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    Vocab Vocab Document Transcript

    • 1) Squall —n. 1 sudden or violent wind, esp. with rain, snow, or sleet. 2 discordant cry; scream (esp. of a baby). —v. 1 utter a squall; scream. 2 utter with a squall.  squally adj. [probably alteration of *squeal after *bawl] 2)Flatter v. 1 compliment unduly, esp. for gain or advantage. 2 (usu. refl.; usu. foll. by that) congratulate or delude (oneself etc.) (He flatters himself that he can sing). 3 (of colour, style, portrait, painter etc.) enhance the appearance of (that blouse flatters you). 4 cause to feel honored. 3)Delude v. (-ding) deceive, mislead. [Latin ludo mock] 4)Deluge —n. 1 great flood. 2 (the Deluge) biblical Flood (Gen. 6-8). 3 overwhelming rush. 4 heavy fall of rain. —v. (-ging) flood or inundate (deluged with complaints). 5)inundate v. (-ting) (often foll. by with) 1 flood. 2 overwhelm.  inundation n. 6)Deceive v. (-ving) 1 make (a person) believe what is false; purposely mislead. 2 be unfaithful to, esp. sexually. 3 use deceit.  deceive oneself persist in a mistaken belief.  deceiver n. 7)Overwhelming adj. 1 too great to resist or overcome (an overwhelming desire to laugh). 2 by a great number (the overwhelming majority).  overwhelmingly adv. 8)Palpable adj. 1 able to be touched or felt. 2 readily perceived.  palpably adv. [Latin palpo caress] 9)hopping mad predic. adj. colloq. very angry. 10)melee n. (Brit. mêlée) 1 confused fight, skirmish, or scuffle. 2 muddle. [French: related to *medley] 11) skirmish —n. 1 minor battle. 2 short argument or contest of wit etc. —v. engage in a skirmish. 12)scuffle —n. confused struggle or fight at close quarters. —v. (-ling) engage in a scuffle. 13)guzzle v. (-ling) eat or drink greedily. 14)albeit .: though. [all be it] 15)pinnacle n. 1 culmination or climax. 2 natural peak. 14a) culminate v. (-ting) (usu. foll. by in) reach its highest or final point (culminate in war). culmination n. 16)Venerable adj. 1 entitled to deep respect on account of character, age, associations, etc. (venerable priest; venerable relics). 17)Relic n. 1 objects that is interesting because of its age or association. 2 part of a dead holy
    • person's body or belongings kept as an object of reverence. 3 surviving custom or belief etc. from a past age. 4 memento or souvenir. 5 (in pl.) what has survived. 6 (in pl.) dead body or remains of a person. 18)Aghast: adj. filled with dismay or consternation. [past part. of obsolete 19)Consternation n. anxiety, dismay. 20)Dismay —n. intense disappointment or despair. —v. fill with dismay. 21)Despair —n. 1 complete loss or absence of hope. 2 cause of this. —v. (often foll. by of) lose or be without hope (despaired of ever winning). 22)laudable adj. commendable.  laudability n. laudably adv. 23)commendable adj. praiseworthy.  commendably adv. 24)commensurable adj. 1 (often foll. by with, to) measurable by the same standard. 2 (foll. by to) proportionate to. 3 Math. (of numbers) in a ratio equal to the ratio of integers.  25)commensurability n. [Latin: related to *measure] 26)muddle —v. (-ling) (often foll. by up) 1 bring into disorder. 2 bewilder, confuse. —n. 1 disorder. 2 confusion.  muddle along (or on) progress in a haphazard way. muddle through succeed despite one's inefficiency. 27)deficit n. 1 amount by which a thing (esp. money) is too small. 2 excess of liabilities over assets. [French from Latin: related to *defect] 28)bureaucracy n. (pl. -ies) 1 a government by central administration. b State etc. so governed. 2 government officials, esp. regarded as oppressive and inflexible. 3 conduct typical of these. 29)bureaucrat n. 1 official in a bureaucracy. 2 inflexible administrator.  bureaucratic adj. bureaucratically adv. 30)oppress : verb 1.LIMIT FREEDOM to treat a group of people in an unfair way, often by limiting their freedom[often passive] Women were oppressed by a society which considered them inferior. 2.MAKE ANXIOUS to make someone feel anxious:The thought of tomorrow's interview oppressed him. 31)watershed n. 1 line of separation between waters flowing to different rivers, basins, etc. 2 turning-point in affairs. 32)Travail —n. 1 painful effort. 2 pangs of childbirth. —v. make a painful effort, esp. in childbirth. [French travaillier]
    • 33)welcome change 34)compliment —n. 1 a polite expression of praise. b act implying praise. 2 (in pl.) a formal greetings accompanying a present etc. b praise. —v. (often foll. by on) congratulate; praise. [Latin: related to *complement] 35)complimentary adj. 1 expressing a compliment. 2 given free of charge. 36)voluntary —adj. 1 acting, done, or given willingly; not compulsory; intentional. 2 unpaid (voluntary work). 3 (of an institution) supported by charity.. 4 brought about by voluntary action. 6 (of a movement, muscle, or limb) controlled by the will. 37)volunteer —n. person who voluntarily undertakes a task or enters military etc. service. —v. 1 (often foll. by to + infin.) undertake or offer (one's services, a remark, etc.) voluntarily. 2 (often foll. by for) be a volunteer. 38)supplement —n. 1 thing or part added to improve or provide further information. 2 separate section, esp. a colour magazine, of a newspaper etc. —v. provide a supplement for.  supplemental adj. supplementary adj. supplementation n. [Latin suppleo supply] 39)Depose v. (-sing) 1 remove from office, esp. dethrone. 2 Law (usu. foll. by to, or that + clause) testify, esp. on oath. [French from Latin: related to *deposit] 40)Accomplice n. partner in a crime etc. 41)aid —n. 1 help. 2 person or thing that helps. —v. 1 help. 2 promote (sleep will aid recovery).  in aid of 1 in support of. 42)aide n. 1 aide-de-camp. 2 esp. US assistant. [French] 43)aide-de-camp n. (pl. aides-de-camp pronunc. same) officer assisting a senior officer. [French] 44)outskirts n.pl. outer area of a town etc. 45)tardy adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 slow to act, come, or happen. 2 delaying or delayed. 46)contrast —n. 1 a juxtaposition or comparison showing differences. b difference so revealed. 2 (often foll. by to) thing or person having different qualities. 47)Expedite v. (-ting) 1 check the progress of. 2 accomplish (business) quickly. [Latin expedio from pes ped- foot]
    • 48)expedition n. 1 journey or voyage for a particular purpose, esp. exploration. 2 people etc. undertaking this. 3 speed. 49)expeditious adj. acting or done with speed and efficiency. 50)relive v. (-ving) live (an experience etc.) over again, esp. in the imagination. 51)bewilder v. perplex, confuse.  bewildering adj. bewilderment n. [from *be-, obsolete wilder lose one's way] 52)bewitch v. 1 enchant. 2 cast a spell on. If someone or something bewitches you, you find them extremely attractive and interesting.;a bewitching smile 53)enchant v. 1 charm, delight. 2 bewitch.  enchantedly adv. enchanting adj. enchantingly adv. enchantment n. 54)charm —n. 1 power or quality of delighting, arousing admiration, or influencing; fascination, attractiveness 55)prejudge v. (-ging) form a premature judgement on (a person, issue, etc.). 56)prejudice —n. 1 a preconceived opinion. b (foll. by against, in favour of) bias, partiality. 2 harm that results or may result from some action or judgement (to the prejudice of). —v. (-cing) 1 impair the validity or force of (a right, claim, statement, etc.). 2 (esp. as prejudiced adj.) cause (a person) to have a prejudice.  without prejudice (often foll. by to) without detriment (to an existing right or claim). [Latin: related to *judge] when someone dislikes a group of people or treats them unfairly because they are a different race, sex, religion, etc .racial prejudice 57)prejudicial adj. (often foll. by to) causing prejudice; detrimental.: It will be prejudicial to reach any con 58)conviction n. 1 convicting or being convicted. 1.CRIME [C] when someone is officially found to be guilty of a particular crime;He already had two convictions for burglary. 59)deter v. (-rr-) (often foll. by from) discourage or prevent, esp. through fear.  determent n 60)harsh adj. 1 unpleasantly rough or sharp, esp. to the senses. 2 severe, cruel.  harshen v. harshly adv. harshness n. 61)pleasant adj. (-er, -est) pleasing to the mind, feelings, or senses.  pleasantly adv. [French: related to *please] 62)swift —adj. 1 quick, rapid. 2 prompt. Brisk : adjective :quick and energetic
    • 63)prompt —adj. acting, made, or done with alacrity; ready (prompt reply). —adv. Punctually 64)Alacrity n. briskness; cheerful readiness. [Latin alacer brisk] (formal) If you do something with alacrity, you do it in a very quick and willing way. 65)facsimile n. exact copy, esp. of writing, printing, a picture, etc. [Latin, = make like] 66)Tacit adj. understood or implied without being stated (tacit consent).  tacitly 67)Holograph —adj. wholly written by hand by the person named as the author. —n. holograph document. 68)realm n. 1 formal kingdom. 2 domain (realm of myth). (formal )an area of knowledge or activity 69)distraught adj. distracted with worry, fear, etc.; extremely agitated 70)distract v. 1 (often foll. by from) draw away the attention of. 2 bewilder, perplex. 3 (as distracted adj.) confused, mad, or angry. 4 amuse, esp. to divert from pain etc. 71)Bewilder v. perplex, confuse.  bewildering adj. bewilderment n. 72)perplex v. 1 puzzle, bewilder, or disconcert. 2 complicate or confuse (a matter).  perplexedly adv. perplexing adj. [Latin perplexus involved] perplexed confused;He seemed a little perplexed by the question;.perplexing confusing,a perplexing problem 73)perplexity n. (pl. -ies) 1 state of being perplexed. 2 thing that perplexes. 74)ponder v. 1 think over; consider. 2 MUSE, be deep in thought. 75)Meticulous adj. 1 giving great attention to detail. 2 very careful and precise.  meticulously adv. meticulousness n 76)conscience n. moral sense of right and wrong, esp. as affecting behaviour.  in all conscience colloq. by any reasonable standard. on one's conscience causing one feelings of guilt. prisoner of conscience person imprisoned by the State for his or her political or religious views. 77)Taint —n. 1 spot or trace of decay, infection, corruption, etc. 2 corrupt condition or infection. — v. 1 affect with a taint; become tainted. 2 (foll. by with) affect 78)Annul v. 1 declare invalid. 2 cancel, abolish.  annulment n 79)verdict n. 1 decision of a jury in a civil or criminal case. 2 decision; judgement.
    • 80)Censure —v. (-ring) criticize harshly; reprove. —n. hostile criticism; disapproval 81)Rebuke —v. (-king) express sharp disapproval to (a person) for a fault; censure. —n. rebuking or being rebuked. Same as Reprove: To voice or convey disapproval of; rebuk 81b) admonish. To reprove gently but earnestly. 2. To counsel (another) against something to be avoided; caution. 3. To remind of something forgotten or disregarded, as an obligation or a responsibility., to gently tell someone that they have done something wrong 81c) Earnest adj. intensely serious. In earnest serious, seriously, with determination.  earnestly adv. earnestness 82)Jurisprudence n. science or philosophy of law.  jurisprudential adj. 83)Juxtapose v. (-sing) 1 place (things) side by side. 2 (foll. by to, with) place (a thing) beside another.  juxtaposition n. juxtapositional adj. 84)Partisan (also partizan) —n. 1 strong, esp. unreasoning, supporter of a party, cause, etc. 2 guerrilla. —adj. 1 of partisans. 2 biased.  partisanship 85)precedent —n. previous case etc. taken as a guide for subsequent cases or as a justification. — adj. preceding in time, order, importance, etc. 86)persist v. 1 (often foll. by in) continue firmly or obstinately (in an opinion or action) esp. despite obstacles, remonstrance, etc. 2 (of a phenomenon etc.) continue in existence; survive.  persistence n. persistent adj. persistently 87)Remonstrate v. (-ting) (foll. by with) make a protest; argue forcibly.  remonstrance n. remonstration n. Vs Demonstrate v. (-ting) 1 show (feelings etc.). 2 describe and explain by experiment, practical use, etc. 3 logically prove or be proof of the truth or existence of. 4 take part in a public demonstration. 88)Obstinate adj. 1 stubborn, intractable. 2 firmly continuing in one's action or opinion despite advice.  obstinacy n. obstinately adv. [Latin obstino persist] 89)Intractable adj. 1 hard to control or deal with. 2 difficult, stubborn.  intractability n. intractably adv. 90)calumny n. (pl. -ies) slander; malicious representation.  calumnious ad 91)slander —n. 1 false and damaging utterance about a person. 2 uttering of this. —v. utter slander about.  slanderous adj. [French esclandre: related to *scandal
    • 92)Malice n. 1 desire to harm or cause difficulty to others; ill-will. 2 Law harmful intent. [Latin malus bad] 93)malice aforethought n. Law intention to commit a crime, esp. murder. 94)malicious adj. given to or arising from malice.  maliciously adv. 95)Malign —adj. 1 (of a thing) injurious. 2 (of a disease) malignant. 3 96)utter1 attrib. adj. complete, absolute.  utterly adv. [Old English, comparative of *out] 97)utter2 v. 1 emit audibly. 2 express in words. 3 Law put (esp. forged money) into circulation. [Dutch] 98)Consign v. (often foll. by to) 1 hand over; deliver. 2 assign; commit. 3 transmit or send (goods).  consignee n. consignor n. 99)assign —v. 1 (usu. foll. by to) a allot as a share or responsibility. b appoint to a position, task, etc. 2 fix (a time, place, etc.). 100)Ludicrous adj. absurd, stupid, ridiculous, laughable.  ludicrously adv. ludicrousness n. [Latin ludicrum stage play],ludicrous idea or suggestion 101)absurd adj. wildly illogical or inappropriate; ridiculous. 102)exigency n. (pl. -ies) (also exigence) 1 urgent need or demand. 2 emergency.  exigent 103)rectitude n. 1 morally right. 2 correctness. [Latin rectus right] 104)impasse n. deadlock. [French: related to *pass1] 105)passé adj. (fem. passée) 1 old-fashioned. 2 past its prime. 106)deadlock —n. 1 state of unresolved conflict.. —v. bring or come to a standstill. 107)defiance n. open disobedience; bold resistance.,dissent 108)dissent —v. (often foll. by from) 1 disagree, esp. openly. 2 differ, esp. from the established or official opinion, defiance 109)omen —n. 1 event or object portending good or evil. 2 prophetic significance (of good omen). —v. (usu. in passive) portend. 110)foreshadow v. be a warning or indication of (a future event). 111)portend v. 1 foreshadow as an omen. 2 give warning of
    • 112)augur —v. portend, serve as an omen (augur well or ill) 113)steadfast adj. constant, firm, unwavering.  steadfastly adv. Steadfastness 114)waver v. 1 be or become unsteady; begin to give way. 2 be irresolute. 115)Benign adj. 1 gentle, mild, kindly. 2 fortunate, salutary. 3 (of a tumour etc.) not malignant.  benignly adv. [Latin benignus] 116)benignant adj. 1 kindly, esp. to inferiors. 2 salutary, beneficial.  benignancy n. 117)salutary adj. having a good effect. [Latin: related to *salute] 118)salutation n. formal sign or expression of greeting. 119)Humane adj. 1 benevolent, compassionate. 2 inflicting the minimum of pain. 3 (of learning) tending to civilize.  humanely adv. humaneness n. 120)Benevolent adj. 1 well-wishing; actively friendly and helpful. 2 charitable (benevolent fund).  benevolence n 121)compassionate adj. showing compassion, sympathetic.  compassionately 122)divulge v. (-ging) disclose, reveal (a secret etc.).  divulgence n. [Latin divulge 123)misdeed n. evil deed, wrongdoing, crime. 124)legitimate adj. 1 (of a child) born of parents married to each other. 2 lawful, proper, regular. 3 logically acceptable.  legitimacy n. legitimately adv. [Latin legitimo legitimize, from lex legis law] 125)legitimatize v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing) legitimize. serve as a justification for.  legitimization n. 126)scrutiny n. (pl. -ies) 1 critical gaze. 2 close investigation. 3 official examination of ballot- papers. [Latin scrutinium from scrutor examine] 127)gaze —v. (-zing) (foll. by at, into, on, etc.) look fixedly. —n. intent look. 128)exemplary adj. 1 fit to be imitated; outstandingly good. 2 serving as a warning. 3 illustrative. [Latin: related to *example] 129)exemplify v. (-ies, -ied) 1 illustrate by example. 2 be an example of.  exemplification n. 130)cloak —n. 1 outdoor . 2 covering (cloak of snow). —v. 1 cover with a cloak. 2 conceal,
    • disguise. something that is intended to cover or hide the truth of something else 131)conceal v. 1 keep secret. 2 hide.  concealment n. 132)disguise —v. (-sing) 1 conceal the identity of; make unrecognizable. 2 conceal (disguised my anger). —n. 1 a costume, make-up, etc., used to disguise. b action, manner, etc., used to deceive. 133)Allay v. 1 diminish (fear, suspicion, etc.). 2 alleviate (pain etc.). 134)alleviate v. (-ting) make (pain etc.) less severe.  alleviation n. 135)appal v. (-ll-) 1 greatly dismay or horrify ,shock. 2 (as appalling adj.) colloq. very bad, shocking 136)dismay —n. intense disappointment or despair. —v. fill with dismay. 137)antiquated adj. old-fashioned. 138)antique —n. old object, esp. a piece of furniture, of high value. —adj. 1 of or from an early date. 2 old-fashioned. [Latin antiquus] 139)antiquity n. (pl. -ies) 1 ancient times, 140)Complacent adj. smugly self-satisfied or contented.  complacence n. complacency n. complacently 141)Smug adj. (smugger, smuggest) self-satisfied.  smugly adv. smugness 142)shroud —n. thing that conceals. 143)awe —n. reverential fear or wonder. —v. (awing) inspire with awe. 144)awe-inspiring adj. awesome; magnificent. 145)awesome adj. inspiring awe; dreaded. 146)dread —v. fear greatly, esp. in advance. —n. great fear or apprehension. —adj. 1 dreaded. 2 archaic awe-inspiring, dreadful. 147)Apprehend v. 1 seize, arrest. 2 understand, perceive. [Latin prehendo grasp] 148)apprehension n. 1 uneasiness, dread. 2 understanding. 3 arrest, capture. 149)Apprehensive adj. uneasily fearful.  apprehensively adv.
    • 150)awful adj. 1 colloq. very bad or unpleasant (has awful writing; awful weather). 2 (attrib.) as an intensifier (awful lot of money). 3 poet. inspiring awe. 151)awfully adv. 1 badly; unpleasantly (played awfully). 2 colloq. very (awfully pleased). 152)reverence —n. a strong feeling of respect and admiration 153)reverential n. of the nature of, due to, or characterized by reverence.  reverentially adv. 154)Reverie n. fit of abstracted musing, day-dream. 155)admiration n. respect; warm approval or pleasure.. 156)admire v. (-ring) 1 regard with approval, respect, 157)espousal n. 1 (foll. by of) espousing of (a cause etc.). 2 archaic marriage, betrothal. 158)Espouse v. (-sing) 1 adopt or support (a cause, doctrine, etc.). 2 archaic a (usu. of a man) marry. b (usu. foll. by to) give (a woman) in marriage. 159)archaic adj. 1 a antiquated. b (of a word etc.) no longer in ordinary use. 2 of an early period of culture 160)betroth v. (usu. as betrothed adj.) engage to marry. engagement  betrothal n. ,promise to marry 161)gambit n. 1 chess opening in which a player sacrifices a piece or pawn to secure an advantage. 2 opening move in a discussion etc. 3 trick or device. 162)blaspheme v. (-ming) 1 use religious names irreverently; treat a religious or sacred subject irreverently. 2 talk irreverently about; use blasphemy against. 163)Blasphemy n. (pl. -ies) 1 irreverent talk or treatment of a religious or sacred thing. 2 instance of this. 164)revisionism n. often derog. revision or modification of an orthodoxy, esp. of Marxism.  revisionist n. & adj. 165)cognition n. 1 knowing, perceiving, or conceiving as an act or faculty distinct from emotion and volition. 2 result of this.  cognitional adj. cognitive adj. [Latin cognitio: related to *cognizance] 166)Cognizance n. formal 1 knowledge or awareness; perception. 2 sphere of observation or concern. 3 Heraldry distinctive device or mark. [Latin cognosco get to know] 167)Cognizant adj. (foll. by of) formal having knowledge or being aware of.
    • 168)conceive v. (-ving) 1 become pregnant (with). 2 a (often foll. by of) imagine, think. b (usu. in passive) formulate (a belief, plan, etc.); conceivable adj. capable of being grasped or imagined.  conceivably adv. 169)volition n. act or power of willing.the power to make your own decisions:He left the firm of his own volition, will power of making decisions 170)faculty n. (pl. -ies) 1 aptitude for a particular activity. 2 inherent mental or physical power. 3 a group of related university departments. b US teaching staff of a university or college. 4 authorization 171)Perpetual adj. 1 lasting for ever or indefinitely. 2 continuous, uninterrupted. 3 colloq. frequent (perpetual interruptions). 172)perpetuate v. (-ting) 1 make perpetual. 2 preserve from oblivion.  perpetuation n. perpetuator n. 173)oblivion :1.NOT REMEMBERED when someone or something is not remembered ,to disappear into oblivion 2.NOT AWARE when you are not aware of what is happening around you,He drank himself into oblivion. 174)obvious :easy to understand or see 175)perpetuity n. (pl. -ies) 1 state or quality of being perpetual. 2 perpetual annuity. 3 perpetual possession or position.  in perpetuity for ever. 176)white elephant n. useless possession. 177)archive —n. (usu. in pl.) 1 collection of documents or records. 2 store for these. —v. (-ving) 1 place or store in an archive. 2 Computing: transfer (data) to a less frequently used file. 178)Anachronism n. 1 a attribution of a custom, event, etc., to the wrong period. b thing thus attributed. 2 out-of-date person or thing.  anachronistic adj. [Greek ana- against, khronos time] An artifact that belongs to another time; A person who seems to be displaced in time; who belongs to another age 179)outlive v. (-ving) 1 live longer than (a person). 2 live beyond (a period or date). 180)outlook n. 1 prospect, view. 2 mental attitude. nature 181)legacy n. (pl. -ies) 1 gift left in a will. 2 thing handed down by a predecessor.; On the death of his father, he received a small legacy. 182)Bequeath v. 1 leave to a person in a will. 2 hand down to posterity. to formally arrange to give someone something after you die;He bequeathed his art collection to the city of Glasgow.
