Properties of matter
General Properties of Matter
- Matter is anything that has mass and volume
- Everything is made of matter
What are properties?
- Characteristics used to describe an object
- Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness
General Properties of matter
- Mass, weight, volume, and density
- Properties are used to identify a substance
What is mass?
- Mass is the amount of matter in an object
- Mass is also the measure of inertia
What is inertia?
- Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion
- The more mass the greater the inertia
- How is mass related to inertia?
- Why are properties of an object important?
Force and inertia
- When an object is at rest, a force is needed to overcome the inertia to make it move and to stop the object’s motion
- Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?
- What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?
- Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?
- What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?
- What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle?
- The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object
- Weight changes with gravity
- The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)
- Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s 2 )
- What is your weight in Newtons?
What is gravity?
- The force of attraction between objects is gravity
- All objects exert a gravitational force on each other
- Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?
- The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force
- Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?
What affects gravity?
- The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases
- gravity depends on mass and distance
- The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh
- Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?
- The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?
- What are three properties of matter related to mass?
- What is density and how is it calculated?
- The density of water is 1.0 g/ml
- Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water
- Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water
- Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water
- Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed
- The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!
- If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?
- If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm 3 , what is the density of aluminum?
- If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm 3 , what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm 3 ?
What is specific gravity?
- A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity
- How is density different from specific gravity?
What is a physical property?
- Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
Phases of matter (video)
- Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
- solids have a definite shape and volume
Solid particle arrangement
- Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate
- Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous
Types of solids
- Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar)
- Amorphous solids can lose their shape
Examples of amorphous solids
- Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)
Liquid particle arrangement
- Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move
- Describe the shape of a liquid.
Describe a liquid
- Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume
- What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container?
Properties of liquids
- Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container
- Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow
What is viscosity?
- The resistance of a liquid to flow
- The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily
- Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity
Behavior of liquids
- Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles
- Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles
Surface tension (video)
- Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion
- Describe the viscosity of a liquid.
- Describe a liquid’s shape.
- How is adhesion different from cohesion?
Properties of gases
- Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video)
- They fill all the available space in a container
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
- Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion
- How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?
- Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume
- Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)
- As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases
- Heating air causes it to expand
- How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?
- The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area
- Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)
- If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law)
- The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure
- most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)
- What are the four phases of matter?
- Describe the plasma phase of matter.
Phase changes (video)
- Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation
What is a physical change?
- Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties
- Type of matter remains the same
- Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).
- Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change
- Phase change from a solid to a liquid
- Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid
- How is melting different from freezing?
Phase changes (video)
- Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant
- Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes
- Phase change from a liquid to a gas
Boiling point (video)
- The temperature in which a liquid boils
- Point at which a liquid changes to a gas
- Phase change of a liquid to a solid
- The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point
- Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid
- Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas
- Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.
- Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation
- Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties
- The change of a substance into a new and different substance
- Also known as a chemical reaction
- What is another name for a chemical change?
- How is a chemical change different from a physical change?