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Transcript

  • 1. Properties of matter
  • 2. General Properties of Matter
    • Matter is anything that has mass and volume
    • Everything is made of matter
  • 3. What are properties?
    • Characteristics used to describe an object
    • Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness
    • video
  • 4. General Properties of matter
    • Mass, weight, volume, and density
    • Properties are used to identify a substance
  • 5. What is mass?
    • Mass is the amount of matter in an object
    • Mass is constant
    • Mass is also the measure of inertia
  • 6. What is inertia?
    • Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion
    • The more mass the greater the inertia
  • 7. Questions
    • How is mass related to inertia?
    • Why are properties of an object important?
  • 8. Force and inertia
    • When an object is at rest, a force is needed to overcome the inertia to make it move and to stop the object’s motion
  • 9. Question
    • Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?
  • 10. Question
    • What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?
  • 11. Question
    • Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?
  • 12. Question
    • What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?
  • 13. Question
    • What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle?
  • 14. Weight
    • The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object
    • Weight changes with gravity
    • The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)
  • 15. Weight formula
    • 1 kg = 2.2 pounds
    • Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s 2 )
    • W= m x g
    • What is your mass?
    • What is your weight in Newtons?
  • 16. What is gravity?
    • The force of attraction between objects is gravity
    • All objects exert a gravitational force on each other
  • 17. Question
    • Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?
  • 18. Gravitational pull
    • The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force
  • 19. Question
    • Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?
  • 20. What affects gravity?
    • The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases
    • gravity depends on mass and distance
  • 21. Gravity
    • The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh
  • 22. Question
    • Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?
  • 23. Question
    • The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?
  • 24. Questions
    • What are three properties of matter related to mass?
  • 25. Question
    • What is density and how is it calculated?
  • 26. Density
    • The density of water is 1.0 g/ml
    • Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water
  • 27. Density
    • Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water
  • 28. Ice
    • Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water
    • Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed
  • 29. Astronomy fact!
    • The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!
  • 30. Calculations
    • If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?
  • 31. Calculation
    • If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm 3 , what is the density of aluminum?
  • 32. Calculation
    • If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm 3 , what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm 3 ?
  • 33. What is specific gravity?
    • A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity
  • 34. Questions
    • How is density different from specific gravity?
  • 35. What is a physical property?
    • Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
  • 36. Phases of matter (video)
    • Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
    • solids have a definite shape and volume
  • 37. Solid particle arrangement
    • Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate
    • Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous
  • 38. Types of solids
    • Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar)
    • Amorphous solids can lose their shape
  • 39. Examples of amorphous solids
    • Tar, candle wax, glass
    • Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)
  • 40. Liquid particle arrangement
    • Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move
  • 41. Question
    • Describe the shape of a liquid.
  • 42. Describe a liquid
    • Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume
  • 43. Question
    • What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container?
  • 44. Properties of liquids
    • Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container
    • Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow
  • 45. What is viscosity?
    • The resistance of a liquid to flow
    • The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily
    • Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity
  • 46. Behavior of liquids
    • Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles
    • Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles
  • 47. Surface tension (video)
    • Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion
  • 48. Question
    • Describe the viscosity of a liquid.
    • Describe a liquid’s shape.
  • 49. Questions
    • How is adhesion different from cohesion?
    • Explain surface tension.
  • 50. Properties of gases
    • Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video)
    • They fill all the available space in a container
  • 51. Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
    • Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion
  • 52. Question
    • How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?
  • 53. Gas laws
    • Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume
  • 54. Charles Law
    • Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)
  • 55. Charles’ Law
    • As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases
    • Heating air causes it to expand
  • 56. Question
    • How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?
  • 57. Pressure
    • The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area
  • 58. Boyle’s Law
    • Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)
  • 59. Boyle’s law
    • If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law)
    • The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure
  • 60. Plasma
    • Plasma (phase)
    • most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)
  • 61. Question
    • What are the four phases of matter?
    • Describe the plasma phase of matter.
  • 62. Phase changes (video)
    • Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation
  • 63. What is a physical change?
    • Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties
    • Type of matter remains the same
  • 64. Questions
    • Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).
  • 65. Physical changes
    • Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change
  • 66. Melting video
    • Phase change from a solid to a liquid
  • 67. Melting point
    • Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid
    • Physical property
  • 68. Questions
    • How is melting different from freezing?
  • 69. Phase changes (video)
    • Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant
    • Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes
  • 70. Vaporization
    • Phase change from a liquid to a gas
  • 71. Boiling point (video)
    • The temperature in which a liquid boils
    • Point at which a liquid changes to a gas
  • 72. Freezing (video)
    • Phase change of a liquid to a solid
    • The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point
  • 73. Condensation
    • Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid
    • Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas
  • 74. Question
    • Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.
  • 75. Sublimation examples
    • Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation
  • 76. Chemical properties
    • Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties
    • Ex: flammability
  • 77. Chemical changes
    • The change of a substance into a new and different substance
    • Also known as a chemical reaction
    • video
  • 78. Questions
    • What is another name for a chemical change?
    • Describe sublimation.
    • How is a chemical change different from a physical change?