    • 183)bequest n. 1 bequeathing; bestowal by will. 2 thing bequeathed. money or property that you have arranged for someone to get after you die 184)bestowal :The act of conferring an honour or presenting a gift 185)posterity n. 1 succeeding generations. 2 person's descendants. 186)Bestow v. (foll. by on, upon) confer (a gift, right, etc.).  bestowal n. 187)confer v. (-rr-) 1 (often foll. by on, upon) grant or bestow. 2 (often foll. by with) converse, consult. verb conferring, past conferred :1.DISCUSS [I] to discuss something with other people before making a decision; 2 GIVE [T] formal to give someone something, especially an official title, an honour, or an advantage 188)liberty n. (pl. -ies) 1 freedom from captivity etc. 2 right or power to do as one pleases. 189)liberalize v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing) make or become more liberal or less strict.  liberalization n. open mindedly 190)liberate v. (-ting) 1 (often foll. by from) set free. 2 free (a country etc.) from an oppressor or enemy. 3 (often as liberated adj.) free (a person) from rigid social conventions.  liberation n. liberator n. [Latin liberare liberat- from liber free] 191)red tape n. excessive bureaucracy or formality, esp. in public business. 192)sole adj. one and only; single, exclusive. [French from Latin solus] 193)archaic adj. 1 a antiquated. b (of a word etc.) no longer in ordinary use. 2 of an early period of culture.  archaically adv 194)Stymie (also stimy) —n. (pl. -ies) difficult situation. —v. (-mies, -mied, -mying or -mieing) , obstruct; thwart., causes frustration 195)thwart —v. frustrate or foil (a person, plan, etc.). —n. 196)foil v. frustrate, baffle, defeat. 197)frustrate v. (-ting) 1 make (efforts) ineffective. 2 prevent (a person) from achieving a purpose. 3 (as frustrated adj.) a discontented because unable to achieve one's aims. b sexually unfulfilled.  frustrating adj. frustratingly adv. frustration n. 198)baffle —v. (-ling) 1 perplex. 2 frustrate, hinder. —n. 199)Placate v. (-ting) pacify; conciliate.  placatory adj. [Latin placo appease]
    • 200)pacify v. (-ies, -ied) 1 appease (a person, anger, etc.). 2 bring (a country etc.) to a state of peace.  pacification n. pacificatory adj. 201)appease v. (-sing) 1 make calm or quiet, esp. conciliate (a potential aggressor) by making concessions. 2 satisfy (an appetite, scruples).  appeasement n. 202)conciliate v. (-ting) make calm and amenable; pacify; gain the goodwill of. 2 reconcile.  conciliation n. conciliator n. conciliatory 203)Amenable adj. 1 responsive, docile. 2 (often foll. by to) answerable to law etc. 204)responsive adj. 1 (often foll. by to) responding readily (to some influence). 2 sympathetic. 3 a answering. b by way of answer.  responsiveness n 205)Docile adj. submissive, easily managed.  docilely adv. docility n. A docile person or animal is quiet and easily controlled. 206)submissive adj. humble, obedient.  submissively adv. submissiveness n. 207)humble —adj. 1 having or showing low self-esteem. 2 of low social or political rank. 3 modest in size, pretensions, etc. —v. (-ling) 1 make humble = abase. 2 lower the rank or status of. 208)Abase v. (-sing) (also refl.) humiliate, degrade.  abasement n. 209)eat humble pie- apologize humbly; accept humiliation.  humbleness n. humbly adv. 210)humiliate v. (-ting) injure the dignity or self-respect of.  humiliating adj. humiliation n. [Latin: related to *humble] 211)humility n. 1 humbleness, meekness. 2 humble condition. [French: related to *humiliate] 212)meek adj. humble and submissive or gentle.  meekly adv. meekness n. 213)patchy adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 uneven in quality. 2 having or existing in patches.  patchily adv. patchiness n. 214)patch —n. 1 material used to mend a hole or as reinforcement. 2 shield protecting an injured eye. 3 large or irregular distinguishable area. 4 colloq. period of a specified, esp. unpleasant, kind (went through a bad patch). 5 piece of ground. 6 colloq. area assigned to, or patrolled by, esp. a police officer. 7 plants growing in one place (cabbage patch). 8 scrap, remnant. —v. 1 (often foll. by up) repair with a patch or patches. 2 (of material) serve as a patch to. 3 (often foll. by up) put together, esp. hastily. 4 (foll. by up) settle (a quarrel etc.), esp. hastily or temporarily.  not a patch on colloq. greatly inferior to. [perhaps French, var. of *piece]
    • 215)adverse adj. unfavourable; harmful.  adversely adv. [Latin: related to *ad-, verto vers- turn] 216)adversity n. misfortune, distress. 217)advert n. colloq. advertisement. 218)distress —n. 1 anguish or suffering caused by pain, sorrow, worry, etc. 2 poverty. 3 Law = *distraint. —v. cause distress to, make unhappy.  in distress suffering or in danger.  distressful adj. 219)Anguish n. 1 severe mental suffering. 2 pain, agony.  anguished adj. 220)agony n. (pl. -ies) 1 extreme mental or physical suffering. 2 severe struggle. [Greek agon struggle] 221)agony aunt n. colloq. person (esp. a woman) who answers letters in an agony column. someone who gives advice on personal problems, in a newspaper or magazine 222)agony column n. colloq. 1 column in a magazine etc. offering personal advice to correspondents. 2 = *personal column. 223)fiat n. 1 authorization. 2 decree. [Latin, = let it be done] 224)decree —n. 1 official legal order. 2 legal judgement or decision, esp. in divorce cases. —v. (- ees, -eed, -eeing) ordain by decree. 225)Ordain v. 1 confer holy orders on. 2 decree, order. [Latin ordino: related to *order] 226)meddle v. (-ling) (often foll. by with, in) interfere in others' concerns.  meddler n. ;meddlesome adj. interfering. 227)fiscal —adj. of public revenue. —n. 1 legal official in some countries. fiscal year n. = *financial year. 228)savvy slang —v. (-ies, -ied) know. —n. awareness, knowingness; understanding. —adj. (-ier, -iest) US knowing; wise. 229)Peddle v. (-ling) 1 a sell (goods) as a pedlar. b advocate or promote. 2 sell (drugs) illegally. 3 engage in selling, esp. as a pedlar. [back-formation from *pedlar] 230)peddler n. 1 person who sells drugs illegally. 2 US var. of *pedlar.: pedlar n. (US peddler) 1 travelling seller of small items. 2 (usu. foll. by of) retailer (of gossip etc.). 231)honour (US honor) —n. 1 high respect, public regard. 2 adherence to what is right or an accepted standard of conduct. 3 nobleness of mind, magnanimity (honour among thieves). 4 thing conferred as a distinction, esp. an official award for bravery or achievement. 5 privilege, special
    • right (had the honour of being invited). 6 a exalted position. b (Honour) (prec. by your, his, etc.) title of a circuit judge etc. 7 (foll. by to) person or thing that brings honour (an honour to her profession). 8 a chastity (of a woman). b reputation for this. 232)magnanimous adj. nobly generous; not petty in feelings or conduct.  magnanimity n. magnanimously adv. 233)magnate n. wealthy and influential person, usu. in business. 234)generous adj. 1 giving or given freely. 2 magnanimous, unprejudiced. 3 abundant, copious.  generosity n. generously adv 235)Genesis n. 1 origin; mode of formation. 236)copious adj. 1 abundant. 2 producing much.  copiously adv. 237) petty adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 unimportant; trivial. 2 small-minded. 3 minor, inferior, on a small scale. 4 Law (of a crime) of lesser importance.  pettily adv. pettiness n. [French petit small] 238)petty cash n. money from or for small items of receipt or expenditure. 239)privilege —n. 1 right, advantage, or immunity, belonging to a person, class, or office. 2 special benefit or honour (a privilege to meet you). —v. (-ging) invest with a privilege.  privileged adj. 240)pity —n. 1 sorrow and compassion for another's suffering. 2 cause for regret (what a pity!). — v. (-ies, -ied) feel (often contemptuous) pity for.  take pity on help out of pity for.  pitying adj. pityingly adv. 241)Disdain —n. SCORN, contempt. —v. 1 regard with disdain. 2 refrain or refuse out of disdain.  disdainful adj. disdainfully adv. Lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike A communication that indicates lack of respect by patronizing the recipient 242)contempt n. 1 feeling that a person or thing deserves scorn or extreme reproach. 2 condition of being held in contempt. 3 (in full contempt of court) disobedience to or disrespect for a court of law. 243)contemptuous adj. (often foll. by of) feeling or showing contempt.  contemptuously adv. 244)Scorn —n. disdain, contempt, derision. —v. 1 hold in contempt. 2 reject or refuse to do as unworthy. 245)refrain1 v. (foll. by from) avoid doing (an action) (refrain from smoking). n. 1 recurring phrase or lines, esp. at the ends of stanzas. 246)reproach —v. express disapproval to (a person or oneself) for a fault. —n. 1 rebuke or
    • censure. 2 (often foll. by to) thing that brings disgrace or discredit. 3 state of disgrace or discredit.  above (or beyond) reproach perfect, blameless 247)ail v. 1 archaic (only in 3rd person interrog. or indefinite constructions) trouble or afflict (what ails him?). 2 (usu. be ailing) be ill. 248)ailing adj. 1 ill. 2 in poor condition. 249)ailment n. minor illness or disorder. 250)Afflict: v. distress physically or mentally. 251)conceal v. 1 keep secret. 2 hide.  concealment n. [Latin celo hide] 252)concede v. (-ding) 1 admit to be true. 2 admit defeat in. 3 grant (a right, privilege, etc.) 253)conceit n. 1 personal vanity; pride. 2 literary a far-fetched comparison. b fanciful notion. [from *conceive] 254)conceited adj. vain.  conceitedly adv. 255)conceivable adj. capable of being grasped or imagined.  conceivably adv. 256)conceive v. (-ving) 1 become pregnant (with). 2 a (often foll. by of) imagine, think. b (usu. in passive) formulate (a belief, plan, etc.). 257)Grandiose adj. 1 producing or meant to produce an imposing effect. 2 planned on an ambitious scale.  grandiosity n. [Italian: related to *grand] large or detailed and made to appear important, often in an unnecessary and annoying way ,grandiose plans 258)Abdicate v. (-ting) 1 (usu. absol.) give up or renounce (the throne). 2 renounce (a duty, right, etc.).  abdication n 259)renounce v. (-cing) 1 consent formally to abandon (a claim, right, etc.). 2 repudiate; refuse to recognize any longer. 3 decline further association or disclaim relationship with. [Latin nuntio announce] 260)Repudiate v. (-ting) 1 a disown, disavow, reject. b refuse dealings with. c deny. 2 refuse to recognize or obey (authority or a treaty). 3 refuse to discharge (an obligation or debt).  repudiation n. [Latin repudium divorce] 261) Derision n. when you talk about someone or something as if they are ridiculous and do not deserve respect:The novel was greeted with derision in the UK, but praised in the US. Disdain, contempt, scorn
    • 262)vain adj. 1 having too high an opinion of one's looks, abilities, etc. 2 empty, trivial (vain triumphs). 3 useless; futile (in the vain hope of finding it).  in vain 1 without success. 2 lightly or profanely (take his name in vain).  vainly adv 263)treachery n. (pl. -ies) violation of faith or trust; betrayal. 264)treacherous adj. 1 guilty of or involving treachery. 2 (of the weather, ice, the memory, etc.) likely to fail or give way.  treacherously adv. [French from trichier cheat: related to *trick] 265)Avow v. formal declare, confess.  avowal n. avowedly adv 266)condescend v. 1 be gracious enough (to do a thing) esp. while showing one's sense of dignity or superiority (condescended to attend). 2 (foll. by to) pretend to be on equal terms with (an inferior). 3 (as condescending adj.) patronizing.  condescendingly adv. condescension n. 267)patronize v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing) 1 treat condescendingly. 2 be a patron or customer of.  patronizing adj. patronizingly adv. 268)repress v. 1 a keep under; quell. b suppress; prevent from sounding, rioting, or bursting out. 2 Psychol. actively exclude (an unwelcome thought) from conscious awareness. 3 (usu. as repressed adj.) subject (a person) to the suppression of his or her thoughts or impulses.  repression n. repressive adj 269) Quell: formal to stop something that you do not want to happen to quell a riot; to quell rumours 270)consul n. 1 official appointed by a State to protect its citizens and interests in a foreign city 271)consulate n. 1 official building of a consul. 2 position of consul. 272)condemn v. 1 express utter disapproval of( rebuke ,censure, reprove, reproach). 2 a find guilty; convict. b (usu. foll. by to) sentence to (a punishment). 3 pronounce (a building etc.) unfit for use. 4 (usu. foll. by to) doom or assign (to something unpleasant).  condemnation n. condemnatory adj. 273)exterminate v. (-ting) destroy utterly (esp. a living thing).  extermination n. exterminator n. [Latin: related to *terminal] 274)Genocide n. deliberate extermination of a people or nation.  genocidal 275)Homicide n. 1 killing of a human being by another. 2 person who kills a human being.  homicidal adj. [Latin homo man], 276) foul play n. 1 unfair play in games. 2 treacherous or violent act, esp. murder.
    • 277)carnage n. great slaughter, esp. in battle. 278)accord —v. 1 (often foll. by with) be consistent or in harmony. 2 grant (permission, a request, etc.); give (a welcome etc.). —n. 1 agreement, consent.  of one's own accord on one's own initiative; voluntarily. with one accord unanimously. 279)prong n. each of two or more projecting pointed parts at the end of a fork etc 280)intimidate v. (-ting) frighten or overawe, esp. to subdue or influence.  intimidation n. [medieval Latin: related to *timid] 281)timid adj. (timider, timidest) easily frightened; apprehensive.  timidity n. timidly adv. [Latin timeo fear] 282)subdue v. (-dues, -dued, -duing) 1 conquer, subjugate, or tame. 2 (as subdued adj.) softened; lacking in intensity; toned down 283)détente n. easing of strained, esp. international, relations. [French, = relaxation] 284)detention n. 1 detaining or being detained. 2 being kept late in school as a punishment. [Latin: related to *detain when someone is officially kept somewhere and not allowed to leave 285)futile adj. 1 useless, ineffectual. 2 frivolous.  futility n. [Latin futilis leaky, futile] 286)frivolous adj. 1 not serious, silly, shallow. 2 paltry, trifling.  frivolity n. (pl. -ies). frivolously adv. frivolousness n. [Latin] 287)shallow —adj. 1 of little depth. 2 superficial, trivial. —n. (often in pl.) shallow place.  shallowness n. [Old 288)paltry adj. (-ier, -iest) worthless, contemptible, trifling.  paltriness n. [from palt rubbish] 289)trifling adj. 1 unimportant, petty. 2 frivolous. 290)superficial adj. 1 of or on the surface; lacking depth. 2 swift or cursory (superficial examination). 3 apparent but not real (superficial resemblance). 4 (esp. of a person) shallow.  superficiality n. superficially adv. [Latin: related to *face] 291)jeopardize v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing) endanger. 292)jeopardy n. danger, esp. severe If the factory closes, local jobs will be in jeopardy. 293)menace —n. 1 threat. 2 dangerous thing or person. 3 joc. pest, nuisance. —v. (-cing) threaten. 
    • menacingly adv. nuisance n. person, thing, or circumstance causing trouble or annoyance. [French, = hurt, from nuire nuis- injure, from Latin noceo to hurt] 294)Fray n. 1 conflict, fight. 2 brawl.. 295)pre-eminent adj. 1 excelling others. 2 outstanding.  pre-eminence n. pre-eminently adv. 296)goodwill n. 1 kindly feeling. 2 established reputation of a business etc. as enhancing its value. 3 willingness to undertake unpaid duties. good will n. intention that good will result 297)liaise :to speak to people in other organizations in order to exchange information with them: Our head office will liaise with the suppliers to ensure delivery. 298)ubiquitous [ adjective formal or humorous seeming to be in all places: Leather is very much in fashion this season, as of course is the ubiquitous denim. The Swedes are not alone in finding their language under pressure from the ubiquitous spread of English. The radio, that most ubiquitous of consumer-electronic appliances, is about to enter a new age. 299)chivalrous adj. 1 gallant, honourable. 2 of or showing chivalry.  chivalrously adv. [Latin: related to *chevalier] 300)chivalry n. 1 medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code. 2 honour, courtesy, and readiness to help the weak.  chivalric adj. polite behaviour towards women . 301)gentleman's agreement n. (also gentlemen's agreement) agreement binding in honour but not enforceable. 302)gentrification n. upgrading of a working-class urban area by the arrival of more affluent residents.  gentrify v. (-ies, -ied). 303)privilege —n. 1 right, advantage, or immunity, belonging to a person, class, or office. 2 special benefit or honour (a privilege to meet you). —v. (-ging) invest with a privilege.  privileged adj. [Latin: related to *privy, lex leg- law] 304)chaste adj. 1 abstaining from extramarital, or from all, sexual intercourse. 2 pure, virtuous. 3 simple, unadorned.  chastely adv. chasteness n. 305)chasten v. 1 (esp. as chastening, chastened adjs.) subdue, restrain. 2 discipline, punish. 306)chastise v. (-sing) 1 rebuke severely. 2 punish, esp. by beating.  chastisement n. 307)chastity n. being chaste. when someone does not have sex
    • 308)virtuous adj. 1 morally good. 2 archaic chaste.  virtuously adv. [Latin: related to *virtue] 309)unadorned adj. plain. Adorn verb [T] to add something decorative to a person or thing: The bride's hair was adorned with pearls and white flowers. adornment noun something decorative, or the act of decorating something or someone 310)exalt v. 1 raise in rank or power etc. 2 praise highly. 3 (usu. as exalted adj.) make lofty or noble (exalted aims; exalted style).  exaltation n. 311)lofty adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 (of things) of imposing height. 2 haughty, aloof. 3 exalted, noble (lofty ideals).  loftily adv. loftiness n. The boss used lofty remarks on Pooja 312)haughty adj. (-ier, -iest) arrogant and disdainful.  haughtily adv. haughtiness n. [haught, haut from French, = high] 313)pervasive adj. formal: moving into or through everywhere or everything; a pervasive smell; the pervasive influence of television, Ubiquity 314)avert verb: 1 avert a crisis/disaster/war, etc to prevent something bad from happening;2 avert your eyes/face/gaze to turn you head away so that you do not see something 315)atrocity n. (pl. -ies) 1 wicked or cruel act. 2 extreme wickedness. [Latin: related to *atrocious] when someone does something extremely violent and shocking; Soldiers have been committing atrocities against civilians 316)wicked adj. (-er, -est) 1 sinful, iniquitous, immoral. 2 spiteful. 3 playfully malicious. 4 colloq. very bad. 5 slang excellent.  wickedly adv. wickedness n. [ 317)iniquity n. (pl. -ies) 1 wickedness. 2 gross injustice.  iniquitous adj. [French from Latin aequus just] 318)spiteful adj. malicious.  spitefully adv. 319)blister —n. 1 small bubble on the skin filled with watery fluid and caused by heat or friction. 2 similar swelling on plastic, wood, etc. —v. 1 come up in blisters. 2 raise a blister on. 3 attack sharply 320)blithering attrib. adj. colloq. hopeless; contemptible (esp. in blithering idiot). 321)venture —n. 1 risky undertaking. 2 commercial speculation. —v. (-ring) 1 dare; not be afraid. 2 dare to go, make, or put forward (venture out; venture an opinion). 3 a expose to risk; stake. b take risks. [from *adventure] 322)commotion noun a sudden short period of noise, confusion or excited movement: His arrival caused quite a commotion. He looked up to see what all the commotion was about.
    • 323)ruckus n. esp. US informal row, commotion. [perhaps from *ruction or *rumpus] 324)wake n. 1 track left on the water's surface by a moving ship. 2 turbulent air left behind a moving aircraft etc.  in the wake of following, as a result of. [Low German from Old Norse] 325)chunk n. 1 thick piece cut or broken off. 2 substantial amount. [var. of *chuck2] 326)chunky adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 consisting of or resembling chunks; thick, substantial. 2 small and sturdy.  chunkiness n.. 327)insurgent —adj. in active revolt. —n. rebel.  insurgence n. [ 328)posthumous adj. 1 occurring after death. 2 (of a book etc.) published after the author's death. 3 (of a child) born after the death of its father.  posthumously adv. 329)penchant n. (followed by for) inclination or liking. 330)). Tool (foll. by along, around, etc.) slang drive or ride, esp. in a casual or leisurely manner. [Old English] 331)prelude —n. (often foll. by to) 1 action, event, or situation serving as an introduction. 2 introductory part of a poem etc. —v. (-ding) 1 serve as a prelude to. 2 introduce with a prelude. 332)vehicle n. thing or person as a medium for expression or action  vehicular adj. 333)bête noire n. (pl. bêtes noires pronunc. same) person or thing one hates or fears. [French, literally = ‘black beast’] 334)infusion n. Cannot be melted; infuse verb [T + object + preposition] to fill someone or something with an emotion or quality: The pulling down of the Berlin Wall infused the world with optimism. 335)catapult —.fling forcibly. leap or be hurled forcibly. 336)afoot adv. & predic.adj. in operation; progressing. 337)afore prep. & adv. archaic before; previously; in front (of). afore- comb. form before, previously (aforementioned; aforesaid). 338)aforethought adj. premeditated (following a noun: malice aforethought). 339)encompass v. 1 contain; include. 2 surround. 340)confidant n. (fem. confidante pronunc. same) person trusted with knowledge of one's private
    • affairs. [related to *confide] 341)confide v. (-ding) 1 (foll. by in) talk confidentially to. 2 (usu. foll. by to) tell (a secret etc.) in confidence. 3 (foll. by to) entrust (an object of care, a task, etc.) to. [Latin confido trust] 342)confidence n. 1 firm trust. 2 a feeling of reliance or certainty. b sense of self-reliance; boldness. 3 something told as a secret.  in confidence as a secret. in a person's confidence trusted with a person's secrets. take into one's confidence confide in. [Latin: related to *confide] 343)confidence trick n. swindle in which the victim is persuaded to trust the swindler.  confidence trickster n. 344)swindle verb [T] to obtain money dishonestly from someone by deceiving or cheating them: They swindled local businesses out of thousands of pounds. swindle noun [C] Fraud-squad officers are investigating a £5.6 million swindle. swindler noun [C] 345)confine —v. (-ning) 1 keep or restrict (within certain limits). 2 imprison. —n. (usu. in pl.) limit, boundary. [Latin finis limit] 346)confiscate v. (-ting) take or seize by authority.  confiscation n. [Latin: related to *fiscal] 347)conflagration n. great and destructive fire. [Latin: related to *flagrant] a large and violent event, such as a war, involving a lot of people: They may succeed in turning a little local difficulty into a full-blown regional conflagration Root CONFL… Blend, Together ,Mixing, Forming Group etc 348)conflate v. (-ting) blend or fuse together (esp. two variant texts into one).  conflation n. [Latin flo flat- blow] She succeeded in conflating the three plays to produce a fresh new work. conflation noun [C or U 349)confluence n. 1 place where two rivers meet. 2 a coming together. b crowd of people. [Latin fluo flow] confluent —adj. flowing together, uniting. —n. stream joining another. 350)conform v. 1 comply with rules or general custom. 2 (foll. by to, with) comply with; be in accordance with. 3 (often foll. by to) be or make suitable. [Latin: related to *form] conformable . 351)rapprochement n. resumption of harmonious relations, esp. between States. [French: related to *approach]. agreement reached by opposing groups or people: There are signs of (a) rapprochement between the warring factions. 352)confound —v. 1 perplex, baffle. 2 confuse (in one's mind). 3 archaic defeat, overthrow. —int.
