accused of human rights abuses on various accounts, both from Western and Indian media sources.
The Peacekeeping Force were asked to leave by the Sri Lankan government, and after opposition from Gandhi, his successor V.P.Singh ended the conflict, with the last IPK ship leaving Sri Lanka on the 24th March 1990.
Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated subsequently by an allegedly LTTE woman suicide bomber, losing the movement significant support from inside India.
Read more: "India in Sri Lankan War: History of India's Involvement with Tamil Tigers" - http:// indian - history.suite101.com/article.cfm/india_in_sri_lankan_civil_war#ixzz097Z2lNJ3
10 th november/1990
bombs Jaffna hospital
In a statement issued here, the ICRC charged that a single air force aircraft dropped two bombs around 7.45 a.m. within 'the clearly defined security area'. One person was wounded inside the ICRC protected hospital compound, and four within the security area. According to the ICRC, the roofs of four of the hospital buildings were blown off by the explosion and the windows shattered... the hospital was clearly marked with red crosses for easy identification from the ground and air, officials said. The rules proscribe any military action from or against the safety area which was devoid of any military or political installation, the ICRC said... - AFP News Service 10 November 1990
Migration after 1983pogrom
After the start of the conflict between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, there was a mass migration of Tamils trying to escape the hardships and perils of war.
Initially, it was middle class professionals, such as doctors and engineers, who emigrated; they were followed by the poorer segments of the community.
The fighting has driven more than 800,000 Tamils from their homes to other places within Sri Lanka as internally displaced persons and also overseas,
prompting the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to identify them in 2004 as the largest asylum-seeking group
Refugees outside srilanka
Neighbouring India has provided refuge to over 100,000 in special camps and another 50,000 outside of the camps
History of the Tamil nation in the island of Srilanka continues in the second set of slides