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  1. 1. USA Childhood problem Chronic disease Western disease?
  2. 2. Obesity rates in Britain are soaring with nearly a quarter of adults now classed as clinically obese. Despite Government warnings that we are turning into a nation of couch potatoes and risking obesity-related illnesses such as heart disease and cancer, our waistlines keep growing.
  3. 3. A person is classed as obese when their weight has increased to a point where it seriously endangers their health. Obesity is diagnosed when a person's Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeds 30. BMI is calculated by dividing weight in kilogrammes by height in metres squared. http://www.bmi-calculator.net /
  4. 4. <ul><li>Being obese or overweight can increase the risk of developing a range of serious diseases. The risks rise with BMI, and so are greater for obese individuals. The 2004 Wanless report ‘Securing Good Health for the Whole Population’ likened obesity to smoking in terms of associated disease burden as a determinant of future health. The health risks associated with obesity are outlined below. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension (high blood pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint) </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Gallbladder disease </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep apnea and respiratory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Some cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon) </li></ul><ul><li>Low back pain </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery complications </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological ill health </li></ul><ul><li>Severely obese individuals are likely to die on average 11 years earlier (13 years for a severely obese man between 20 and 30 years of age), than those with a healthy weight. </li></ul>
  5. 9. NOO has produced a dynamic map showing the change in prevalence of adult obesity in English regions from 1993-2007. The data are from the Health Survey for England (HSE). http://www.noo.org.uk/maps/adult_obesity93_07
  6. 10. http:// www.sepho.nhs.uk/noo/atlas.html Use this online GIS to map obesity and compare to other statistics such as Deprivation. You can even correlate the data using statistical methods (if that is your thing!!)
  7. 12. Foresight: Tackling Obesities: Future Choices project, www.foresight.gov.uk published in October 2007, predict that if no action is taken, by 2050, 60% of men and 50% of women and 25% of children will be obese. Being obese or overweight increases the risk of a range of diseases that can have a significant health impact on individuals. Around 58% of type-2 diabetes, 21% of heart disease and between 8% and 42% of certain cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon) are attributable to excess body fat. Obesity is responsible for 9,000 premature deaths each year in England, and reduces life expectancy by, on average, 9 years. Obese people can experience stigmatization and bullying, which can lead to depression and low self-esteem. Obesity also has serious economic costs. It has been estimated that the cost of obesity to the NHS is approximately £4.2 billion and Foresight forecast this will more than double by 2050. However, there are also costs to society and the economy more broadly – for example, sickness absence reduces productivity. Foresight estimate that weight problems already cost the wider economy in the region of £16 billion, and that this will rise to £50 billion per year by 2050 if left unchecked.
  8. 13. <ul><li>Compare Obesity in the UK with Obesity in The Pacific islands </li></ul><ul><li>Look for similarities and differences in: </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Responses </li></ul><ul><li>The future </li></ul>