    • expressing annoyance (confound you!). [Latin confundo -fus- mix up] 353)confounded attrib. adj. colloq. damned. 354)confront v. 1 a face in hostility or defiance. b face up to and deal with. 2 (of a difficulty etc.) present itself to. 3 (foll. by with) bring (a person) face to face with (an accusation etc.). 4 meet or stand facing.  confrontation n. confrontational adj. [French from medieval Latin] 355)sigh —v. 1 emit an audible breath in sadness, weariness, relief, etc. 2 (foll. by for) yearn for. 3 express with sighs. 4 make a sighing sound. —n. 1 act of sighing. 2 sound made in sighing. 356)speculate v. (-ting) 1 (usu. foll. by on, upon, about) theorize, conjecture. 2 deal in a commodity or asset in the hope of profiting from fluctuating prices.  speculation n. speculative adj. speculator n 357)lacklustre adj. (US lackluster) 1 lacking in vitality etc. 2 dull. lacking energy and effort: Britain's number-one tennis player gave a disappointingly lacklustre performance. 358)correction n. 1 correcting or being corrected. 2 thing substituted for what is wrong. 3 archaic punishment.  correctional adj. [Latin: related to *correct] 359)correctitude n. consciously correct behaviour. [from *correct, *rectitude] 360)laggard n. person who lags behind. 361)hard-nosed adj. colloq. realistic, uncompromising. practical and determined: His hard-nosed business approach is combined with a very real concern for the less fortunate in society. 362)hard of hearing adj. somewhat deaf. 363)hard palate n. front part of the palate. palate n. 1 structure closing the upper part of the mouth cavity in vertebrates. 2 sense of taste. 3 mental taste; liking 364)hard-pressed adj. 1 closely pursued. 2 burdened with urgent busine 365)hardship n. 1 severe suffering or privation. 2 circumstance causing this.. 366)privation noun [C or U] FORMAL a lack of the basic things that are necessary for an acceptable standard of living: Economic privation is pushing the poor towards crime. Several villages suffered serious privations during their long isolation during the war. 367)psychological block or barrier: n. mental inhibition caused by emotional factors. 368)prominent adj. 1 jutting out, projecting. 2 conspicuous. 3 distinguished, important
    • 369)conspicuous adj. 1 clearly visible; attracting notice. 2 noteworthy.  conspicuously adv. [Latin specio look] 370)haze n. 1 thin atmospheric vapour. 2 mental obscurity or confusion. 371)obscure (UNCLEAR) adjective unclear and difficult to understand or see: Official policy has changed, for reasons that remain obscure. His answers were obscure and confusing. obscure verb [T] 1 to prevent something from being seen or heard: Two new skyscrapers had sprung up, obscuring the view from her window. The sun was obscured by clouds. 2 to make something difficult to discover and understand: Managers deliberately obscured the real situation from federal investigators. obscurely adverb The minister's statement was obscurely worded Related to Obstruction 372)scorch —v. 1 burn or discolour the surface of with dry heat. 2 become so discoloured etc. 3 (as scorching adj.) colloq. a (of the weather) very hot. b (of criticism etc.) stringent; harsh. —n. mark made by scorching.,scorcher n. colloq. very hot day. 373)stringent (SEVERE) adjective having a very severe effect, or being extremely limiting: The most stringent laws in the world are useless unless there is the will to enforce them. We need to introduce more stringent security measures such as identity cards. Stringent safety regulations were introduced after the accident. stringently adverb Fire regulations are stringently enforced in all our factories. 374)corroborate v. (-ting) confirm or give support to (a statement or belief etc.).  corroboration n. corroborative adj. corroborator n. corroborate verb [T] FORMAL to add proof or certainty to an account, statement, idea, etc. with new information: Recent research seems to corroborate his theory. corroboration noun [U] FORMAL Without corroboration from forensic tests, it will be difficult to prove that the suspect is guilty. 375)lambaste v. (-ting) (also lambast) colloq. thrash, beat. to criticize someone or something severely:rebuke , censure ,reprove reproach His first novel was well and truly lambasted by the critics. 376)pounce —v. (-cing) 1 spring or swoop, esp. as in capturing prey. 2 (often foll. by on, upon) a make a sudden attack. b seize eagerly upon a remark etc. —n. act of pouncing. 377)loggerhead n.  at loggerheads (often foll. by with) disagreeing or disputing If you are at loggerheads with someone, you strongly disagree with them: The company's two divisions were said to have been at loggerheads frequently.
    • 378)vehement adj. showing or caused by strong feeling; ardent (vehement protest).  vehemence n. vehemently adv. expressing very strong feelings, or characterized by great energy or force They are killing some of the birds, to the vehement protests of animal-rights groups. 379)ardent adjective showing strong feelings; eager They were ardent pacifists. 380)savour UK, US savor verb [T] to enjoy food or an experience slowly, in order to appreciate it as much as possible: It was the first chocolate he'd tasted for over a year, so he savoured every mouthful. savour 1 UK (US savor) pleasure and interest: She felt that life had lost most of its savour. 2 a smell or taste, especially a pleasant one 381)unsavoury adj. (US unsavory) 1 disgusting, unpleasant. 2 morally offensive. 382)incommunicado adj. 1 without means of communication. 2 (of a prisoner) in solitary confinement. [Spanish incomunicado] 383)reticence n. 1 avoidance of saying all one knows or feels, or more than is necessary. 2 disposition to silence; taciturnity.  reticent adj. [Latin reticeo keep silent] unwilling to speak about your thoughts or feelings:He is very reticent about his past.Most of the students were reticent about answering questions. reticence His reticence about his past made them very suspicious. 384)taciturn habitually silent;(introvert) talking a little New Englanders are reputedly taciturn people. 385)reticulate —v. (-ting) divide or be divided in fact or appearance into a network. —adj. reticulated.  reticulation n. [Latin reticulum diminutive of rete net] NET like structure 386)actuary n. (pl. -ies) statistician, esp. one calculating insurance risks and premiums.  actuarial adj. 387)hegemony noun [U] FORMAL (especially of countries) the position of being the strongest and most powerful and therefore able to control others: The three nations competed for regional hegemony. 388)permeate verb [I usually + adverb or preposition; T] FORMAL to spread through something and be present in every part of it: Dissatisfaction with the government seems to have permeated every section of society. A foul smell of stale beer permeated the whole building. The table has a plastic coating which prevents liquids from permeating into the wood beneath. permeable adjective FORMAL 389)flush1 —v. 1 blush, redden, glow warmly (he flushed with embarrassment). 2 (usu. as flushed
    • adj.) cause to glow or blush (often foll. by with: he was flushed with pride). 3 a cleanse (a drain, lavatory, etc.) by a flow of water. b (often foll. by away, down) dispose of in this way. 4 rush out, spurt. —n. 1 blush or glow. 2 a rush of water. b cleansing of a drain, lavatory, etc. thus. 3 rush of esp. elation or triumph. 4 freshness; vigour. 5 a (also hot flush) sudden feeling of heat during menopause. b feverish redness or temperature etc. —adj. 1 level, in the same plane. 2 colloq. having plenty of money. [perhaps = *flush3] flush3 v. 1 cause (esp. a game-bird) to fly up. 2 (of a bird) fly up and away.  flush out 1 reveal. 2 drive out. 390)tousle v. (-ling) 1 make (esp. the hair) untidy. 2 handle roughly 391)torment —n. 1 severe physical or mental suffering. 2 cause of this. —v. 1 subject to torment. 2 tease or worry excessively.  tormentor n. 392)concede v. (-ding) 1 admit to be true. 2 admit defeat in. 3 grant (a right, privilege, etc.). [Latin: related to *cede] 393)conceit n. 1 personal vanity; pride. 2 literary a far-fetched comparison. b fanciful notion. 394)inept adj. 1 unskilful. 2 absurd, silly. 3 out of place.  ineptitude n. ineptly adv. 395)incorrigible adj. (of a person or habit) that cannot be corrected or improved.  incorrigibility n. incorrigibly adv. 396)humdrum adj. commonplace, dull, monotonous. 397)entice v. (-cing) attract by the offer of pleasure or reward.  enticement n. enticing adj. enticingly adv 398)swagger —v. walk or behave arrogantly. —n. swaggering gait or manner. 399)gait noun [C] 1 FORMAL a particular way of walking: He walked with a slow stiff gait. 400)strut —n. 1 bar in a framework, designed to resist compression. 2 strutting gait. —v. (-tt-) 1 walk stiffly and pompously. 2 brace with struts. 401)pomp noun [U] splendid and colourful ceremony, especially traditional ceremony on public occasions: The Prime Minister was received with all the traditional pomp and ceremony that is laid on for visiting heads of government. Despite all the pomp of his office/position, he has only limited powers.
    • 402)pompous adjective DISAPPROVING too serious and full of importance: He's a pompous old prig who's totally incapable of taking a joke. He can sometimes sound a bit pompous when he talks about acting. 403)rakish adj. 1 dashing; jaunty. 2 dissolute.  rakishly dashing adjective attractive in a confident, exciting and stylish way: a dashing young soldier rakish adjective confidently careless and informal: He wore his hat at a rakish angle. 404)jaunty adjective showing that you are happy and confident: a jaunty grin/step. When he came back his hat was at a jaunty angle and he was smiling. 405)sober —adj. (soberer, soberest) 1 not drunk. 2 not given to drink. 3 moderate, tranquil, sedate, serious. 4 not exaggerated. 5 (of a colour etc.) quiet; dull. —v. (often foll. by down, up) make or become sober.  soberly adv. sober (sb) up -phrasal verb to become less drunk, or to make someone become less drunk: I went for a walk to try to sober up. Have a black coffee - that should sober you up! 406)sedate (CALM) adjective tending to avoid excitement or great activity and to be calm and relaxed: The fight against a chemical storage site has transformed a normally sedate village into a battleground. The speed limit in many areas is a sedate 55 mph. 407)tranquil adjective calm and peaceful and without noise, violence, anxiety, etc: She stared at the tranquil surface of the water. The hotel is in a tranquil rural setting. A spasm of pain crossed his normally tranquil features. 408)coy adj. 1 affectedly shy. 2 irritatingly reticent.  coyly adv. coyness n. [French: related to *quiet] MODEST (especially of women) being or pretending to be shy, modest, childish or lacking in confidence: coy (SECRETIVE) adjective intentionally secretive: She's very coy about her age. She gave me a coy look from under her schoolgirl's fringe. 409)endeavour (US endeavor) —v. (foll. by to + infin.) try earnestly. —n. earnest attempt. 410)discern verb [T] FORMAL to see, recognize or understand something that is not clear: I could just discern a figure in the darkness.
    • It is difficult to discern any pattern in these figures. discernible, US ALSO discernable adjective FORMAL The influence of Rodin is discernible (= can be seen) in the younger artist. There is no discernible reason (= one that can be understood) why this should be the case. 411)promiscuous adj. 1 having frequent, esp. casual, sexual relationships. 2 mixed and indiscriminate.  promiscuity n. promiscuously adv. I suppose I was quite promiscuous in my youth. It's an often repeated fallacy that homosexual men have more promiscuous lifestyles than heterosexuals. 412)flit —v. (-tt-) 1 move lightly, softly, or rapidly. 2 make short flights. 3 colloq. disappear secretly to escape creditors etc. —n. act of flitting. to fly or move quickly and lightly: In the fading light we saw bats flitting around/about in the garden. FIGURATIVE Sara finds it very difficult to settle - she's always flitting from one thing to another (= changing to appear or exist suddenly and briefly in someone's mind or on their face: A ghost of a smile flitted across his face. Do A Moonlight Flit UK INFORMAL to leave secretly, especially to avoid paying money that you owe: When he discovered the police were after him, he did a moonlight flit 413)servile adj. 1 of or like a slave. 2 fawning; subservient.  servility n. [Latin servus slave] 414)fawn2 v. 1 (often foll. by on, upon) behave servilely, cringe. 2 (of esp. a dog) show extreme affection. [Old English 415)obsequious adj. servile, fawning.  obsequiously adv. obsequiousness n. [Latin obsequor comply with] 416)gullible adj. easily persuaded or deceived. 417)vanquish v. literary conquer, overcome 418)succumb v. (usu. foll. by to) 1 surrender (succumbed to temptation). 2 die (from) (succumbed to his injuries). 419)tremble —v. (-ling) 1 shake involuntarily from emotion, weakness, etc. 2 be in a state of extreme apprehension. 3 quiver (leaves trembled in the breeze). —n. trembling; quiver (tremble in his voice) 420)quiver —v. tremble or vibrate with a slight rapid motion. —n. quivering motion or sound. [obsolete quiver 421)nimble adj. (-bler, -blest) quick and light in movement or function; agile.  nimbly adv.] quick and exact either in movement or thoughts: nimble fingers/feet
    • His nimble mind calculated the answer before I could key the numbers into my computer. 422)concubine n. 1 literary or joc. mistress. 2 (among polygamous peoples) secondary wife.  concubinage n. 423)cringe verb [I] 1 to suddenly move away from someone or something because you are frightened 2 INFORMAL to feel very embarrassed: I cringed at the sight of my dad dancing 424)ineluctable in-ih-LUCK-tuh-buhl, adjective:Impossible to avoid or evade; inevitable.... ineluctable as gravity. 425)reconcile v. (-ling) 1 make friendly again after an estrangement. 2 (usu. in refl. or passive; foll. by to) make acquiescent or contentedly submissive to (something disagreeable). 3 settle (a quarrel etc.). 4 a harmonize, make compatible. b show the compatibility of by argument or in practice 426)audacious adjective showing a willingness to take risks or offend people: He described the plan as ambitious and audacious. an audacious remark/suggestion audacity noun [U] [+ to infinitive] It took a lot of audacity (= bravery) to stand up and criticize the chairman. DISAPPROVING He had the audacity (= rudeness) to blame me for his mistake. 427)gerund n. verbal noun, in English ending in -ing (e.g. do you mind my asking you?) 428)courtesy :noun 1 behaviour that is polite and shows respect, or a polite action or remark The hotel treats all guests with courtesy.[+ to do sth] He didn't even have the courtesy to thank me.2 (by) courtesy of sb/sth If you have something courtesy of someone, they have allowed you to have it .The photograph is courtesy of the Natural History Museum. 429)etiquette n. conventional rules of social behaviour or professional conduct. 430)digress verb [I] to start talking about something that is not related to what you were talking about before /digression The lecturer temporarily digressed from her subject to deal with a related theory. Talking about money now would be a digression from the main purpose of this meeting. 431)pseud colloq. —adj. (esp. intellectually) pretentious; not genuine. —n. such a person; poseur. pseudo- comb. form (also pseud- before a vowel) 1 false; not genuine (pseudo-intellectual). 2 resembling or imitating (pseudo-acid). 432)pseudonym n. fictitious name, esp. of an author
    • 433)fart coarse slang —v. 1 emit wind from the anus. 2 (foll. by about, around) behave foolishly. —n. 1 an emission of wind from the anus. 2 unpleasant or foolish person. 434)fag1 —n. 1 colloq. tedious task. 2 slang cigarette. 3 (at public schools) junior boy who runs errands for a senior. —v. (-gg-) 1 (often foll. by out) colloq. exhaust. 2 (at public schools) act as a fag. [origin unknown] 435)fag2 n. US slang offens. male homosexual. 436)veracious adj. formal 1 truthful by nature. 2 (of a statement etc.) true.  veracity n 437)studious adj. 1 assiduous in study. 2 painstaking.  studiously adv. [Latin: related to *study] 438)bandied Discuss lightly, Exchange blows, Exchange blows, We bandied around these difficult questions 439)regard —v. 1 gaze on steadily (usu. in a specified way) (regarded them suspiciously). 2 heed; take into account. 3 look upon or think of in a specified way (regard it as an insult). —n. 1 gaze; steady or significant look. 2 (foll. by to, for) attention or care. 3 (foll. by for) esteem; kindly feeling; respectful opinion. 4 respect; point attended to (in this regard). 5 (in pl.) expression of friendliness in a letter etc.; compliments.  as regards about, concerning; in respect of. in (or with) regard to as concerns; in respect of. 440)hunky-dory adj. esp. US colloq. excellent. Being satisfactory or in satisfactory condition hunky dory adjective [after verb] describes events or situations that are very satisfactory and pleasant: You can't lose your temper with everyone like that one minute, and then expect everything to be hunky dory again the next. 441)glory —n. (pl. -ies) 1 renown, fame; honour. 2 adoring praise. 3 resplendent majesty, beauty, etc. 4 thing that brings renown, distinction, or pride. 5 heavenly bliss and splendour. 6 colloq. state of exaltation, prosperity, etc. 7 halo of a saint etc. —v. (-ies, -ied) (often foll. by in) pride oneself. [Latin gloria] 442)resplendent adjective LITERARY having a very bright or splendid appearance: the queen's resplendent purple robes ;I saw Anna at the other end of the room, resplendent in a red sequined cocktail dress. 443)deceit n. 1 deception, esp. by concealing the truth. 2 dishonest trick. [Latin capio take] also DECEPTION noun when people hide the truth, especially to get an advantage: He was found guilty of obtaining money by deception. See also deceive.
    • 444)commination kom-uh-NAY-shuhn, noun: 1. denunciation. 2. A threat of punishment. n. literary threatening of divine vengeance.  comminatory adj. [Latin: related to *menace] Prayers proclaiming God's anger against sinners; A threat of divine punishment or vengeance 445)denounce (CRITICIZE) verb [T] to criticize something or someone strongly and publicly: rebuke censure The government's economic policy has been denounced on all sides. We must denounce injustice and oppression. denunciation noun [C or U] public criticism of something or someone Announce the termination of, as of treaties Give away information about somebody 446)voluble VOL-yuh-buhl, adjective: 1. Characterized by a ready flow of speech. 2. Easily rolling or turning; rotating. 3. (Botany) Having the power or habit of turning or twining. voluble adjective FORMAL 1 speaking a lot, with confidence and enthusiasm: Many see Parker as the obvious leader, whose voluble style works well on TV. 2 expressed in many words: It's not often that one hears such voluble praise for this government. volubly adverb FORMAL 447)Miniscule: very small 448)oncology n. the study of tumours. 449)slumber v. & n. poet. or joc. sleep. slumber noun [C or U] LITERARY sleep:I fell into a gentle slumber. I didn't want to rouse you from your slumbers. FIGURATIVE Sharp cuts in interest rates have failed to bring the economy out of its slumber. slumber verb [I] LITERARY to sleep 450)slump —n. sudden severe or prolonged fall in prices and trade, usu. bringing widespread unemployment. —v. 1 undergo a slump. 2 sit or fall heavily or limply 451)shrug —v. (-gg-) (often absol.) slightly and momentarily raise (the shoulders) to express indifference, doubt, etc. —n. act of shrugging.  shrug off dismiss as unimportant. Raise one's shoulders to indicate indifference or resignation shrug to raise your shoulders and then lower them in order to express a lack of knowledge or interest: "Where's Dad?" "How should I know?" replied my brother, shrugging. He shrugged his shoulders as if to say that there was nothing he could do about it. FIGURATIVE Thousands of people are starving to death while the world shrugs its shoulders (= shows no interest or care). when you shrug your shoulders to express something: "I'm afraid there's nothing I can do about your problem, " she said with a shrug. "Well, I suppose we'll just have to do what he says, " said Kim with a shrug of resignation. shrug sth off (NOT KEEP) phrasal verb [M]
    • to get rid of something unpleasant that you do not want: I hope I can shrug off this cold before I go on holiday. The city is trying to shrug off its industrial image and promote itself as a tourist centre. See also shake off (GET RID OF). shrug sth off (NOT WORRY) phrasal verb [M] to treat something as if it is not important or not a problem: The stock market shrugged off the economic gloom and rose by 1.5%. You're a father and you can't simply shrug off your responsibility for your children. 452)carp v. find fault; complain pettily.  carper n; Raise trivial objections to complain continually about unimportant matters: I can't stand the way he's always carping. 453)propaganda n. 1 organized propagation of a doctrine by use of publicity, selected information, etc. 2 usu. derog. ideas etc. so propagated.  propagandist n. & adj. propagandize v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing). 454)relent v. relax severity, abandon a harsh intention, yield to compassion. [medieval Latin lentus flexible] relent to act in a less severe way towards someone and allow something that you had refused to allow before: Her parents eventually relented and let her go to the party. The security guard relented and let them through. relentless continuing in a severe or extreme way: relentless criticism/pressure relentless heat relentlessly She has campaigned relentlessly for her husband's release from prison. 455)thrive v. (-ving; past throve or thrived; past part. thriven or thrived) 1 prosper, flourish. 2 grow rich. 3 (of a child, animal, or plant) grow vigorously. 456)Arbitrage A kind of hedged investment meant to capture slight differences in price; when there is a difference in the price of something on two different markets the arbitrageur simultaneously buys at the lower price and sells at the higher price 457)forfeit —n. 1 penalty. 2 thing surrendered as a penalty. —adj. lost or surrendered as a penalty. —v. (-t-) lose the right to, surrender as a penalty.  forfeiture n. A penalty for a fault or mistake that involves losing or giving up something, the contract specified forfeits if the work was not completed on time 458)fortify v. (-ies, -ied) 1 provide with fortifications. 2 strengthen physically, mentally, or morally. 3 strengthen (wine) with alcohol. 4 increase the nutritive value of (food, esp. with vitamins).
    • 459)reluctant adj. (often foll. by to + infin.) unwilling or disinclined.  reluctance n. reluctantly adv. 460)throe n. (usu. in pl.) violent pang, esp. of childbirth or death.  in the throes of struggling with the task of. [Old English, alteration of original throwe, perhaps by association with woe] Travail, painful effort ;pang n. (often in pl.) sudden sharp pain or painful emotion. 461)spurn v. reject with scorn, disdain or contempt. [Old English] 462)vow —n. solemn, esp. religious, promise (monastic vows; marriage vows). —v. 1 promise solemnly. 2 archaic declare solemnly. [French vou(er): related to *vote] 463)shrive---Confess to a punishable or reprehensible deed, usually under pressure,shrove,shriven shrift ---The act of being shriven 464)reprehensible adj. blameworthy. 465)Tounge. (-guing) use the tongue to articulate (notes) in playing a wind instrument. find (or lose) one's tongue be able (or unable) to express oneself after a shock etc. hold one's tongue see *hold1. with one's tongue in one's cheek: insincerely or ironically. 466)persecute v. (-ting) 1 subject (a person etc.) to hostility or ill-treatment, esp. on grounds of political or religious belief. 2 harass, worry.  persecution n. persecutor n. 467)profound adj. (-er, -est) 1 having or demanding great knowledge, study, or insight (profound treatise; profound doctrines). 2 INTENSE, unqualified, thorough (a profound sleep; profound indifference). 3 deep (profound crevasses).  profoundly adv. profoundness n. profundity n. (pl. -ies). [Latin profundus] profound (EXTREME) adjective felt or experienced very strongly or in an extreme way: His mother's death when he was aged six had a very profound effect on him. The invention of the contraceptive pill brought about profound changes in the lives of women. profoundly adverb Society has changed so profoundly over the last fifty years. We are all profoundly grateful for your help and encouragement. profound (SHOWING UNDERSTANDING,Meaningful) adjective showing a clear and deep understanding of serious matters: profound truths/wisdom The review that I read said that it was 'a thoughtful and profound film'. "Dying is easy - it's living that's the problem." "That was very profound of you, Steven." 468)profuse adj. 1 (often foll. by in, of) lavish; extravagant. 2 exuberantly plentiful; copious (profuse variety).  profusely adv. profusion n. [Latin fundo fus- pour] 469)exuberant adj. 1 lively, high-spirited. 2 (of a plant etc.) prolific. 3 (of feelings etc.) abounding.  exuberance n. exuberantly adv. [Latin uber fertile] 470)prolific adjective
    • producing a great number or amount of something: He was probably the most prolific songwriter of his generation. Rabbits and other rodents are prolific (= have a lot of babies). proliferate v. (-ting) 1 reproduce; produce (cells etc.) rapidly. 2 increase rapidly in numbers.  proliferation n. [Latin proles offspring] 471)abound verb [I] to exist in large numbers: Theories abound about how the earth began. 472)consonance n. agreement, harmony. ,accord[Latin sono *sound1] 473)euphemism n. 1.  euphemistic adj. euphemistically adv. [Greek pheme speaking]noun [C or U] a word or phrase used to avoid saying an unpleasant or offensive word: 'Senior citizen' is a euphemism for 'old person'. The article made so much use of euphemism that often its meaning was unclear. euphemistic adjective 474)consensus n. (often foll. by of; often attrib.) general agreement or opinion. [Latin: related to *consent] same as unanimous 475)consent —v. (often foll. by to) express willingness, give permission, agree. —n. voluntary agreement, permission. [Latin sentio feel] 476)mandate —n. 1 official command or instruction. 2 authority given by electors to a government, trade union, etc. 3 authority to act for another. —v. (-ting) instruct (a delegate) how to act or vote. [Latin mandatum, past part. of mando command] 477)mandatory adj. 1 compulsory. 2 of or conveying a command.  mandatorily adv. [Latin: related to *mandate] 478)counsel —n. 1 advice, esp. formally given. 2 consultation for advice. 3 (pl. same) legal adviser, esp. a barrister; body of these. —v. (-ll-; US -l-) 1 advise (a person). 2 give esp. professional advice to (a person) on personal problems. 3 recommend (a course of action).  keep one's own counsel not confide in others. take counsel (usu. foll. by with) consult.  counselling n. [Latin consilium]counsel of perfection n. ideal but impracticable advice. 479)sentiment n. 1 mental feeling. 2 (often in pl.) what one feels, opinion. 3 opinion or feeling, as distinct from its expression (the sentiment is good). 4 emotional or irrational view. 5 such views collectively, esp. as an influence. 6 tendency to be swayed by feeling. 7 a mawkish or exaggerated emotion. b display of this. 480)cipher (also cypher) —n. 1 a secret or disguised writing. b thing so written. c key to it. 2 arithmetical symbol (0) used to occupy a vacant place in decimal etc. numeration. 3 person or thing of no importance. —v. write in cipher. [Arabic sifr]
    • 481)circa prep. (preceding a date) about. [Latin] 482)alchemy n. medieval chemistry, esp. seeking to turn base metals into gold.  alchemist n. [Arabic] 483)hedonism n. 1 belief in pleasure as mankind's proper aim. 2 behaviour based on this.  hedonist n. hedonistic adj. [Greek hedone pleasure] 484)Exalt : Praise, glorify, or honor, Of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style, High or exalted in style or character 485)cull —v. 1 select or gather (knowledge culled from books). 2 gather (flowers etc.). 3 a select (animals), esp. for killing. b reduce the population of (an animal) by selective slaughter. —n. 1 culling or being culled. 2 animal(s) culled. [French: related to *COLLECT 486)harried :Troubled persistently especially with petty annoyances "He is known to harry his staff when he is overworked" 487)sloth n. 1 laziness, indolence. 2 slow-moving 488)indolent adjective LITERARY lazy; showing no real interest or effort: an indolent wave of the hand an indolent reply 489)plummet fall sharply Stock prices plummeted as Wall Street reacted to the rise in interest rates. 490)rampant adj. 1 unchecked, flourishing excessively. 2 rank, luxuriant. 3 (placed after the noun) 4 violent, fanatical.  rampancy n. [French: related to *ramp] 491)slog —v. (-gg-) slog (WORK HARD) sdverb -gg- 1 [I usually + adverb or preposition] MAINLY UK INFORMAL to work hard over a long period, especially doing work that is difficult or boring: I've been slogging away for days on this essay and I'm still not finished. 2 [I + adverb or preposition] to travel or move with difficulty, for example through wet, sticky soil or snow, or when you are very tired: Despite the rain, they slogged on for another six miles. 492)philomath FIL-uh-math, noun:A lover of learning; a scholar. 493)Cognizable Capable of being known(recognizable) 494)recluse n. person given to or living in seclusion or isolation; hermit.  reclusive adj. [Latin recludo -clus- shut away]
    • 495)secluded adjective quiet and private by being situated away from people, roads or buildings: a secluded beach a secluded house in the forest 496)bemuse v. (-sing) puzzle, bewilder. [from *be-, *muse1] 497)tutelage n. 1 guardianship. 2 being under this. 3 tuition. [Latin tutela: related to *tutor] 498)disavow v. disclaim knowledge of or responsibility for.  disavowal n. 499)profane —adj. 1 a irreverent, blasphemous. b (of language) obscene. 2 not sacred or biblical; secular. —v. (-ning) 1 treat (esp. a sacred thing) irreverently; disregard. 2 violate or pollute.  profanation n. [Latin fanum temple] 500)espionage n. spying or use of spies. [French: related to *spy] 501)exorcism : Freeing from evil spirits; exorcist: someone who practices exorcism 502) fantasy n. (pl. -ies) 1 imagination, esp. when unrelated to reality (lives in the realm of fantasy). 2 mental image, day-dream. 3 fantastic invention or composition. [Greek phantasia appearance] 503)phantom —n. 1 ghost, apparition, SPECTRE. 2 mental illusion. —attrib. adj. illusory. [Greek phantasma] spectral ghostly We were frightened by the spectral glow that filled the room. 504)apparition ghost; phantom Hamlet was uncertain about the identity of the apparition that had appeared and spoken to him. 505)pant —v. 1 breathe with short quick breaths. 2 (often foll. by out) utter breathlessly. 506) (a) vindication of their tactics. vindicate verb [T] 1 to prove that what someone said or did was right or true, after other people thought it was wrong: The decision to include Morris in the team was completely vindicated when he scored three goals. The investigation vindicated her complaint about the newspaper. 2 to prove that someone is free from guilt or blame, after other people blamed them: [R] They said they welcomed the trial as a chance to vindicate themselves. vindication noun [S or U] The army's victory is being seen as(a) vindication of their tactics. 507)pronounce v. (-cing) 1 (also absol.) utter or speak (words, sounds, etc.) in a certain, or esp. in the approved, way. 2 utter or proclaim (a judgement, sentence, etc.) officially, formally, or solemnly (I pronounce you man and wife). 3 state as one's opinion (pronounced the beef
    • excellent). 4 (usu. foll. by on, for, against, in favour of) pass judgement (pronounced for the defendant).  pronounceable adj. pronouncement n. [Latin nuntio announce] pronounced adj. strongly marked; noticeable (pronounced limp). 508)fiddle —. 2 colloq. cheat or fraud. 3.  as fit as a fiddle in very good health. play second (or first) fiddle take a subordinate (or leading) role. 509)tizzy n. (pl. -ies) colloq. state of agitation (in a tizzy). disturb or excite (a person or feelings). 510)Citing: Make reference to, ;praise, Commend :he was cited for his outstanding achievements" 511)appreciate v. (-ting) 1 a esteem highly; value. b be grateful for. 2 understand, recognize (appreciate the danger). 3 rise or raise in value.  appreciative adj. appreciatory adj. [Latin pretium price]appreciation n. 1 favourable or grateful recognition. 2 sensitive estimation or judgement. 3 rise in value. [French: related to *appreciate] 512)comrade n. 1 associate or companion in some activity. 2 fellow socialist or Communist.  comradely adj. comradeship n. [Spanish: related to *chamber] 513)howl —n. 1 long loud doleful cry of a dog etc. 2 prolonged wailing noise. 3 loud cry of pain, rage, derision, or laughter. —v. 1 make a howl. 2 weep loudly. 3 utter with a howl.  howl down prevent (a speaker) from being heard by howls of derision. [imitative] 514)tame —adj. 1 (of an animal) domesticated; not wild or shy. 2 insipid; dull (tame entertainment). 3 (of a person) amenable. —v. (-ming) 1 make tame; domesticate. 2 subdue, curb. 515)coo —n. soft murmuring sound as of a dove. —v. (coos, cooed) 1 emit a coo. 2 talk or say in a soft or amorous voice. —int. slang expressing surprise or disbelief. [imitative] bill and coo exchange caresses. caress —v. touch or stroke gently or lovingly. —n. loving or gentle touch. [Latin carus dear] 516)obfuscate verb [T] FORMAL to make something less clear and harder to understand, especially intentionally: She was criticized for using arguments that obfuscated the main issue. obfuscation noun [U] FORMAL They accused the White House of obstruction and obfuscation. obfuscate v. (-ting) 1 obscure or confuse (a mind, topic, etc.). 2 stupefy, bewilder.  obfuscation n. [Latin fuscus dark] 517)sanctimonious adj. ostentatiously pious.  sanctimoniously adv. sanctimoniousness n. sanctimony n. [Latin sanctimonia sanctity] adj. Formal Disapproving acting as if morally better than others: sanctimonious religious leaders preaching about morality sanctimoniously;
    • sanctimoniousness sanctimonious displaying ostentatious or hypocritical devoutness You do not have to be so sanctimonious to prove that you are devout. 518)hypocrisy noun [U] when someone pretends to believe something that they do not really believe or that is the opposite of what they do or say at another time: There's one rule for her and another rule for everyone else and it's sheer hypocrisy. hypocrite noun [C] He's a hypocrite - he's always lecturing other people on the environment but he drives around in a huge great car. hypocritical adjective Their accusations of corruption are hypocritical - they have been just as corrupt themselves. 519)credence n. belief.  give credence to believe. [medieval Latin: related to *credo] credence noun [U] FORMAL acceptance, support or belief that something is true: I'm not prepared to give credence to anonymous complaints. Something to corroborate, that gives corroboration His bruises added/lent credence to his statement that he had been beaten. 520)envisage v. (-ging) 1 have a mental picture of (a thing not yet existing). 2 imagine as possible or desirable. [French: related to *visage] to imagine or expect as a likely or desirable possibility in the future: Train fare increases of 5% are envisaged for the next year. [+ that] It's envisaged that the building will start at the end of this year. [+ ing form of verb] When do you envisage finishing the project? [+ question word] It's hard to envisage how it could have happened.To form a mental picture of something or someone you have never seen: He wasn't what I'd expected - I'd envisaged someone much taller. 521)grotesque, quaint.  fantastically adv. [Greek: related to *fantasy] 522)drench —v. 1 wet thoroughly. 2 force (an animal) to take medicine. 523)morph to change one image into another, or combine them, using a computer program: The video showed a man morphing into a tiger. 524)Singe verb [T] to burn (something) slightly, or to be burned slightly The candle singed his arm hairs. 525)stigma n. (pl. -s or, esp. in sense 3, stigmata) 1 shame, disgrace. 526)affliction n. 1 distress, suffering. 2 cause of this. 527)rite n. 1 religious or solemn observance, act, or procedure (burial rites). 2 body of customary observances characteristic of a Church etc. (Latin rite). [Latin ritus] 528)whammy noun [C] US OLD-FASHIONED INFORMAL a magical spell or power that causes someone to have a difficult or unpleasant time: He put the whammy on me.
    • 529)double whammy noun [C usually singular] INFORMAL a situation when two unpleasant things happen at almost the same time: Britain's farmers have faced the double whammy of a rising pound and falling agricultural prices. 530)slur (PRONOUNCE BADLY) verb [T] -rr- to pronounce the sounds of a word in a way which is unclear, uncontrolled or wrong: Her speech was slurred but she still denied she was drunk. 531)cocky adj. (-ier, -iest) colloq. conceited, arrogant.  cockily adv. cockiness n. 532)referendum (plural referendums or FORMAL referenda) noun [C] (FORMAL PLEBISCITE)a vote in which all the people in a country or an area are asked to give their opinion about or decide an important political or social question:Is it more democratic to hold a referendum, rather than let the government alone decide? 533)imbroglio noun [C] plural imbroglios FORMAL an unwanted, difficult and confusing situation, full of trouble and problems: The Soviet Union became anxious to withdraw its soldiers from the Afghan imbroglio. 534)aloof —adj. distant, unsympathetic. —adv. away, apart (he kept aloof). [originally Naut., from *a2 + *luff] 535)weird adj. 1 uncanny, supernatural. 2 colloq., incomprehensible.  weirdly adv. weirdness n. 536)uncanny adj. (-ier, -iest) seemingly supernatural; mysterious.  uncannily adv. uncanniness n. 537)rift —n. 1 crack, split; break (in cloud etc.). 2 disagreement; breach. 3 cleft in earth or rock. — v. tear or burst apart ,sift 538)stalwart (LOYAL) adjective loyal, especially for a long time; able to be trusted: She has been a stalwart supporter of the party for many years. stalwart (STRONG) adjective FORMAL(especially of a person) physically strong, brawny, steadfast 539)proponent a person who speaks publicly in support of a particular idea or plan of action: He is one of the leading proponents of capital punishment.Compare opponent. 540)fend sth off phrasal verb [M] to avoid dealing with something that is unpleasant or difficult to deal with:Somehow she managed to fend off the awkward questions. 541)thrift (AVOIDING WASTEnoun [U]the careful use of money, especially by avoiding waste thrifty adjective They have plenty of money now, but they still tend to be thrifty. THRIFTILY adverb thriftiness noun [U]
    • 542)conservative (AGAINST CHANGE) adjective 1 tending not to like or trust change, especially sudden change: a conservative society/outlook Older people tend to be quite conservative and a bit suspicious of any supposed advances. Compare ) 2 If you are conservative in your appearance, you tend not to like fashionable or modern clothes or hairstyles: He's a very conservative dresser - he always looks like he's wearing his father's clothes! 543)Stance- opinion; a particular way of standing: Jenny took up a stance with her feet slightly apart, ready to catch the ball. 544)furious adj. 1 very angry. 2 raging, frantic.  furiously adv. [Latin: related to *fury]) 545)FRANTIC (EMOTIONAL) adjective almost out of control because of extreme emotion, such as anxiety: Where on earth have you been? We've been frantic with worry. frantically adverb As the helicopter flew overhead, they waved frantically, trying to attract its attention. 546)hapless adj. unlucky. 547)destitute adjective without money, food, a home or possessions:The floods left thousands of people destitute.destitution 548)perpetrate v. (-ting) commit (a crime, blunder, or anything outrageous).  perpetration n. perpetrator n. [Latin perpetro perform] doer of misdeed 549)plight (CONDITION) noun [S] an unpleasant condition, especially a serious, sad or difficult one: the plight of the poor/homeless Few of us can be unmoved by the plight of the Romanian orphans. plight (MARRY) verb OLD USE OR HUMOROUS plight your troth to (promise to) marry 550)ostracize, UK USUALLY ostracise verb [T] to avoid someone intentionally or to prevent them from taking part in the activities of a group:His colleagues ostracized him after he criticized the company in public. ostracism noun [U] AIDS victims often experience social ostracism and discrimination. ostracize exclude from public favor; ban As soon as the newspapers carried the story of his connection with the criminals, his friends began to ostracize him. 551)sordid (IMMORAL) adjective immoral and shocking:He told me he'd had an affair but he spared me the sordid details.sordidly adverb sordidness noun [U]
    • 552)atavistic adjective FORMAL (of behaviour) happening because of a very old natural and basic habit from the distant past, not because of a conscious decision or present need or usefulness: an atavistic fear of the dark atavism noun [U] FORMAL atavism resemblance to remote ancestors rather than to parents; reversion to an earlier type; throwback Martin seemed an atavism to his Tuscan ancestors who lavished great care on their small plots of soil. 553)contention (DISAGREEMENT) noun [U] the disagreement that results from opposing arguments: There's a lot of contention about that issue - for every person firmly in favour, there's someone fiercely against it. The matter has been settled - it's no longer in contention. See also contention at contend (COMPETE). contentious [Show phonetics] adjective causing or likely to cause disagreement:a contentious decision/policy/issue/subject She has some rather contentious views on education. contentiousness 554)chary adjective uncertain and afraid to take risks; unwilling to take action: I'm a bit chary of using a travel agency that doesn't have official registration. 555)intransigent adjective FORMAL refusing to be persuaded, especially refusing to change opinions that are strongly believed in:Unions claim that the management continues to maintain an intransigent position.intransigently adverb FORMAL intransigence noun [U] FORMAL 556)satire noun [C or U] a way of criticizing people or ideas in a humorous way, or a piece of writing or play which uses this style: political satire Her play was a biting/cruel satire on life in the 80s. satirical adjective satirical cartoons/magazines satirist noun [C]a person who writes satire satirize, UK USUALLY satirise verb [T] to use satire to show that people or ideas have bad qualities or are wrong 557)mercantile adjective FORMAL related to trade or business 558)institution (CUSTOM) noun [C] a custom or tradition that has existed for a long time and is accepted as an important part of a particular society: the venerable institution of marriage FIGURATIVE Mrs Daly is an institution - she's been with the company 40 years and knows absolutely everyone. institutionalize, UK USUALLY institutionalise verb [T] What was once an informal event has now become institutionalized. See also institutionalize at institution (PLACE).
    • 559)sift (SEPARATE) or examine verb [T] to put flour, sugar, etc. through a sieve (= wire net shaped like a bowl) to break up large pieces: When the cake is cooked, sift some icing sugar over the top of it. rift 560)goggle —v. (-ling) 1 a (often foll. by at) look with wide-open eyes. b (of the eyes) be rolled about; protrude. 2 roll (the eyes). —adj. (usu. attrib.) (of the eyes) protuberant or rolling. —n. (in pl.) spectacles for protecting the eyes. [probably imitative] 561)flea market noun [C] a market, which usually takes place outside, where old or used goods are sold cheaply 562)vengeance /"vendZ@ns/[U] when you do something bad to someone who has done something bad to you, or the feeling of wanting to do thisan act of vengeance 2 with a vengeance If something happens with a vengeance, it happens a lot or in a very strong way.The disease swept across the country with a vengeance. 563)lock horns to begin to argue or fight: The mayor and her deputy locked horns over plans for the new road. 564)Demarcate verb [T] (US ALSO demark) to show the limits of something:,outline Parking spaces are demarcated by white lines. Responsibilities within the department are clearly demarcated. demarcation noun [C or U] (US ALSO demarkation) The river serves as the line of demarcation (= the line showing the separation) between the two counties. In some schools, there is little demarcation between subjects (= subjects are not taught separately). On this map, demarcations between regions are shown with dotted lines. 565)solitary adjective 1 A solitary person or thing is the only person or thing in a place: On the hill, a solitary figure was busy chopping down trees. In the distance was a solitary building. He was a solitary child (= He enjoyed being alone). 2 done alone: solitary walks by the river fishing and other solitary pastimes 566)frenzy noun [C or U] (an example of) uncontrolled and excited behaviour or emotion, which is sometimes violent:almost same as frantic
    • In a frenzy of rage she hit him. the media frenzy over the Princess's death The audience worked/whipped themselves up into a frenzy as they waited for her to come on stage. There was a frenzy of activity on the financial markets yesterday. In a moment of jealous frenzy, she cut the sleeves off all his shirts. frenzied adjective The office was a scene of frenzied activity this morning. As the evening wore on the dancing got more and more frenzied. 567)detour noun [C] a different or indirect route to a place, that is used to avoid a problem or to visit somewhere or do something: You'd be wise to make/US ALSO take a detour to avoid the roadworks. 568)shriek noun [C] a short, loud, high cry, especially one produced suddenly as an expression of a powerful emotion: We shrieked with laughter when we realized how stupid we'd been. I tried to apologize, but he just shrieked abuse at me. [+ speech] "Don't you dare do that ever again!" she shrieked. “What a hell?” I shrieked at Sapna. 569)invoke verb [T] FORMAL 1 to request or use a power outside yourself, especially a law or a god, to help you when you want to improve a situation: Police can invoke the law of trespass to regulate access to these places. Their sacred dance is performed to invoke ancient gods. 2 to make someone have a particular feeling or remember something: invoke jenny’s sister to reality 570)atone for sth phrasal verb FORMAL making apology, to do something that shows that you are sorry for something bad that you did: The country's leader has expressed a wish to atone for his actions in the past. He said that young hooligans should do community service as atonement for their crimes. 571)contemplate verb [I or T] to spend time considering a possible future action, or to consider one particular thing for a long time in a serious and quiet way: [+ ing form of verb] I'm contemplating going abroad for a year. contemplation noun [U] She was staring out over the lake, lost in contemplation. 572)protégé noun [C] a young person who is helped and taught by an older and usually famous person:
    • Shapur's restaurant is full every night as trendy Londoners enjoy the wonders of his young protégé, chef Glyn Fussell. Compare mentor 573)unedifying adjective FORMAL unpleasant and causing people to feel no respect: disdainful We were treated to the unedifying spectacle of two cabinet ministers fighting over a seat. 574)Amass verb [T] to get a large amount of something, especially money or information, by collecting it over a long period: She has amassed a huge fortune from her novels. 575)obtrusive adjective too noticeable:elaborate (sth.) The logo was still visible but less obtrusive this time in beige. The soldiers were in civilian clothes, to make their presence less obtrusive. NOTE: The opposite is unobtrusive. obtrusively adverb obtrusiveness noun [U] 576)culminate verb culminate in/with sth If an event or series of events culminates in something, it ends with it, having developed until it reaches this point: My arguments with the boss got worse and worse, and it all culminated in my deciding to change jobs. Their many years of research have finally culminated in a cure for the disease. culmination noun [U 577)punitive adjective 1 FORMAL intended as a punishment: punitive action The UN has imposed punitive sanctions on the invading country. LEGAL She is suing the newspaper for $5 million punitive damages claiming they knew the article about her was untrue. 578)the ONUS noun [S] FORMAL the responsibility or duty to do something: [+ to infinitive] The onus is on the landlord to ensure that the property is habitable. We are trying to shift the onus for passenger safety onto the government 579)obverse noun [U] FORMAL the other side of something; opposite: False humility and its obverse, arrogance, are equally unpleasant. Of course, the obverse of the theory may also be true..
    • 580)procreate verb [I] FORMAL to produce young: While priests were denied the right to marry and procreate, he said, their situation would remain impossible. procreation noun [U] FORMAL Some people believe that sex should only be for the purpose of procreation. procreative adjective FORMAL Sex of course has a procreative function. 581)faction noun [C] MAINLY DISAPPROVING a group within a larger group, especially one with slightly different ideas from the main group: the left-wing faction of the party factionalism noun [U] Factionalism was tearing the party and the country apart. 582)warring adjective [before noun] describes countries or groups of people that are at war with each other or who are arguing fiercely with each other: The Labour Party, he said, had disintegrated into warring factions. 583)conjecture —n. 1 formation of an opinion on incomplete information; guessing. 2 guess. — v. (-ring) guess. [Latin conjectura from jacio throw] to guess, based on the appearance of a situation and not on proof: We'll never know exactly how she died; we can only conjecture. [+ that] He conjectured that the company would soon be in financial difficulties. 584)at sb's disposal FORMAL available to be used by someone: I would take you if I could, but I don't have a car at my disposal this week. Having sold the house she had a large sum of money at her disposal (= to spend as she wanted). 585)veracity [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL the quality of being true, honest or accurate, correctness: Doubts were cast on the veracity of her alibi after three people claimed to have seen her at the scene of the robbery. 586)shove (PUSH)verb [I or T] to push someone or something forcefully: She was jostled and shoved by an angry crowd as she left the court. Just wait your turn - there's no need to shove. when you shove someone or something: Would you help me give the piano a shove? shove sb around/about phrasal verb 1 to push someone forcefully, in an unpleasant and threatening way: The older boys at school are always shoving him around. 2 INFORMAL to tell someone what to do, in a rude or threatening way:
    • Don't let them shove you around. You've got to stand up for your rights. 587)filth (OFFENSIVE MATERIAL)noun [U] sexually offensive material: People complain about the filth on TV and in the press. 588)intravenous adjective (ABBREVIATION IV)into or connected to a vein: intravenous feeding/fluids an intravenous drip/injection. 589)anarchy [Show phonetics] noun [U] lack of organization and control, especially in society because of an absence or failure of government: What we are witnessing is the country's slow slide into anarchy. The country has been in a state of anarchy since the inconclusive election. If the pay deal isn't settled amicably there'll be anarchy in the factories. anarchic [Show phonetics] adjective Milligan's anarchic humour has always had the power to offend as well as entertain. 590)obdurate adjective 1 FORMAL DISAPPROVING extremely determined to act in a particular way and not to change despite argument or persuasion: The President remains obdurate on the question of tax cuts. 2 FORMAL describes a person who refuses to change their mind, or someone or something that is difficult to deal with or change: The union remains obdurate that any redundancies must be voluntary. 591)splurge verb [I or T] INFORMAL to spend a lot of money on buying goods, especially luxury goods; splash out: I feel like splurging (out) on a new dress. Opposite of thrive 592)congregation group noun [C] a group of people gathered together in a religious building for worship and prayer: The vicar asked the congregation to kneel. 593)narcissism n. excessive or erotic interest in oneself.  narcissistic adj. [Narkissos, name of a youth in Greek myth who fell in love with his reflection] 594)injunction noun [C] an official order given by a court of law, usually to stop someone from doing something: [+ to infinitive] The court has issued an injunction to prevent the airline from increasing its price
    • 595)infringe verb [T] FORMAL to break a rule, law, etc: They infringed building regulations. infringement noun [C or U]copyright infringement 596)render (GIVE) verb [T] FORMAL to give something such as a service, a personal opinion or expression, or a performance of a song or poem, etc. to people: The singers rendered the song with enthusiasm. We see that freight railroads make good profits while rendering excellent service. rendering noun [C] (ALSO rendition) the way that something is performed, written, drawn, etc: Her rendering of the song was delightful. 597)plaintiff noun [C] LEGAL someone who makes a legal complaint against someone else in court Compare defendant at defend. 598)exonerate verb [T] FORMAL to show or state that someone or something is not guilty of something: The report exonerated the crew from all responsibility for the collision. exoneration noun [U] FORMAL 599)dissident noun [C] a person who publicly disagrees with and criticizes their government: political dissidents. dissent disagree In a landmark Supreme Court decision, Justice Marshall dissented from the majority opinion. dissident dissenting; rebellious In the purge that followed the student demonstrations at Tianamen Square, the government hunted down the dissident students and their supporters. 600)expatriate noun [C] (INFORMAL expat)someone who does not live in their own country: A large community of expatriates has settled there. 601)mire entangle; stick in swampy ground Their rear wheels became mired in mud. 1 [C usually singular] an area of deep wet sticky earth 2 [S] LITERARY an unpleasant situation which is difficult to escape: We must not be drawn into the mire of civil war. 602)revile verb [T] FORMAL ,rebuke, censure, derision,calumny, slander to criticize someone strongly, or say unpleasant things to or about someone: The judge was reviled in the newspapers for his opinions on rape.
    • 603)glare (LOOK) noun [C] a long angry look: She gave me a fierce glare. 604)throes plural noun in the throes of sth experiencing or doing something which is difficult, unpleasant or painful: The country is presently in the throes of the worst recession since the second world war. He's in the throes of a mid-life crisis which makes him rather difficult to live with. 605)bravado noun [U]a show of bravery, especially when unnecessary and dangerous, to make people admire you: It was an act of bravado that made him ask his boss to resign 606)entrench verb [T] MAINLY DISAPPROVING to establish something, especially an idea or a problem, firmly so that it cannot be changed: [R] The government's main task was to prevent inflation from entrenching itself. Entrenched ideas are so fixed or have existed for so long that they cannot be changed: It's very difficult to change attitudes that have become so deeply entrenched over the years. The organization was often criticized for being too entrenched in its views. the process by which ideas become fixed and cannot be changed: There has been a shift in opinion on the issue after a decade of entrenchment. 607)martyrdom noun [U] when someone suffers or is killed for their beliefs 608)resurgence noun [S or U] FORMAL a new increase of activity or interest in a particular subject or idea which had been forgotten for some time: The creation of independent states has led to a resurgence of nationalism. resurgence in demand/popularity/interest resurgent adjective FORMAL increasing again, or becoming popular again: resurgent inflation Many people were critical of the resurgent militarism in the country 609)repercussion noun [C usually plural] aftereffects the effect that an action, event or decision has on something, especially a bad effect: Any decrease in tourism could have serious repercussions for the local economy. President Kennedy's assassination had far-reaching repercussions. repercussion n. 1 indirect effect or reaction following an event or act. 2 recoil after impact. 3 echo. [Latin: related to *re-] 610)eloquent adjective giving a clear, strong message: She made an eloquent appeal for action before it was too late. The pictures were an eloquent reminder of the power of the volcano.
    • eloquently adverb He spoke eloquently. 611)loom (APPEAR)verb [I] to appear as a large, often frightening or unclear shape or object: Dark storm clouds loomed on the horizon. If an unwanted or unpleasant event looms, it seems likely to happen soon and causes worry: Her exams are looming. Here, too, the threat of unemployment has been looming on the horizon. 612)conspicuous adjective very noticeable or tending to attract attention, often in a way that is not wanted: In China, her blonde hair was conspicuous. He tried not to look conspicuous and moved slowly along the back of the room. NOTE: The opposite is inconspicuous. The temple's grand white arches rose conspicuously over the dirty decaying city 613)malady noun [C] FORMAL 1 a disease: All the rose bushes seem to be suffering from the same mysterious malady. 2 a problem within a system or organization: Apathy is one of the maladies of modern society. 614)apathetic adjective lacking interest or energy; unwilling to take action especially over a matter of importance: Young people today are so apathetic about politics. Don't be so apathetic - how are you going to get a job if you don't even write a letter? apathy when someone lacks interest or energy and is unwilling to take action especially over a matter of importance: widespread apathy among students Antonym of alacrity, but here an important point is involved 615)notion noun [C or U] (a) belief or idea: [+ that] The programme makers reject the notion that seeing violence on television has a harmful effect on children. I have only a vague notion of what she does for a living. 616)Reverberate verb 1 [I] LITERARY If a loud deep sound reverberates, it continues to be heard around an area, so that the area seems to shake: The narrow street reverberated with/to the sound of the workmen's drills. 2 [I + adverb or preposition] If an event or idea reverberates somewhere, it has an effect on everyone or everything in a place or group:
    • News of the disaster reverberated around the organization. The surge in US share prices reverberated across the globe. reverberation noun [C usually plural; U] LITERARY She felt the reverberation(s) in her chest and cursed the drilling outside. This move is likely to have reverberations (= effects) throughout the health service. 617)dispensation (PERMISSION) noun [C or U] FORMAL special permission, especially from the Church, to do something that is not usually allowed: The couple have requested (a) special dispensation from the Church to allow them to marry. 618)fiddle (CHEAT)verb [T] INFORMAL to act dishonestly in order to get something for yourself, or to change something dishonestly, especially to your advantage: She managed to fiddle a free trip to America. He had been fiddling the accounts/books/finances for years. fiddle (DIFFICULTY) noun [S] UK INFORMAL something difficult to do, especially because the things involved are small or need careful use of the fingers: I find threading a needle a terrible fiddle. [+ to infinitive] It's a real fiddle to assemble because of all the small parts. fiddle about/around phrasal verb DISAPPROVING to spend time doing small, unimportant or unnecessary things: I was just fiddling around in the kitchen. play second fiddle to be less important or in a weaker position than someone else: I'm not prepared to play second fiddle to Christina any more 619)revive verb [I or T] to come or bring something back to life, health, existence, or use: to revive someone's hopes/confidence/fortunes My plants revived as soon as I gave them some water. A hot shower and a cup of tea will revive you. Traditional skills are being revived by local craftsmen. revival noun 1 [C or U] when something becomes more active or popular again: Recently, there has been some revival of (interest in) ancient music. An economic/artistic revival is sweeping the country. 2 [C] a performance of a play which has not been seen for a long time: We're staging a revival of a 1950s play. 620)instrumental adjective [after verb] FORMAL If someone or something is instrumental in a process, plan or system, they are one of the most important influences in causing it to happen: She was instrumental in bringing about the prison reform act.
    • 621)put your best foot forward to try as hard as you can 622)impropriety noun [C or U] FORMAL financial/legal impropriety 623)spurious adjective false and not what it appears to be, or (of reasons and judgments) based on something that has not been correctly understood and therefore false: Some of the arguments in favour of shutting the factory are questionable and others downright spurious 624)elude v. (-ding) 1 escape adroitly from (danger, pursuit, etc.). 2 avoid compliance with (a law etc.) o fulfilment of (an obligation). 3 baffle (a person or memory etc.).  elusion n. [Latin ludo play] elusive adj. 1 to find or catch. 2 difficult to remember. 3 avoiding the point raised.  elusiveness n. If something that y eludes you, you do not succeed in achieving it: The gold medal continues to elude her. They had minor breakthroughs but real success eluded them. 625)jubilant adjective feeling or expressing great happiness, especially because of a success: The fans were jubilant at/about/over England's victory. 627) vex annoy; distress Please try not to vex your mother; she is doing the best she can.vexed adj. (of a question) much discussed; problematic. to cause difficulty to someone, or to cause someone to feel angry, annoyed or upset: This issue looks likely to continue to vex the government. difficult to deal with and causing a lot of annoyance, worry or argument: This settlement will resolve one of the most vexatious (= difficult) problems in the field of industrial relations. Difficult to deal with and causing a lot of disagreement and argument: The government has to deal with the vexed question of how to reduce spending. 628)haggle —v. (-ling) (often foll. by about, over) bargain persistently. haggle argue about prices I prefer to shop in a store that has a one-price policy because, whenever I haggle with a shopkeeper, I am never certain that I paid a fair price for the articles I purchased. —n. haggling. [Old Norse] to attempt to decide on a price or conditions which are acceptable to the person selling the goods and the person buying them, usually by arguing: It's traditional that you haggle over/about the price of things in the market. 631)auspicious favourable; favoring success With favorable weather conditions, it was an auspicious moment to set sail.auspicious adj. promising well;. 632)diabolical adjective (US ALSO diabolic)1 INFORMAL extremely bad or shocking: diabolical devilish This scheme is so diabolical that I must reject it. Conditions in the prison were diabolical.
    • His driving is diabolical! 634)swag (STEAL) noun [U] OLD-FASHIONED SLANG stolen goods: The cartoon showed a picture of a robber carrying a bag with 'swag' written on it. swag (POSSESSIONS) noun [U] AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH OLD-FASHIONED possessions wrapped in a cloth and carried by a person who does not have a home or a job, but walks around from place to place 636)pretension n. 1 (often foll. by to) a assertion of a claim. b justifiable claim. 2 pretentiousness. [medieval Latin: related to *pretend]pretentious I do not feel that your limited resources will permit you to carry out such a pretentious program. ostentatious; ambitious when you try to seem better or more important than you really are usually plural] He seems to be without pretensions of any sort. Pretentious trying to seem more important or clever than you really are a pretentious film Many art critics are extremely pretentious Demands or demanding things that you are not able to fulfill but still want to justify your claim over it . 637)stoic adjective (ALSO stoical) SLIGHTLY FORMAL determined not to complain or show your feelings, especially when something bad happens to you: We knew she must be in pain, despite her stoic attitude. He showed a stoic resignation towards his fate. Local people were stoical about the damage caused by the hurricane. She listened stoically as the guilty verdict was read out. Stoically, and with great determination, the people set about rebuilding the village. 638)insuperable [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL (especially of a problem) so great or severe that it cannot be defeated or dealt with successfully 639)prerogative privilege; unquestionable right The President cannot levy taxes; that is the prerogative of the legislative branch of government. 639)fashion (MAKE) [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL to make something using your hands: He fashioned a hat for himself from/out of newspaper. 640)retract [Show phonetics] verb FORMAL 1 [T] to take back an offer or statement, etc. or admit that a statement was false:to go back on your words retract an invitation/confession/promise When questioned on TV, the minister retracted his allegations. The newspaper printed a retraction for their previous error. 640)murk [Show phonetics] noun [U] darkness or thick cloud, preventing you from seeing clearly:
    • It was foggy and the sun shone feebly through the murk. murkiness darkness; gloom The murkiness and fog of the waterfront that evening depressed me. murky [Show phonetics] adjective 1 dark and dirty or difficult to see through: The river was brown and murky after the storm. 2 describes a situation that is complicated and unpleasant, and about which many facts are unclear: He became involved in the murky world of international drug-dealing. I don't want to get into the murky waters of family argument 642)emanate [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL to express a quality or feeling through the way that you look and behave: what it shows or gives out Her face emanated sadness. emanate from/through sth/sb phrasal verb FORMAL to come out of or be produced by something or someone: Angry voices emanated from the room. emanate issue forth A strong odor of sulfur emanated from the spring. 643)primordial [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL 1 existing at or since the beginning of the world or the universe: The planet Jupiter contains large amounts of the primordial gas and dust out of which the solar system was formed. 2 basic and connected with an early stage of development 644)categorical [Show phonetics] adjective without any doubt or possibility of being changed; firm; certain:; for sure a categorical statement/reply/assurance categorically [Show phonetics] adverb He categorically refused to take part in the project. The statement I ‘m going to make is a categorical one. 645)paradox [Show phonetics] noun [C or U] a situation or statement which seems impossible or is difficult to understand because it contains two opposite facts or characteristics: [+ that] It's a curious paradox that drinking a lot of water can often make you feel thirsty.
    • 646)cap (LIMIT) [Show phonetics] verb [T often passive] -pp- to put a limit on the amount of money that can be charged or spent in connection with a particular activity: High spending councils have all been (rate/charge) capped. Our mortgage is capped at 8.75% for five years. 647)subvert [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL to try to destroy or weaken something, especially an established political system: The rebel army is attempting to subvert the government. Our best intentions are sometimes subverted by our natural tendency to selfishness. 648)lapse (FAILURE) [Show phonetics] noun [C] a temporary failure: a lapse of concentration The management's decision to ignore the safety warnings demonstrated a remarkable lapse of judgment. a memory lapse 649)repeal [Show phonetics] annul verb [T] If a government repeals a law, it causes that law no longer to have any legal force. repeal revoke; annul What would the effect on our society be if we decriminalized drug use by repealing the laws against the possession and sale of narcotics? 650)despise [Show phonetics] verb [T not continuous] dislike to feel a strong dislike for someone or something because you think they are bad or worthless: The two groups despise each other. She despised him for the way he treated her sister. [R] He despised himself for being such a coward. 651)contagious [Show phonetics] adjective 1 describes a disease that can be caught by touching someone with the disease or a piece of infected clothing: The infection is highly contagious, so don't let anyone else use your towel. 2 describes someone who has a contagious disease: Keep him off school till he stops being contagious. 3 A contagious feeling spreads quickly among people:
    • Fear is contagious. contagion [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL when a disease is spread by touching someone or something: The doctor says there's no chance/danger of contagion. 652)ramble (WALK) [Show phonetics] verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] to walk for pleasure, especially in the countryside: wander aimlessly (physically or mentally)Listening to the teacher ramble, Judy wondered whether he'd ever get to his point.I love to ramble through the fields and lanes in this part of the country. Shall we go rambling tomorrow? 653)suave adj 1.) smooth) soft;) gentle; () mild 2.) smooth; () gentlemild 3. () docile; () refined; () kind suavity urbanity; polish He is particulary good in roles that require suavity and sophistication. 654)skinflint [Show phonetics] noun [C] INFORMAL DISAPPROVING a person who is unwilling to spend money: He's a real skinflint. miser 655)circumspect [Show phonetics] chary adjective FORMAL careful and thus not to take risks: Officials were circumspect about what the talks had achieved. prudent; cautious Investigating before acting, she tried always to be circumspect. 657)denigrate [Show phonetics] malign, slander , malevolent verb [T] to say that someone or something is not good or important: You shouldn't denigrate people just because they have different beliefs from you. blacken All attempts to denigrate the character of our late President have failed; the people still love him and cherish his memory. 658)ostensible [Show phonetics] adjective [before noun] FORMAL apparent; professed; pretended Although the ostensible purpose of this expedition is to discover new lands, we are really interested in finding new markets for our products. appearing or claiming to be one thing when it is really something else: Their ostensible goal was to clean up government corruption, but their real aim was to unseat the government.
    • ostensibly [Show phonetics] adverb FORMAL He has spent the past three months in Florida, ostensibly for medical treatment, but in actual fact to avoid prosecution for a series of notorious armed robberies. 659)efficacy [Show phonetics] effectiveness noun [U] FORMAL an ability, especially of a medicine or a method of achieving something, to produce the intended result;: They recently ran a series of tests to measure the efficacy of the drug. able to produce the intended result; effective 660)adore (LOVE) [Show phonetics] verb [T not continuous] to love someone very much, especially in an admiring or respectful way, or to like something very much: She has one son and she adores him. I absolutely adore chocolate. [+ ing form of verb] Don't you just adore lying in a hot bath? 661)limp1 —v. walk or proceed lamely or awkwardly. —n. lame walk. [perhaps from obsolete limphalt: related to *halt2] limp2 adj. 1 not stiff or firm. 2 without energy or will.  limply adv. limpness n. [perhaps from *limp1] 662)adroit adjective Harshit very skilful and quick in the way you think or move: an adroit reaction/answer/movement of the hand She became adroit at dealing with difficult questions. adroitly adverb She adroitly avoided the question. He adroitly slipped the money into his pocket. 664)breach —n. 1 (often foll. by of) breaking or non-observation of a law, contract, etc. 2 breaking of relations; quarrel. 3 opening, gap. —v. 1 break through; make a gap in. 2 break (a law, contract, etc.).  step into the breach :help in a crisis, esp. as a replacement. 665)undermine v. (-ning) 1 injure (a person, reputation, health, etc.) secretly or insidiously. 2 wear away the base of (banks were undermined). 3 make an excavation under. undermine weaken; sap The recent corruption scandals have undermined many people's faith in the city government. 666)insidious adjective (of something unpleasant or dangerous) gradually and secretly causing harm: High-blood pressure is an insidious condition which has few symptoms. insidiously 667)bourse n. 1 (Bourse) Paris Stock Exchange. 2 money-market. [French: related to *purse]
    • 668)cartel n. union of suppliers etc. to control prices. [Italian diminutive: related to *card1] 668)scrip n. 1 provisional certificate of money subscribed, entitling the holder to dividends. 2 (collect.) such certificates. 3 extra share or shares instead of a dividend. [abbreviation of +subscription receipt] 669)clique n. small exclusive group of people.  cliquey adj. (cliquier, cliquiest). cliquish adj. [French] She charged that a clique had assumed control of school affairs. 670)overweening adj. arrogant, unduly or over confident. His overweening pride in his accomplishments was not justified. 671)litigate v. (-ting) 1 go to law. 2 contest (a point) at law.  litigation n. litigator n. [Latin lis lit- lawsuit] 672)dubious adj. 1 hesitating, doubtful. 2 questionable; suspicious. 3 unreliable.  dubiously adv. dubiousness n. [Latin dubium doubt] doubtful He has the dubious distinction of being the lowest man in his class. 673)puritanical adj. strictly religious or moral in behaviour.  puritanically adv. Related to purity 674)squabble —n. petty or noisy quarrel. —v. (-ling) engage in this. [probably imitative]skirmish 675),Relinquish :abandon, abdicate I will relinquish my claims to this property if you promise to retain my employees. 676)scripture n. 1 sacred writings. 2 (Scripture or the Scriptures) the Bible.  scriptural adj. [Latin: related to *script] 677)slate (CHOOSE) [Show phonetics] verb [T] US to be expected to happen in the future or to be expected to be or do something in the future: [+ to infinitive] Geoff is slated to be the next captain of the football team. The election is slated for (= the chosen day is) next Thursday. slate noun [C] US the group of people who are chosen by a particular party to take part in an election: The senator has not got a full slate of delegates in New York. 678)farce (SITUATION) noun [C] DISAPPROVING fart a ridiculous or meaningless situation or action: broad comedy; mockery Nothing went right; the entire interview degenerated into a farce. No one had prepared anything so the meeting was a bit of a farce.
    • farcical [Show phonetics] adjective DISAPPROVING The whole situation has become farcical. 679)ostentatious showy; pretentious; trying to attract attention Trump's latest casino in Atlantic City is the most ostentatious gambling place in the East: it easily outglitters its competitors. 680)rejoice [Show phonetics] verb [I] FORMAL to feel or show great happiness about something: Everyone rejoiced at the news of his safe return. She rejoiced in her good fortune. [+ to infinitive] I rejoiced to see that she had made such a quick recovery. rejoicing [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL when you feel or show great happiness about something: There was much rejoicing at/over the good news. 681)prod [Show phonetics] verb -dd- 1 [I or T] to push something or someone with your finger or with a pointed object: I prodded her in the back to get her attention. She prodded the cake with her fork to see if it was cooked. He prodded at the fish with his fork a few times, but he didn't eat a mouthful. 2 [T] to encourage someone to take action, especially when they are being slow or unwilling: He gets things done, but only after I've prodded him into doing them. encouragement to do something: She hasn't ordered that book for me yet - I must give her a prod. 682)pragmatic problem solving practically rather than by thumb of rules adjective MAINLY APPROVING solving problems in a realistic way which suits the present conditions rather than obeying fixed theories, ideas or rules: In business, the pragmatic approach to problems is often more successful than an idealistic one. She rose to power by being a political pragmatist who took advantage of every opportunity that presented itself. The council has operated much more effectively since pragmatism replaced political dogma. 683)pronounce (TO STATE) verb [T] FORMAL to state something officially or with certainty: [+ object + noun or adjective] He was taken to the hospital where he was pronounced dead on arrival. The jury pronounced him guilty. He gazed vacantly while the verdict and sentence were pronounced. She surveyed the building and pronounced herself pleased with their work. [+ that] The government pronounced that they are no longer a nuclear state. "Have I met him?" "You have indeed - I recall you pronounced the man (= said that he was) a fool."
    • The dessert was tried and pronounced delicious. pronouncement noun [C] FORMAL an official announcement: 684)cherish verb [T] 1 to love, protect and care for someone or something that is important to you: Although I cherish my children, I do allow them their independence. Her most cherished possession is a 1926 letter from F. Scott Fitzgerald. Freedom of speech is a cherished (= carefully protected) right in this country. 2 to keep hopes, memories or ideas in your mind because they are important to you and bring you pleasure: I cherish the memories of the time we spent together. 685)extol (-ll-) [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL exalt, make lofty or noble to praise something or someone highly: His book extolling the benefits of vegetarianism sold thousands of copies. She is forever extolling the virtues of her children. 686)tryst [Show phonetics] noun [C] OLD USE OR HUMOROUS a meeting between two lovers, especially a secret one a tryst with someone 687)emancipate verb [T] to free (a person, esp. a slave), allowing them to do what they want and make decisions for themselves;emancipated adjective Emancipated also means freed esp. from social limitations: An emancipated woman can reject fashion without becoming an object of ridicule. emancipationnoun [U] emancipation from slaveryemancipate set free At first, the attempts of the Abolitioninst to emancipate the slaves were unpopular in New England as well as in the South. 689)wrath [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL OR OLD-FASHIONED extreme anger: The people feared the wrath of God. 690)pre-empt [Show phonetics] verb [T] 1 to do or say something before someone so that you make their words or actions unnecessary or ineffective: The minister held a press conference in order to pre-empt criticism in the newspapers. 2 US to replace one television programme with another, usually more important one:
    • All the networks pre-empted their regular schedules to broadcast news of the hijacking. 691)boisterous adjective noisy, energetic and rough: boisterous children a boisterous game; young boys are especially boisterous 692)corner [Show phonetics] verb 1 [I] If a vehicle corners well, badly, etc., it drives around corners in the stated way: It's a powerful car, but it doesn't corner well. 2 [T] to force a person or an animal into a place or situation from which they cannot easily escape: Once the police had cornered her in the basement, she gave herself up. They only live just around/round the corner (= very close although not in the same road) - so we see them all the time. 693)clasp [Show phonetics] verb [T] to hold someone or something firmly in your hands or arms: He was clasping the vase tightly, terrified of dropping it. Lie on your back, clasp your knees and pull them down towards your chest. She clasped her son in her arms. 694)tertiary (THIRD) adjective FORMAL relating to a third level or stage tertiary (EDUCATION) adjective [before noun] UK relating to education in colleges and universities: tertiary education tertiary (SERVICE) adjective [before noun] SPECIALIZED describes an industry that provides a service and is not involved with obtaining the materials with which products are made, or with making products 695)retrogress verb [I] FORMAL to return to an older and worse state 696)botch [Show phonetics] verb [T] (UK ALSO bodge) to spoil something by doing it badly: We botched (up) our first attempt at wallpapering the bathroom. botched adjective (UK ALSO bodged) Our landlord redecorated the bedroom, but it was such a botched job (= it was so badly done) that we decided to redo it. Thousands of women are infertile as a result of botched abortions. 697)leave sb in the lurch to leave someone at a time when they need you to stay and help them 698)assuage v. (-ging) 1 calm or soothe. 2 appease (an appetite).  assuagement n. [Latin suavis
    • sweet] to make unpleasant feelings less strong, giving solace The government tried to assuage the public's fears. 699)baulk (also balk) —v. 12 a thwart, hinder. b disappoint. 3 miss, let slip (a chance etc.). —n. 1 hindrance; stumbling-block. 2 roughly-squared timber beam. [Old English] or balk foil, thwart, making someone frustrated: When the warden learned that several inmates were planning to escape, he took steps to balk their attempt. 701)retribution n. requital, usu. for evil done; vengeance.  retributive adj. [Latin: related to *tribute] 700)nemesis n. (pl. nemeses) 1 retributive justice. 2 downfall caused by this. [Greek, = retribution] 702)dire adj. 1 a calamitous, dreadful. b ominous. c (predic) colloq. very bad. 2 urgent (in dire need). [Latin] ominous adjective suggesting that something unpleasant is likely to happen: There was an ominous silence when I asked whether my contract was going to be renewed.The engine had been making an ominous sound all the way from London. ominous dark clouds 703)depredation n. (usu. in pl.) despoiling, ravaging. (an act causing) damage or destruction devastation,: causing great damage to sth. The entire area has suffered the depredations of war. Depredation of (= Damage done to) the environment is destroying hundreds of species each year. 704)PENURY n. (pl. -ies) 1 destitution; poverty. 2 lack; scarcity. [Latin] 705)ravage verb [T often passive] damage greatly to cause great damage to something: The area has been ravaged by drought/floods/war. ravages plural noun the ravages of disease/time/war, etc. the damage caused by disease/time/war, etc: The ravages of the fire showed in the splintered woodwork and blistered paint of the houses. 706)slay v. (past slew; past part. slain) 1 literary = *kill 1. 2 = *kill 4. slayer n. 707)sway —v. 1 (cause to) lean or move unsteadily from side to side. 2 oscillate; waver. 3 a control the motion or direction of. b influence; rule over. —n. 1 rule, influence, or government (hold sway). 2 swaying motion. [origin uncertain] 708)impunity n. exemption from punishment, bad consequences, etc.  with impunity without punishment etc. [Latin poena penalty] not punitive
    • 709)bluster —v. 1 behave pompously or boisterously. 2 (of the wind etc.) blow fiercely. —n. bombastic talk; empty threats.  blustery adj. [imitative] 710)wield [Show phonetics] verb [T] 1 to hold a weapon or tool and look as if you are going to use it: She was confronted by a man wielding a knife. 2 wield influence/power, etc. to have a lot of influence or power over other people: He still wields enormous influence within the party. 711)ambit [Show phonetics] noun [U]: PURVIEW the range or limits of influence of something: They believe that all the outstanding issues should fall within the ambit of the talks. 712)clamour UK, US clamor verb [I] to make a loud complaint or demand: The children were all clamouring for attention. [+ to infinitive] She clamours to go home as soon as she gets to school. clamour UK, US clamor [Show phonetics] noun [S or U] 1 a loud complaint about something or a demand for something: After the bombing, there was a public clamour for vengeance. 2 FORMAL loud noise, especially made by people's voices: the clamour of the city a clamour of voices clamorous adjective LITERARY 1 making loud demands or complaints 2 making a lot of noise: clamorous, excited voices 713)nexus [Show phonetics] noun [C usually singular] FORMAL an important connection between the parts of a system or a group of things: Times Square is the nexus of the New York subway. 714)fob sb off phrasal verb [M] (ALSO fob sth off on sb) UK to persuade someone to accept something that is of a low quality or different to what he or she really wanted: Well, he wants the report ready by tomorrow but I can always fob him off with some excuse. 715)curb (CONTROL) [Show phonetics] verb [T] to control or limit something that is not desirable:
    • The Government should act to curb tax evasion. curb [Show phonetics] noun [C] You must try to put a curb on your bad temper/spending habits. 716)leeway (FREEDOM) noun [U] freedom to act within particular limits: Local councils will be given some leeway as to how they implement the legislation. leeway (PERIOD OF TIME) [Show phonetics] noun [U] UK an amount or period of time, which might be additional, extra or wasted: There is a lot of leeway to make up after the holiday period. 717)machinations plural noun complicated and secret plans to obtain power or control: Despite a commitment to more open government, the public are still being kept in the dark about the inner machinations of the Cabinet. machinate [Show phonetics]verb [I or T] to make secret plans in order to get an advantage 718)doom [Show phonetics] noun [U] death, destruction or any very bad situation that cannot be avoided: A sense of doom hung over the entire country. The newspapers are always full of doom and gloom (= bad news and unhappiness) these days. doom [Show phonetics] verb [T usually passive] to make someone or something certain to do or experience something unpleasant, or to make something bad certain to happen: [+ to infinitive] Are we doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past? Mounting debts doomed the factory to closure. doomed [Show phonetics] adjective certain to fail, die or be destroyed: This is a doomed city. 719)befit [Show phonetics] verb [T] -tt- FORMAL to be suitable or right for: Angelina came in a huge limousine and it does befit her popularity.
    • befitting [Show phonetics] 720)clout (HIT) verb [T] INFORMAL to hit someone or something with the hand or with a heavy object: Quigley clouted me smartly across the side of the head. clout noun [C] INFORMAL If the photocopier stops working, just give it a clout. 721)abstract (GENERAL) [Show phonetics] adjective 1 existing as an idea, feeling or quality, not as a material object: Truth and beauty are abstract concepts. 2 describes an argument or discussion that is general and not based on particular examples: This debate is becoming too abstract - let's have some hard facts! the abstract noun [S] general ideas: I have difficulty dealing with the abstract - let's discuss particular cases. So far we've only discussed the question in the abstract (= without referring to any real examples). abstraction [Show phonetics] noun [C] FORMAL She's always talking in abstractions (= in a general way, without real examples). 722)prosaic dull and unimaginative; matter-of-fact; factual ,lacking interest, imagination and variety; boring: If only she'd been called 'Camilla' or 'Flavia' instead of the prosaic 'Jane'. He asked if I'd got my black eye in a fight - I told him the prosaic truth that I'd banged my head on a door. Though the ad writers had come up with a highly creative campaign to publicize the company's newest product, the head office rejected it for a more prosaic, down-to-earth approach. 723)flutter (MOVE) excitement, verb [I or T] to make a series of quick delicate movements up and down or from side to side, or to cause something to do this: Brightly coloured flags were fluttering in the breeze. Leaves fluttered down onto the path. Butterflies fluttered about in the sunshine. A white bird poised on a wire and fluttered its wings. 724)Vassal
    • 725)stultifying [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL DISAPPROVING preventing something or someone from developing into the best possible state: These countries are trying to shake off the stultifying effects of several decades of state control. stultify [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL DISAPPROVING She felt the repetitive exercises stultified her musical technique so she stopped doing them. stultifyingly [Show phonetics] adverb stultifyingly dull/boring 726)animosity noun [C or U] strong dislike, opposition or anger: Of course we're competitive but there's no personal animosity between us. In spite of his injuries, he bears no animosity towards his attackers. The European Community helped France and Germany forget the old animosities between them. 727)interlocutor [Show phonetics] noun [C] FORMAL doing the actual conversation on someone’s behalf 1 someone who is involved in a conversation 2 someone who is involved in a conversation and who is representing someone else: Abraham was able to act as interpreter and interlocutor for our group. 728)ambush [Show phonetics] verb [T] to suddenly attack a person or a group of people after hiding and waiting for them: Five soldiers died after their bus was ambushed on a country road. He was ambushed by gunmen on his way to work. ambush [Show phonetics] noun [C or U] 1 an occasion when a person or group of people are ambushed: Several passers-by were killed in the ambush. Fear of ambush prevents the police from going to high-risk areas. 2 lie/wait in ambush If someone lies in/waits in ambush, they hide and wait for someone in order to attack them. 729)acclimatize, UK USUALLY acclimatise [Show phonetics] verb [I or T] (US ALSO acclimate) according to the climate etc. to (cause to) change to suit different conditions of life, weather, etc: More time will be needed for the troops and equipment to become acclimatized to desert conditions.
    • We found it impossible to acclimatize ourselves to the new working conditions. The defending champion is Grant Turner of England, who has acclimatized to the 90°F sunshine by spending the past month in Florida. "Why is it that it rains all the time in England?" "Don't worry - you'll soon acclimatize." acclimatization, UK USUALLY acclimatisation 730)impede verb [T] FORMAL to slow down or cause problems for the advancement or completion of something: Although he's shy, it certainly hasn't impeded his career in any way. impediment noun [C] FORMAL something that makes progress, movement, or completing something difficult or impossible: In a number of developing countries, war has been an additional impediment to progress. See also speech impediment. impedimenta plural noun MAINLY HUMOROUS the inconvenient or unnecessary objects which you need for a particular activity: We were weighed down with sleeping bags, gas cookers and pans - all the impedimenta of camping. 731)indignant [Show phonetics] adjective angry because of something which is wrong or not fair: She wrote an indignant letter to the paper complaining about the council's action. He became very indignant when it was suggested he had made a mistake. indignantly [Show phonetics] adverb "I said no such thing!" she cried indignantly. indignation 732)intrigue —v. (-gues, -gued, -guing) 1 (foll. by with) a carry on an underhand plot. b use secret influence. 2 arouse the curiosity of. —n. 1 underhand plot or plotting. 2 secret arrangement (amorous intrigues).  intriguing adj. esp. in sense 2 of v. intriguingly adv. [French from Italian intrigo] 733)paranoia n. 1 mental disorder with delusions of persecution and self-importance. 2 abnormal suspicion and mistrust.  paranoiac adj. & n. paranoiacally adv. paranoic adj. paranoically adv. paranoid adj. & n. [Greek: related to *nous] 734)strident adj. loud and harsh.  stridency n. stridently adv. [Latin strido creak] 1STRONG expressed in a strong way strident criticize 2LOUD loud and unpleasant a strident voice
    • 735)sanction —n. 1 approval by custom or tradition; express permission. 2 confirmation of a law etc. 3 penalty for disobeying a law or rule, or a reward for obeying it. 4 Ethics moral force encouraging obedience to any rule of conduct. 5 (esp. in pl.) (esp. economic) action by a State against another to abide by an international agreement etc. —v. 1 authorize or agree to (an action etc.). 2 ratify; make (a law etc.) binding. [Latin sancio sanct- make sacred] 736)unfettered [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL not limited by rules or any other controlling influence: In writing poetry, one is unfettered by the normal rules of sentence structure. 737)hallowed [Show phonetics] reverential adjective 1 very respected and praised because of great importance or great age: hallowed icons such as Marilyn Monroe and James Dean 2 holy: Can atheists be buried in hallowed ground? 738)subsist verb [I] FORMAL to obtain enough food or money to stay alive: The prisoners were subsisting on a diet of bread and water. subsistence noun [U] FORMAL 1 what a person needs in order to stay alive: The money is intended to provide a basic subsistence and should not be paid to someone who receives other income. 2 producing enough food or earning enough money to keep yourself alive: subsistence farming The family were living at subsistence level. 739)trample [Show phonetics] verb 1 [I or T; usually + preposition] to step heavily on something or someone, causing damage or injury: Somebody trampled all over my flowerbeds in the night! Eight people were trampled to death (= killed) when the stadium collapsed and the crowd rushed out onto the football pitch. 2 [T usually + preposition] to act without any respect for someone or something: She accused the government of trampling on the needs and rights of the ordinary citizen. He argues that the Congress and President Clinton trampled the constitutional rights of legal immigrants in the new welfare reform law. 740)heterodox [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL opposite of orthodox.
    • (of beliefs, ideas or activities) different and in opposition to generally accepted beliefs or standards: His opinions have always been distinctly heterodox. Compare orthodox. 741)Conjure (not conjecture) giving hallucinations or making people hypnotized to show them what you want: [Show phonetics] verb [T] ; proactive magic; imagine to make (something) appear by magic or as if by magic His words conjured images of far-away action. He conjured up an image of a reformed city and had the voters completely under his spell. 742)Castigate : derision verb [T] to criticize (someone or something) severely ,rebuke, censure Health inspectors castigated the kitchen staff for not keeping the place clean. 743)indubitable [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL that cannot be doubted: an indubitable fact indubitably [Show phonetics] adverb FORMAL He looked different, but it was indubitably John. 744)imprimatur [Show phonetics] official permission noun [S] FORMAL official permission to do something that is given by a person or group in a position of power: When he suspended the constitution and dissolved Congress, he had the imprimatur of the armed forces. Harshit asked the “Hindu” guy to get the imprimatur for conducting the survey. 745)insular [Show phonetics] adjective DISAPPROVING interested only in your own country or group and not willing to accept different or foreign ideas insularity [Show phonetics] noun [U] DISAPPROVING 746)bludgeon [Show phonetics] verb [T] 1 to hit someone hard and repeatedly with a heavy weapon: The two Al Qaida militants had been bludgeoned to death. 2 to force someone to do something:
    • The children bludgeoned their parents into taking them to the zoo. bludgeon noun [C] a heavy stick which is thick at one end and is used as a weapon 747)wry [Show phonetics] adjective [before noun] showing that you find a bad or difficult situation slightly amusing: a wry smile/comment wryly [Show phonetics] adverb 748)brood (THINK) [Show phonetics] verb [I] to think for a long time about things that make you sad, worried or angry: I wish she wouldn't sit brooding in her room all day. brooding [Show phonetics] adjective He stood there in the corner of the room, a dark, brooding (= worrying) presence. broody [Show phonetics] adjective always thinking unhappy thoughts 749)boorish rude; insensitive Though Mr. Potts constantly interrupted his wife, she ignored his boorish behavior, for she had lost hope of teaching him courtesy. 749)discomfit [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL to make someone feel uncomfortable, especially mentally discomfiture [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL She turned away to hide her discomfiture 750)sneer [Show phonetics]verb a disdainful look or reaction [I or T]to talk about or look at someone or something in an unkind way that shows you do not respect or approve of them:You may sneer, but a lot of people like this kind of music.She'll probably sneer at my new shoes because they're not expensive.[+ speech] "Is that the best you can do?" he sneered.sneer noun [C]
    • DISAPPROVINGan unkind facial expression which shows your lack of respect or approval of someone or something:"How much did you say you earned last year - was it fifteen thousand?" she said with a snee rsneering adjective DISAPPROVIN Grude and not showing respect:I don't like that superior, sneering tone of his. 751)epitome noun the epitome of sth the typical or highest example of a stated quality, as shown by a particular person or thing:Even now in her sixties, she is the epitome of French elegance.epitomize, UK USUALLY epitomise verb [T]to be a perfect example of a quality or type of thing:With little equipment and unsuitable footwear, she epitomizes the inexperienced and unprepared mountain walker. 752)paternalism noun [U] USUALLY DISAPPROVING an attitude of people in authority which results in them making decisions for other people which are often beneficial but which prevent those people from taking responsibility for their own lives paternal adj. 1 of, like, or appropriate to a father; fatherly. 2 related through the father. 3 (of a government etc.) limiting freedom and responsibility by well-meant regulations 753)astonish [Show phonetics]verb [T]to surprise someone very much:I was astonished by how much she'd grown.What astonished me was that he didn't seem to mind. adjective[+ to infinitive] I was astonished to see Miriam there.They looked astonished when I announced I was pregnant.The doctors were astonished at the speed of her recovery.astonishing [Show phonetics]adjectivevery surprising:Her first novel enjoyed an astonishing success.[+ to infinitive] It's astonishing to think that only a few years ago Communism dominated eastern Europe. 754)perspicacious ie. Harshit adjective FORMAL APPROVING quick in noticing, understanding or judging things accurately:His perspicacious grandfather had bought the land as an investment, guessing that there might be gold underground. perspicacity [Show phonetics]noun [U] FORMAL APPROVING the ability to understand things quickly and make accurate judgments:a woman of exceptional perspicacity 755)facade [Show phonetics]noun1 [C] (ALSO façade) the front of a building, especially a large or attractive building:the gallery's elegant 18th century facade2 [S] a false appearance that is more pleasant than the reality:Behind that amiable facade, he's a deeply unpleasant man.We are fed up with this facade of democracy. 756)penance [Show phonetics]noun Pashchataap[C or U]an act which shows that you regret something that you have done, sometimes for religious reasons:As a penance, she said she would buy them all a box of chocolates.They are doing penance for their sins. 757)learn sth by rote SLIGHTLY DISAPPROVINGto learn something in order to be able to repeat it from memory, rather than in order to understand it:She learned the equations by rote.Rote learning 758)bliss [Show phonetics]noun [U]perfect happiness:Lying on a sunny beach is my idea of sheer bliss.wedded/domestic bliss blissful [Show phonetics]adjectiveextremely or completely happy:a blissful childhood/holidayWe spent a blissful year together before things started to go wrong. 759)divest verb [I or T] MAINLY US
    • to sell something, especially a business or a part of a business: The company is divesting its less profitable business operations. [R] She has divested herself of (= sold) some of her share-holdings. 760)sanctity [Show phonetics] reverential noun 1 the sanctity of human life/marriage, etc. when something is very important and deserves respect 2 [U] the quality of being holy: the sanctity of a cemetery/tomb 761)contrive verb [T] 1 to arrange a situation or event, or arrange for something to happen, using clever planning: Couldn't you contrive a meeting between them? I think they'd be ideally suited. [+ to infinitive] Somehow she contrived to get tickets for the concert. 2 to invent and/or make a device or other object in a clever and possibly unusual way: Do you think you could contrive something for hanging my clothes on until I can get a wardrobe? contrivance noun [C or U] FORMAL when someone contrives something: DISAPPROVING Because of the timing, I'm sure the salary freeze is a deliberate contrivance, not a coincidence. I think the meeting happened more by contrivance than chance. The pot hole near “Sharavati” SAC side entrance/revolving gate seems to be contrived contrived adjective DISAPPROVING 1 clever rather than honest: His excuse sounded a bit contrived. 2 artificial and difficult to believe: I enjoyed the film, but felt the ending was a bit contrived. 762)condone v. (-ning) forgive or overlook (an offence or wrongdoing). [Latin dono give] 763)nuance noun [C] fine details or intricacies ,a very slight difference in appearance, meaning, sound, etc: The painter has managed to capture every nuance of the woman's expression. Linguists explore the nuances of language. 764)subtle adjective APPROVING 1 not loud, bright, noticeable or obvious in any way: The room was painted a subtle shade of pink. The play's message is perhaps too subtle to be understood by young children. 2 small but important: There is a subtle difference between these two plans.
    • 3 achieved in a quiet way which does not attract attention to itself and which is therefore good or clever: a subtle plan/suggestion subtle questions subtly [Show phonetics] adverb APPROVING This discovery had subtly changed/altered the way I thought about myself. subtlety [Show phonetics] noun APPROVING 1 [U] the quality of being subtle: Listening to the interview, I was impressed by the subtlety of the questions. 765)candour UK, US candor noun [U] being veracious about difficult of embarrassing subject the quality of being truthful and honest, especially about a difficult or embarrassing subject: "We really don't know what to do about it, " she said with surprising candour. See also candid. 766)arraign verb [T] LEGAL to formally accuse someone in a court of law of a particular crime and ask them to state whether they are guilty or not: He was arraigned on charges of aiding and abetting terrorists. 767)befuddled adjective confused: I'm so tired, my poor befuddled brain can't absorb any more. 768)lackey noun [C] DISAPPROVING a servant or someone who behaves like one by obeying someone else's orders without questioning them or by doing all their unpleasant work for them: He treats us all like his lackeys. 769)aberration noun [C or U] FORMAL a temporary change from the typical or usual way of behaving: In a moment of aberration, she agreed to go with him. I'm sorry I'm late - I had a mental aberration and forgot we had a meeting today. 770)presumptuous adj. unduly or overbearingly confident.  presumptuously adv. presumptuousness n. Overweening I can not say why I become so presumptuous many a times take for example SAC Secretary’s case. 771)cede— Give up, Give over; surrender, succumb, resign or relinquish to the physical control of another 772)ingenious harshit adjective
    • (of a person) very clever and skilful, or (of a thing) cleverly made or planned and involving new ideas and methods: an ingenious idea/method/solution Johnny is so ingenious - he can make the most remarkable sculptures from the most ordinary materials. ingeniously adverb The umbrella was ingeniously devised to fold up into your pocket. ingenuity noun [U] someone's ability to think of clever new ways of doing something: Drug smugglers constantly use their ingenuity to find new ways of getting drugs into a country. 773)rhetoric noun [U] 1 speech or writing which is intended to be effective and persuasive: How far the president will be able to translate his campaign rhetoric into action remains to be seen. I was swayed by her rhetoric into donating all my savings to the charity. 2 SPECIALIZED the study of the ways of using language effectively 3 DISAPPROVING clever language which sounds good but is not sincere or has no real meaning: In reply to the question, he just produced a lot of empty (= meaningless) rhetoric. 774)draconian adjective FORMAL describes laws, government actions, etc. which are unreasonably severe; going beyond what is right or necessary: draconian laws/methods He criticized the draconian measures taken by the police in controlling the demonstrators. 775)fit (SHORT PERIOD) noun [C] a sudden, uncontrolled period of doing something or feeling something: a coughing/sneezing fit She hit him in a fit of anger. fitful adjective often stopping and starting and not happening in a regular or continuous way: fitful breathing a fitful sleep fitfully [Show phonetics]
    • adverb She slept fitfully (= only for short, irregular periods) throughout the night and arose before dawn. 776)plausible adjective 1 seeming likely to be true, or able to be believed: a plausible explanation/excuse 2 DISAPPROVING describes someone who appears to be honest and truthful, even if they are not: a plausible salesman plausibly adverb February's figures cannot plausibly be blamed on flukes or special factors. plausibility noun [U] In Chapter 2 she goes on to test the plausibility of these assumptions. 777)egalitarian —adj. of or advocating equal rights for all. —n. egalitarian person.  egalitarianism n. [French égal *equal] 778)caricature noun [C or U] (the art of making) a drawing or written or spoken description of someone, which makes part of their appearance or character more noticeable than it really is, and which usually makes them look ridiculous: distortion The characters in his early novels are a lot subtler than the overblown caricatures in his more recent work. FIGURATIVE Over the years he's become a grotesque caricature of himself. caricature verb [T] Charles Dickens caricatured lawyers (= represented them in a way which made them look ridiculous) in several of his novels. caricaturist noun [C] a person who creates caricatures 779)accost verb [T often passive] FORMAL to approach or stop and speak to someone in a threatening way: I'm usually accosted by beggars and drunks as I walk to the station 780)moratorium noun [C] plural moratoriums or moratoria FORMAL a stopping of an activity for an agreed amount of time:
    • a five-year worldwide moratorium on nuclear weapons testing Would Kirti observe moratorium on making new boyfriends. 781)protocol (AGREEMENT) noun [C] a formal international agreement: protocol (RULES) noun [U] the system of rules and acceptable behaviour used at official ceremonies and occasions: a breach of Royal protocol diplomatic protocol 782)snag (PROBLEM) noun [C] SLIGHTLY INFORMAL a problem, difficulty or disadvantage: We don't anticipate any snags in/with the negotiations. The drug is very effective - the only snag is that it cannot be produced in large quantities. snag verb [I or T] -gg- MAINLY US to cause problems or difficulties for someone or something: Financial problems have snagged the project for the past six months. The negotiations have snagged on a dispute about who should chair them. 783)Circumvent verb [T] FORMAL to avoid something, especially cleverly or illegally: Ships were registered abroad to circumvent employment and safety regulations. 784)paucity Penury noun [S] FORMAL a lack of something: There is a paucity of information on the ingredients of many cosmetics. 785)shoddy (NOT RESPECTFUL) adjective DISAPPROVING showing a lack of respect, consideration and care: They refused him sick pay when he was off ill, which is a shoddy way to treat an employee. shoddily adverb DISAPPROVING I've been treated very shoddily by the company. 786)the crux noun [S] the most important or serious part of a matter, problem or argument: The crux of the country's economic problems is its foreign debt. The issue of an arms embargo will be at the crux of the negotiations in Geneva. 787)tinker (MAKE CHANGES) [Show phonetics] verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] to make small unimportant changes to something, especially in an attempt to repair or improve it: He spends every weekend tinkering (about) with his car.
    • I wish the government would stop tinkering with the health service. Compare fiddle (MOVE ABOUT). 788)acuity [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL the ability to hear, see or think accurately and clearly: Tiredness also affects visual acuity. He was a man of great political acuity. 789)hanker after/for sth phrasal verb to have a strong desire for something, especially if you cannot or should not have it: What did you hanker after most when you were in prison? Even after all these years, I still hanker for a motorbike. Since I came here , I am hankering for Kirti hankering noun [C] Don't you ever have a hankering (= strong desire) for a different lifestyle? 790)charade noun [C] an act or event which is clearly false: Everyone knew who was going to get the job from the start - the interviews were just a charade. 791)flounder (HAVE DIFFICULTY) verb [I] to experience great difficulties or be completely unable to decide what to do or say next: He lost the next page of his speech and floundered (about/around) for a few seconds. Although his business was a success, his marriage was floundering. In 1986 Richardson resigned as chairman, leaving the company floundering.When will I stop floundering at the seminars and GDs 792)level pegging UK in an equal position in a competition or game: Both teams are level pegging. 793)sporadic intermittently (not sordid) adjective happening irregularly; not regular or continuous , sporadic gunfire a sporadic electricity supply More than 100 people have been killed this year in sporadic outbursts of ethnic violence. 794)contain (CONTROL) verb 1 [T not continuous] to keep something harmful within limits and not allow it to spread: Farms in the area have been closed off in an attempt to contain the disease. More police were sent to help contain the violence. 2 [T often in negatives] to control or hide a strong emotion, such as excitement or anger: She could no longer contain her anger and shouted at him uncontrollably. HUMOROUS Contain yourself! It's not that exciting.
    • containment noun [U] 1 SPECIALIZED when something or someone harmful is controlled and limited: Containment of crowd violence was the police's main concern. 2 an attempt to keep another country's political power within limits without having a war with them: The government is pursuing a policy of containment. 795)prune (CUT) [Show phonetics] trim verb [T] 1 to cut off branches from a tree, bush or plant, especially so that it will grow better in future: She spent the afternoon pruning roses. 2 to reduce something by removing things which are not necessary: Arco has reacted to the loss in revenue by pruning (back) its expansion plans. I felt his essay needed a little pruning. 796)bowdlerize, UK ALSO bowdlerise verb [T] DISAPPROVING to remove words or parts from a book, play or film that are considered to be unsuitable or offensive: The version of the play that I saw had been dreadfully bowdlerized. 797)derogatory rebuking, disdainful adjective showing strong disapproval and not showing respect: He made some derogatory comment/remark about Swapna’s appearance. 798)garner verb [T] LITERARY to collect something, usually after much work or with difficulty: Coppola garnered several Oscar awards for 'The Godfather'. 799)obliterate verb 1 [T often passive] to remove all sign of something, either by destroying it or by covering it so that it cannot be seen: The missile strike was devastating - the target was totally obliterated. All of a sudden the view was obliterated by the fog. 2 [T] to make an idea or feeling disappear completely: Perhaps she gets drunk to obliterate painful memories. 800)ostrich (PERSON) [Show phonetics] noun [C] INFORMAL someone who says that a problem does not exist, because they do not want to deal with it: If you're an ostrich about your debts, you're only going to make matters worse: it would be much better to take your head out of the sand and face facts, however unpleasant. 801)unpalatable 1 describes a fact or id’ea that is unpleasant or shocking and therefore difficult to accept:
    • the unpalatable truth/facts about the war.I heard the unpalatable news at my home. 2 describes food that is unpleasant to taste or eat 802)certitude noun [U] formal when you feel certain about something, for sure abt sth. 803)ordeal noun [C] a very unpleasant experience a terrible ordeal They feared he would not survive the ordeal. She went through the ordeal of being interviewed by a panel of ten people. 804)abate verb [I] FORMAL to become less strong: The storm/wind/rain has started to abate. The fighting in the area shows no sign of abating. See also unabated. 805)insurmountable [Show phonetics] adjective impossible to deal with an insurmountable problem/task 806)inadvertent adjective not done intentionally an inadvertent error inadvertently adverb I had inadvertently picked up the wrong keys. 807)conviction [Show phonetics] noun 1 CRIME [C] when someone is officially found to be guilty of a particular crime He already had two convictions for burglary. 2 BELIEF [C,U] a strong opinion or belief religious/moral convictions 808)drudgery [Show phonetics] noun [U] work that is very boring 809)utopian [Show phonetics] adjective A utopian idea or plan is based on the belief that things can be made perfect. a utopian vision of society 810)inducement [Show phonetics] enticement noun [C,U] FORMAL something that someone offers you to try to persuade you to do something They offered me more money as an inducement to stay. Can you just offer inducements and say come on get my son in. 811). pecuniary [Show phonetics]
    • adjective FORMAL relating to money: pecuniary interest/loss/benefit a pecuniary matter 812)devour [Show phonetics] verb [T] 1 to eat something eagerly and in large amounts so that nothing is left, guzzle : The young cubs hungrily devoured the deer. 2 LITERARY to destroy something completely: The flames quickly devoured the building. 3 to read books or literature quickly and eagerly: She's a very keen reader - she devours one book after another. devouring [Show phonetics] adjective [before noun] LITERARY describes an emotion that is extremely strong and usually destructive:as of a vamp She is driven by a devouring ambition/passion. 813)blatant [Show phonetics] adjective describes something bad that is very obvious or intentional: a blatant lie extremely obvious; loudly offensive Caught in a blatant lie, the scoundrel had only one regret: he wished that he had lied more subtly. The whole episode was a blatant attempt to gain publicity. blatantly [Show phonetics] adverb It was blatantly obvious that she was telling a lie. 814)untenable [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL 1 describes a theory or argument that cannot be supported or defended against criticism 2 describes a situation that cannot continue as it is: If three people in four no longer support the government, isn't this an untenable situation? 815)preclude [Show phonetics] refrain verb [T] FORMAL inhibition to prevent something or make it impossible, or prevent someone from doing something: His contract precludes him from discussing his work with anyone outside the company. The fact that your application was not successful this time does not preclude the possibility of you applying again next time. preclusion [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL Your age should not act as a preclusion to you being accepted on the university course.
    • 816)churn sth out phrasal verb [M] INFORMAL to produce large amounts of something quickly, usually something of low quality: The factory churns out thousands of pairs of these shoes every week. She churns out a new bestselling novel every year. 817)heave a sigh of relief to suddenly feel very happy because something unpleasant has not happened or has ended: We both heaved a sigh of relief when she left. 818)inflict [Show phonetics] tyrannies or unpleasant situation put over someone verb [T] to force someone to experience something very unpleasant: These new bullets are capable of inflicting massive injuries. The suffering inflicted on these children was unimaginable. infliction [Show phonetics] noun [U] 819)sane [Show phonetics] adjective having a healthy mind and not mentally ill, or showing good judgment and understanding: In the doctor's opinion he was sane at the time of the murder. HUMOROUS The only thing which keeps me sane after a hard day in the office is jogging! It was a sane (= sensible) decision and one we all respected. sanity [Show phonetics] noun [U] He'd been behaving so strangely that they began to doubt/question his sanity. Maybe Jenny can bring some sanity into (= think and act with good judgment in) this crazy situation. to keep/preserve/retain your sanity 820)trickle (SMALL NUMBER) [Show phonetics] verb trickle in/out/back, etc. to arrive or move somewhere slowly and gradually, in small numbers: Gradually people trickled back into the theatre for the second half. The Junta usually trickles for morning breakfast during winter vacations trickle [Show phonetics] noun [S] a very small number of people or things arriving or leaving somewhere: We usually only get a trickle of customers in the shop in the mornings. 821)excursion [Show phonetics] noun [C] 1 a short journey usually made for pleasure, often by a group of people: This year's annual excursion will be to Lincoln. Next week we're going on an excursion. 2 excursion into sth a brief involvement in a new activity:
    • A teacher by profession, this is her first excursion into writing for the theatre. 822)resurrect [Show phonetics] verb [T] 1 to bring someone back to life: Almost all Christians believe that Jesus was resurrected from the dead. 2 to bring back something into use or existence that had disappeared or ended: Several members of the party have resurrected the idea of constitutional change. She has been busily trying to resurrect her Hollywood career. resurrection [Show phonetics] noun [U] when something that had disappeared or ended is brought back into use or existence 823)ploy [Show phonetics] noun [C] something that is done or said in order to get an advantage, often dishonestly: There are various ploys we can use if necessary. [+ to infinitive] He only said he had a meeting as a ploy to get her to leave. 824)vandal [Show phonetics] noun [C] a person who intentionally damages property belonging to other people: Vandals smashed windows and overturned cars in the downtown shopping district. vandalism [Show phonetics] noun [U] 1 the crime of intentionally damaging property belonging to other people: Beset by drug problems, prostitution, violence and vandalism, this is one of the most unpleasant areas in the city. These schools are known to be vulnerable to vandalism. 2 any activity that is considered to be damaging or destroying something that was good: Cutting down the old forest was an act of vandalism. The advertising industry's use of classic songs is vandalism of popular culture, he said. vandalize, UK USUALLY vandalise [Show phonetics] verb [T] to intentionally damage property belonging to other people: When I got back, my car had been vandalized. They are the type of teenagers likely to vandalize phone boxes. 825)dastardly [Show phonetics] adjective OLD-FASHIONED OR HUMOROUS evil and cruel: It's the story of a woman who plots a dastardly revenge on her unfaithful lover. 826)charisma [Show phonetics] noun [U] a special power which some people possess naturally which makes them able to influence other
    • people and attract their attention and admiration: On screen Garbo had this great charisma so that you couldn't take your eyes off her. How did a man of so little personal charisma get to be prime minister?charismatic [Show phonetics] adjective belonging or relating to various groups within the Christian Church who believe that God gives people special powers, such as the ability to heal others and to speak to him in a special language: the charismatic movement 827)cauldron, MAINLY US caldron [Show phonetics] noun [C] OLD USE OR LITERARY a large round container for cooking in, usually supported over a fire 828)vaunted : exalted adjective FORMAL praised frequently in a way that is considered to be more than acceptable or reasonable, His (much) vaunted new scheme has been shown to have serious weaknesses. 829)disaffected [Show phonetics] adjective 1 no longer supporting or being satisfied with an organization or idea: The party needs to take steps to attract disaffected voters. 2 describes young people who are no longer satisfied with society's values: The teacher said that he found it difficult to cope with a class of disaffected teenagers. disaffected youth disaffection [Show phonetics] noun [U] a growing disaffection with the country's political leaders 830)resent [Show phonetics] verb [T] to be angry about and to dislike being forced to accept something or someone annoying: She bitterly resented her father's new wife. [+ ing form of verb] He resents having to explain his work to other people. resentful [Show phonetics] adjective a resentful look She was resentful of anybody's attempts to interfere in her work. 831)emulate [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL to copy something achieved by someone else and try to do it as well as they have: They hope to emulate the success of other software companies. Fitzgerald is keen to emulate Martin's record of three successive world titles. 832)symptom [Show phonetics] noun [C] 1 any feeling of illness or physical or mental change which is caused by a particular disease:
    • He's complaining of all the usual flu symptoms - a high temperature, headache and so on. He's been HIV-positive for six years, but just recently he's started to develop the symptoms of AIDS. 2 any single problem which is caused by and shows a more serious and general problem: It's her feeling that the recent outbreaks of violence are a symptom of the dissatisfaction that is currently affecting our society. symptomatic [Show phonetics] adjective If something bad is symptomatic of something else, it is caused by the other thing and is proof that it exists: Jealousy within a relationship is usually symptomatic of low self-esteem in one of the partners. 833)malaise [Show phonetics] noun [S or U] FORMAL a general feeling of bad health or lack of energy, or an uncomfortable feeling that something is wrong, especially with society, and a lack of ability to change the situation: They claim it is a symptom of a deeper and more general malaise in society. We were discussing the roots of the current economic malaise. 834)facilitate [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL to make possible or easier: The new ramp will facilitate the entry of wheelchairs. The current structure does not facilitate efficient work flow. 835)connive [Show phonetics] verb [I] 1 to plan secretly and dishonestly for something to happen which will be to your advantage: Civil servants and ministers were accused of conniving with the company in the supply of arms to Sierra Leone. [+ to infinitive] They connived to break the school rules at every opportunity. 2 to allow something bad to happen although you know about it: She had murdered or connived at the murder of one of her lovers. He called for checks to discover whether corrupt officials are being bribed to connive in shoddy construction. connivance [Show phonetics] noun [U] when someone connives, especially by being aware of something bad that is happening and allowing it to continue: Their appalling treatment of their child could only have happened with the connivance of their neighbours. conniving [Show phonetics] adjective
    • describes a person who deceives others for their own advantage: He's a conniving bastard! 836)pillory [Show phonetics] verb [T] to severely criticize someone, especially in a public way, rebuke, censure: Although regularly pilloried by the press as an obnoxious loudmouth, he is, nonetheless, an effective politician. 837)spur (ENCOURAGE) [Show phonetics] verb [T] -rr- to encourage an activity or development or make it happen faster: Rising consumer sales have the effect of spurring the economy to faster growth. Spurred (on) by her early success, she went on to write four more novels in rapid succession. spur [Show phonetics] noun [C] The manager said that the team's win on Saturday would be a spur to even greater effort this season. 838)pilfer [Show phonetics] verb [I or T] to steal things of small value: pilferage He was caught pilfering (sweets) from the shop. 839)devious [Show phonetics] adjective 1 describes people or plans and methods that are dishonest, often in a complicated way, but often also clever and successful: You have to be a bit devious if you're going to succeed in business. a devious scheme 2 indirect: He took a rather devious route which avoids the city centre. 840)fervent [Show phonetics] adjective (ALSO fervid) FORMAL describes beliefs that are strongly and sincerely felt or people who have strong and sincere beliefs: a fervent supporter of the communist party It is his fervent hope that a peaceful solution will soon be found. fervently [Show phonetics] adverb FORMAL The nationalists believe fervently in independence for their country. fervour UK, US fervor [Show phonetics] noun [U] (FORMAL fervency) FORMAL nationalist/religious fervour 841)torrent [Show phonetics] noun 1 [S] a sudden large or too large amount, especially one which seems to be uncontrollable:
    • He let out a torrent of abuse/angry words. They are worried that the flow/trickle/stream of tourists could swell into an unmanageable torrent if there are no controls. 2 [C] a large amount of fast-moving water:, inundate, deluge Heavy rainfall turned the river into a rushing/raging torrent. torrents ; overwhelming plural noun large amounts: torrents of rain The rain came down/fell in torrents. We have received torrents of letters/requests/criticism. torrential [Show phonetics] adjective used to refer to very heavy rain: torrential rain a torrential downpour/storm 842)mutter [Show phonetics] verb [I or T] to speak quietly and in a low voice that is not easy to hear, often when you are anxious or complaining about something: Stop muttering and speak up! He was muttering (away) to himself. Laurence muttered something about his wife and left. He muttered something under his breath to the person next to him. mutter [Show phonetics] noun 1 [C or S] (the sound of) words being said very quietly: I heard the soft mutter of voices in the next room. 2 [C] a complaint which is made privately: There were mutters that other departments received more money than ours. mutterings [Show phonetics] plural noun complaints which are made privately: There are mutterings of discontent among the staff. 843)perfidious [Show phonetics] opposite of stalwart adjective LITERARY unable to be trusted, or showing a lack of loyalty: She described the new criminal bill as a perfidious attack on democracy.
    • perfidy [Show phonetics] noun [U] LITERARY behaviour which is not loyal 844)spurt (INCREASE) [Show phonetics] noun [C] almost similar to spur a sudden and brief period of increased activity, effort or speed: There was a sudden spurt of activity in the housing market. He tends to work in spurts. spurt [Show phonetics] verb [I or T] MAINLY US to increase or grow very quickly, or to suddenly increase by a particular amount: Shares of the jewellery-store chain spurted $6. 845)quaint [Show phonetics] adjective 1 attractive because of being unusual and especially old-fashioned: a quaint old cottage 2 Quaint can also be used to show that you do not approve of something, especially an opinion, belief or way of behaving, because it is strange or old-fashioned: "What a quaint idea!" she said, laughing at him. quaintly [Show phonetics] adverb quaintness [Show phonetics] noun [U] 846)fidelity [Show phonetics] noun [U] 1 FORMAL honest or lasting support, or loyalty, especially to a sexual partner: Somerset Maugham's comedy of marital fidelity, 'The Constant Wife' How important do you think sexual fidelity is in a marriage? 2 APPROVING when you copy the detail and quality of an original, such as a picture, sound or story exactly: The best ink-jet printers can reproduce photographs with amazing fidelity 847)scuttle (RUN) [Show phonetics] flit verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] to move quickly, with small short steps, especially in order to escape: A crab scuttled away under a rock as we passed. The children scuttled off as soon as the headmaster appeared. scuttle (SINK) [Show phonetics] verb [T] 1 to intentionally sink a ship, especially your own, in order to prevent it from being taken by an
    • enemy 2 to stop something happening, or to cause a plan to fail scuttle1 n. 1 = *coal-scuttle. 2 part of a car body between the windscreen and the bonnet. [Old Norse from Latin scutella dish] scuttle2 —v. (-ling) scurry; flee from danger etc. —n. hurried gait; precipitate flight. [perhaps related to dial. scuddle frequentative of *scud]scuttle3 —n. hole with a lid in a ship's deck or side. —v. let water into (a ship) to sink it. [Spanish escotilla hatchway] 848)monger [Show phonetics] suffix MAINLY DISAPPROVING a person who encourages a particular activity, especially one which causes trouble: They're nothing but a bunch of war-mongers. See also ironmonger; fishmonger. -mongering [Show phonetics] suffix They accused him of rumour-mongering/scandal-mongering. 849)farce (PLAY) [Show phonetics] noun 1 [C] a humorous play or film where the characters become involved in unlikely situations 2 [U] the style of writing or acting in this type of play: The play suddenly changes from farce to tragedy.farce (SITUATION) [Show phonetics] noun [C] DISAPPROVING a ridiculous or meaningless situation or action: No one had prepared anything so the meeting was a bit of a farce. farcical [Show phonetics] adjective DISAPPROVING The whole situation has become farcical.farcically [Show phonetics] adverb DISAPPROVING 850)sleuth [Show phonetics] noun [C] OLD-FASHIONED OR HUMOROUS someone whose job is to discover information about crimes and find out who is responsible for them; a detective sleuthing [Show phonetics] noun [U] INFORMAL A bit of sleuthing from our investigative reporter uncovered some interesting information on Mr Parkinson. 851)anecdote [Show phonetics] noun [C] a short often amusing story, especially about something someone has done: He told one or two amusing anecdotes about his years as a policeman. anecdotal [Show phonetics] adjective describes information that is not based on facts or careful study: anecdotal evidence
    • 852)intrigue (INTEREST) [Show phonetics] verb [T] to interest someone a lot, especially by being strange, unusual or mysterious: Throughout history, people have been intrigued by the question of whether there is intelligent life elsewhere in the universe. intriguing [Show phonetics] adjective an intriguing possibility/question She has a really intriguing personality. intriguingly [Show phonetics] adverb 853)desist [Show phonetics] refrain verb [I] FORMAL to stop doing something, especially something that someone else does not want you to do: The soldiers have been ordered to desist from firing their guns. The high winds are expected to desist tomorrow. 854)truce [Show phonetics] noun [C] a brief interruption in a war or argument, or an agreement to stop fighting or arguing for a period of time: After years of rivalry, the two companies have UK agreed/US agreed to a truce. We've got to spend the weekend together, so we might as well call (= have) a truce. Following last month's riots, the two big gangs in Los Angeles have finally declared a truce, ending years of bloodshed. The fragile truce between the two sides is not expected to last long 855)posterior [Show phonetics] adjective [before noun] FORMAL positioned at or towards the back, or later in time Compare anterior. posterior [Show phonetics] noun HUMOROUS your posterior your bottom: If you would kindly move your posterior just a fraction to the right, I might get by. 856)debilitate [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL to make someone or something physically weak: Chemotherapy exhausted and debilitated him. debilitating [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL a debilitating condition/disease
    • debility [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL physical weakness 857)intractable [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL very difficult and seeming to be impossible to control, manage or solve: We are facing an intractable problem. intractably [Show phonetics] adverb an intractably violent relationship intractability [Show phonetics] noun [U] 858)délimitation f delimitation; ~ des frontières defining of borders 859)overt [Show phonetics] adjective [not gradable] done or shown obviously or publicly; not hidden or secret There are no overt signs of damage. overtly [Show phonetics] adverb [not gradable] The speech was described as overtly racist. 860)covert [Show phonetics] adjective hidden or secret: covert actions The government was accused of covert military operations against the regime. Compare overt. covert [Show phonetics] noun [C] a group of bushes and small trees growing close together in which animals can hide, especially from hunters covertly [Show phonetics] adverb secretly, or in a hidden way: Terrorists have been operating covertly in England for several years. 861)serendipity [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL the lucky tendency to find interesting or valuable things by chance
    • serendipitous [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL Reading should be an adventure, a personal experience full of serendipitous surprises. faculty of making happy discoveries by accident. 862)prowess [Show phonetics] noun [U] SLIGHTLY FORMAL great ability or skill: athletic/sporting prowess He's always boasting about his sexual prowess. 863)luminary [Show phonetics] noun [C] FORMAL a person who is famous and important in a particular area of activity: Luminaries of stage and screen (= famous actors) assembled for last night's awards ceremony. 864)effete [Show phonetics] adjective 1 LITERARY DISAPPROVING weak and lacking power: With nothing to do all day the aristocracy had grown effete and lazy. 2 DISAPPROVING more typical of a woman than of a man 865)jostle [Show phonetics] verb [I or T] to knock or push roughly against someone in order to move past them or get more space when you are in a crowd of people: As we came into the arena, we were jostled by fans pushing their way towards the stage. Photographers jostled and shoved to get a better view of the royal couple. jostling [Show phonetics] noun [U] jostling [Show phonetics] adjective a crowd of jostling reporters jostle for sth phrasal verb If people jostle for something, they compete with each other in order to get what they want: Since the fall of the government, the two opposition parties have been jostling for position. 866)inextricable [Show phonetics] adjective unable to be separated, freed or escaped from: In the case of King Arthur, legend and truth are often inextricable. inextricably [Show phonetics] adverb His name was inextricably linked with the environmental movement. 867)eavesdrop [Show phonetics] verb [I] -pp- to listen to someone's private conversation without them knowing:
    • He was eavesdropping on our conversation. eavesdropper [Show phonetics] noun [C] 868)snooze [Show phonetics] verb [I] INFORMAL to sleep lightly for a short while: The dog's snoozing in front of the fire. snooze [Show phonetics] noun [C] INFORMAL I had a nice little snooze in the back of the car 869)glitch [Show phonetics] noun [C] 1 a small problem or fault that prevents something from being successful or working as well as it should: We'd expected a few glitches, but everything's gone remarkably smoothly. The system has been plagued with glitches ever since its launch. 2 SPECIALIZED a sudden unexpected increase in electrical power, especially one that causes a fault in an electronic system: The computer failure was due to a glitch caused by lightning. 870)abysmal [Show phonetics] adjective very bad: abysmal working conditions The food was abysmal. The standard of the students' work is abysmal. abysmally [Show phonetics] adverb an abysmally poor book 871)denizen [Show phonetics] noun [C] LITERARY an animal, plant or person that lives in or is often in a particular place: Deer, foxes and squirrels are among the denizens of the forest. 872)pliant [Show phonetics] adjective 1 Pliant people are easily influenced or controlled by other people: I don't think it's a good thing for children to be too pliant. 2 able to bend easily without breaking: These toys are made of pliant rubber, so they won't break. 3 being able and willing to accept change or new ideas:
    • The management has adopted a more pliant position, and has agreed to listen to the staff's requests. pliancy [Show phonetics] noun [U] pliantly [Show phonetics] adverb 873)acquiesce [Show phonetics] ai -Q S verb [I] FORMAL to accept or agree to something, often unwillingly: Reluctantly, he acquiesced to/in the plans. acquiescent [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL Kirti has a very acquiescent nature (= agrees to everything without complaining). acquiescence [Show phonetics] noun [U] I was surprised by her acquiescence to/in the scheme. 874)conscript [Show phonetics] verb [T] (US USUALLY draft) to force someone by law to serve in one of the armed forces: He was conscripted into the army at the age of 18. conscript [Show phonetics] noun [C] (US USUALLY draftee) Over half the army was composed of conscripts. Compare volunteer. conscript [Show phonetics] adjective [before noun] a conscript army conscription [Show phonetics] noun [U] He's been worried that the government will introduce conscription ever since the war began. 875)disincentive [Show phonetics] noun [C] something that discourages people from doing something or working hard: High taxes are a disincentive to business. 876)imperative (URGENT) [Show phonetics] adjective extremely important or urgent; needing to be done or given attention immediately: [+ that] The president said it was imperative that the release of all hostages be secured. [+ to infinitive] It's imperative to act now before the problem gets really serious.
    • imperative [Show phonetics] noun [C] Getting the unemployed back to work, said the minister, is a moral imperative. 877)divisive [Show phonetics] tending to divide adjective describes something that causes great and sometimes unfriendly disagreement within a group of people: The Vietnam war was an extremely divisive issue in the US. divisively [Show phonetics] adverb divisiveness noun [Show phonetics] 878)innocuous [Show phonetics] adjective completely harmless: Some mushrooms look innocuous but are in fact poisonous. innocuously [Show phonetics] adverb innocuousness [Show phonetics] noun [U] 879)fraught (ANXIOUS) [Show phonetics] adjective causing or having extreme worry or anxiety: This is one of the most fraught weekends of the year for the security forces. The atmosphere in the office is rather fraught. fraught (FULL OF) [Show phonetics] adjective fraught with full of unpleasant things such as problems or dangers: The negotiations have been fraught with difficulties/problems right from the start. From beginning to end, the airlift was fraught with risks. 880)squalid (IMMORAL) [Show phonetics] adjective (of situations and activities) immoral; involving sex and drugs, etc. in an unpleasant way: It's the usual squalid rock star tale of drugs, sex and overdoses. squalor [Show phonetics] noun [U] 881)pastoral (CARE) [Hide phonetics] adjective describes the part of the work of teachers and priests that involves giving help and advice about personal matters:
    • A priest's pastoral duties include helping the poor and sick. 882)feudal [Hide phonetics] adjective relating to the social system of Western Europe in the Middle Ages or any society that is organised according to rank: the feudal system a feudal lord/kingdom/society feudalism [Hide phonetics] noun [U] 883)concur [Hide phonetics] verb [I] -rr- FORMAL 1 to agree with someone or have the same opinion as someone else: The new report concurs with previous findings. [+ that] The board concurred that the editor should have full control over editorial matters. [+ speech] "I think you're absolutely right, " concurred Chris. 2 If two or more events concur, they happen at the same time. concurrence [Hide phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL when people, things or events concur concurrent [Hide phonetics] adjective happening or existing at the same time: The judge imposed concurrent sentences totalling 14 years for the attacks on the girls. 884)contort [Show phonetics] verb [I or T] to (cause something to) twist or bend violently and unnaturally into a different shape or form: His face contorted with bitterness and rage. contorted [Show phonetics] adjective contorted limbs/branches contortion [Show phonetics] noun [C or U] facial/bodily contortions
    • contortionist [Show phonetics] noun [C] someone who can twist their body into shapes and positions that ordinary people cannot 885)cussed [Show phonetics] adjective DISAPPROVING describes people who are unwilling to be helpful, or things that are annoying: He's just plain cussed: he's only doing it because I asked him not to! It's a cussed nuisance. cussedly [Show phonetics] adverb cussedness [Show phonetics] noun [U] He refused to help out of sheer/pure cussedness. 886)gripe [Show phonetics] noun [C] INFORMAL a strong complaint: Her main gripe is that she's not being trained properly. gripe [Show phonetics] verb [I] INFORMAL There's no point griping about the price of things. 887)masquerade as sb/sth phrasal verb to pretend or appear to be someone or something: Hooligans masquerading as football fans have once again caused disturbances. 888)dodge [Show phonetics] verb 1 [I or T] to avoid being hit by something by moving quickly to one side: He dodged to avoid the hurtling bicycle. 2 [T] to avoid something unpleasant: The minister dodged questions about his relationship with the actress. dodge [Show phonetics] noun [C] INFORMAL a clever dishonest way of avoiding something: They bought another car as a tax dodge (= a way to avoid paying tax). dodger [Show phonetics] noun [C] a person who avoids doing what they should do: a tax dodger (= someone who avoids paying tax). 889)nip (GO QUICKLY) [Show phonetics]
    • verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] -pp- UK INFORMAL to go somewhere quickly or be somewhere for only a short time: Can you nip out/round/down to the shop for me? Shall we nip in to the cafe for a bite to eat? nippy [Show phonetics] adjective UK INFORMAL able to change speed and direction easily: a nippy little car 890)nip sth in the bud to stop something before it has an opportunity to become established: Many serious illnesses can be nipped in the bud if they are detected early enough. It's important to nip this kind of bullying in the bud. 891)nip and tuck MAINLY US If a competition is nip and tuck, first one side seems to be winning and then the other, so that the result is uncertain: It was nip and tuck as to who would win the playoffs, but Denver's determination helped them to beat a tough Washington team. 892)a nip (here) and a tuck (there) 1 US INFORMAL a series of small reductions: The department made a nip here and a tuck there, but they were still way over budget. 2 INFORMAL plastic surgery: I suspect she's had a nip and tuck to look like that at her age. 893)subterfuge [Show phonetics] noun [C or U] a trick or a dishonest way of achieving something: It was clear that they must have obtained the information by subterfuge. 894)delusion [Show phonetics] noun [C or U] when someone believes something that is not true: [+ that] He's under the delusion that he will be promoted as SAC Sec this year. delusive [Show phonetics] adjective (ALSO delusory) false delusively [Show phonetics] 895) deracination :To move something from its natural environment, The act of pulling up or out; uprooting; cutting off from existence 896)indict [Show phonetics] verb [T] LEGAL If a law court or a grand jury indicts someone, it accuses them officially of a crime: UK He was indicted on drug charges at Snaresbrook Crown Court. US Five people were indicted for making and selling counterfeit currency.
    • indictable [Show phonetics] adjective LEGAL Robbery is an indictable offence. indictment [Show phonetics] noun 1 [C usually singular] a reason for giving blame: This seems to me to be a damning indictment of education policy. 2 [C] LEGAL a formal statement of accusation: The charges on the indictment include murder and attempted murder. 897)awash [Show phonetics] adjective [after verb] 1 covered with a liquid, especially water: By the time I discovered the problem, the floor was awash. 2 having an amount of something which is very large or larger than necessary or desirable: The city is awash with drugs and the police are powerless to do anything about it. (from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary) 898)the minutiae [Show phonetics] plural noun small and often unimportant details: The committee studied the minutiae of the report for hours. Comedy is so often based in the minutiae of everyday life. 899)nitpicking [Show phonetics] noun [U] INFORMAL DISAPPROVING giving too much attention to unimportant details, especially as a way of criticizing: If you spent less time nitpicking, you'd get more work done. nitpicking [Show phonetics] adjective INFORMAL DISAPPROVING a nitpicking attitude nitpick [Show phonetics] verb [I] INFORMAL DISAPPROVING Must you nitpick (= find fault with details) all the time? nitpicker [Show phonetics] noun [C] INFORMAL DISAPPROVING 900)PREDILECTION [Show phonetics] noun [C] SLIGHTLY FORMAL a strong liking: Ever since she was a child, she has had a predilection for spicy food.
    • I have a predilection for kirti 901)veil (UNCLEAR EFFECT) [Show phonetics] noun [S] LITERARY 1 a thin covering of something, which you can see through, but not very clearly: The view over the lake was obscured by a veil of mist that hung in the air. 2 something that prevents you from knowing what is happening: The government has been urged to lift the veil of secrecy surrounding the minister's unexpected resignation. 902)predisposition [Show phonetics] noun [C] FORMAL the state of being likely to behave in a particular way or to suffer from a particular disease: She has an annoying predisposition to find fault wherever she goes. There is evidence that a predisposition to(wards) asthma runs in families. 903)decrepit [Show phonetics] adjective in very bad condition because of being old, or not having been cared for, or having been used a lot: Most of the buildings were old and decrepit. A decrepit old man sat on a park bench. decrepitude [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL a state of decrepitude 904)mutate [Show phonetics] verb [I] 1 to develop new physical characteristics because of a permanent change in the genes. These changes can happen naturally or can be produced by the use of chemicals or radiation: These bacteria have mutated into forms that are resistant to certain drugs. 2 to change from one thing or type of thing into another: Jon has mutated from an awkward teenager into a sophisticated young man. 905)I am mutating from a jaunty young man to a leader mutation [Show phonetics] noun 1 [U] the way in which genes change and produce permanent differences: It is well known that radiation can cause mutation. 2 [C] a permanent change in an organism, or the changed organism itself: Environmental pressures encourage genes with certain mutations to persist and others to die out. These plants carry the mutation for red flowers. mutant [Show phonetics] noun [C] 1 an organism that is different from others of its type because of a permanent change in its genes:
    • These mutants lacked a vital protein which gives them immunity to the disease. This mutant gene is thought to cause cancer. FIGURATIVE HUMOROUS I'm convinced he's a mutant - he's not a bit like the rest of our family! 2 DISAPPROVING an unpleasant and frightening thing: The result of these experiments will be a nightmarish world filled with two-headed monsters and other mutants. 906) mop [Show phonetics] verb [T] -pp- 1 to use a mop to wash something: He mopped the bathroom floor. 2 to use a cloth to remove sweat from the face: He kept pausing to mop his brow. mop sth up (CLEAN) phrasal verb [M] to use a cloth or a mop to remove liquid from the surface of something: There's milk on the floor over there - could you get a cloth and mop it up? 907)incinerate [Show phonetics] verb [T] to burn something completely: to incinerate waste The spacecraft and its crew were incinerated by the billion-degree temperatures generated by the fireball. incineration [Show phonetics] noun [U] incinerator [Show phonetics] noun [C] a device for burning things which are no longer wanted: a garbage/hazardous-waste incinerator a hospital incinerator 908)preempt [Show phonetics] verb [T] to prevent (something) from happening by taking action first State laws preempted local governments from restricting newspaper displays. If a broadcast is preempted, it is replaced by another, usually more important broadcast: One station preempted its Friday night schedule to televise the high school playoffs. preemptive, pre-emptive [Show phonetics] adjective [not gradable] a preemptive air strike on an enemy base
    • 909)abhor [Show phonetics] verb [T] to hate (something or someone) His opponent abhors the death penalty. abhorrent [Show phonetics] adjective His attitude of superiority is abhorrent. abhorrence [Show phonetics] noun [U] She has an abhorrence of violence. 910)languish [Show phonetics] verb [I] to exist in an unpleasant or unwanted situation, often for a long time: After languishing in obscurity for many years, her early novels have recently been rediscovered. He has been languishing in jail for the past twenty years. The ruling party is languishing in third place in the opinion polls. 911)exorbitant [Show phonetics] adjective Exorbitant prices and demands, etc. are much too large: The bill for dinner was exorbitant. 912)rogue [Show phonetics] adjective 1 behaving in ways that are not expected or not normal, often in a destructive way: a rogue state rogue cells 2 [before noun] SPECIALIZED A rogue animal is a fierce, dangerous animal that lives apart from the rest of its group. rogue [Show phonetics] noun [C] 1 OLD-FASHIONED HUMOROUS a person who behaves badly but who you still like: "Come here, you little rogue!" chuckled my uncle. The women all think he's a loveable old rogue. 2 OLD-FASHIONED a dishonest or immoral man roguish [Show phonetics] adjective
    • (of a person) looking amused because of slightly bad behaviour: His eyes were bright blue with a roguish twinkle in them. roguishly [Show phonetics] adverb roguishness [Show phonetics] noun [U] 913)statute [Show phonetics] noun [C or U] a law which has been formally approved and written down statutory [Show phonetics] adjective decided or controlled by law: statutory obligations 914)bourgeois [Show phonetics] adjective DISAPPROVING belonging to or typical of the middle class (= a social group between the rich and the poor), especially in supporting established customs and values, or in having a strong interest in money and possessions: It's a bit bourgeois, isn't it, joining a golf club? the bourgeoisie [Show phonetics] group noun [S] (in Marxism) the part of society, including employers and people who run large companies, which has most of the wealth and takes advantage of ordinary workers: The new bourgeoisie, which was created by the Industrial Revolution, had money to spend and wanted to travel. 915)transcend [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL to go beyond, rise above or be more important or better than something, especially a limit: The best films are those which transcend national or cultural barriers. The underlying message of the film is that love transcends everything else. transcendence [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL transcendent [Show phonetics] adjective FORMAL greater, better, more important, or going beyond or above all others: transcendent power/beauty/love He describes seeing Stanley Matthews play football as one of the transcendent moments of his life. transcendental [Show phonetics]
    • adjective FORMAL describes an experience, event, object or idea that is extremely special and unusual and cannot be understood in ordinary ways: a transcendental vision of the nature of God 916)sacrosanct [Show phonetics] adjective MAINLY HUMOROUS thought to be too important or too special to be changed: I'm willing to help on any weekday, but I'm afraid my weekends are sacrosanct. sacrosanct adj. most sacred; inviolable.  sacrosanctity n. [Latin: related to *sacred, *saint] 917)scathing [Show phonetics] adjective severely and unkindly critical: scathing criticism He was very scathing about the report, saying it was inaccurate. scathingly [Show phonetics] adverb She spoke scathingly of the poor standard of work done by her predecessor. 918)instigate [Show phonetics] verb [T] FORMAL to cause an event or situation to happen by making a set of actions or a formal process begin: The government will instigate new measures to combat terrorism. The revolt in the north is believed to have been instigated by a high-ranking general. instigation [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL The inquiry was begun at the instigation of a local MP. instigator [Show phonetics] noun [C] 919)colossus [Show phonetics] noun [C] plural colossuses or colossi 1 a person or thing of great size, influence or ability: She has been described as the creative colossus of the literary world. 2 a very large statue or building: http://epaperdaily.timesofindia.com/Default/Scripting/ArchiveView.asp? Daily=CAP&AppName=1&Enter=true&Skin=TOI&GZ=T&BaseHref=CAP %2F2005%2F08%2F09&PageSize=4&Page=6 Pg 07 - National Pg 08 - National Pg 09 - National
    • Pg 10 - National Pg 11 - National Pg 12 - Intl Pg 13 - Business xdexdddddwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwww Pg 14 - Business Pg 15 - Sports Pg 16 - Sports Pg 17 - Sports the Colossus of Rhodes colossal [Show phonetics] adjective extremely large: In the centre of the hall stood a colossal wooden statue, decorated in ivory and gold. They were asking a colossal amount of money for the house. 920)havoc [Show phonetics] noun [U] confusion and lack of order, especially causing damage or trouble: The storm wreaked (= caused) havoc in the garden, uprooting trees and blowing a fence down. The delay played (= caused) havoc with their travel arrangements. 921)incumbent —adj. 1 resting as a duty (it is incumbent on you to do it). 2 (often foll. by on) lying, pressing. 3 currently holding office (the incumbent president). —n. holder of an office or post, esp. a benefice. [Latin incumbo lie upon] 922)culpable adj. deserving blame.  culpability n. [Latin culpo blame] culprit n. guilty person. [perhaps from Anglo-French culpable: see *culpable] 923)incite v. (-ting) (often foll. by to) urge or stir up.  incitement n. [Latin cito rouse] 924)succour (US succor) —n. aid, esp. in time of need. —v. give succour to. [Latin succurro run to help] 925)complainant n. plaintiff in certain lawsuits. 926)aggrieved adj. having a grievance. [French: related to *grief]