Chemistry Review
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Review of Basic Chemistry for Mid-term

Review of Basic Chemistry for Mid-term

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Chemistry Review Chemistry Review Presentation Transcript

  • CHEMISTRY AND LIVING THINGS
    • Why is chemistry important in biology?
      • Organisms are made of macro-________.
      • Macromolecules are made of smaller _______, made of atoms.
  •  
  • Atoms
    • The Smallest piece of an ________.
    • ________ is made up of atoms
    Subatomic Particle Charge Location Proton (+) Nucleus Neutron No charge Nucleus Electron (-) Outside Nucleus
  • Bohr Model: What makes a nickel different from a piece of gold? VALENCE ELECTRONS: THE OUTER SHELL OF ELECTRONS DETERMINES AN ATOM’S PROPERTIES.
  • Elements & Periodic Table
    • Element= A substance made up of __ type of atom
    • 92 natural elements
    • more than 113 total
    • Arranged in the Periodic Table based on atomic number and common properties
  •  
  • ISOTOPES
      • Isotopes= Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain are known as isotopes
      • The sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called its mass number.
  • Atomic Number Atomic Mass C 6 12.01 # of Protons P + N * The number of protons equals the number of electrons! P + 6 N 6 E - 6
  • ISOTOPES
    • Isotopes are identified by their mass numbers.
    • For example, carbon has three isotopes—carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14. Each isotope has a different number of neutrons.
  • ISOTOPES
    • Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties.
  • RADIOACTIVITY
      • Radioactive Isotopes
        • Some isotopes are radioactive, meaning that their nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant rate over time.
        • Although the radiation these isotopes give off can be dangerous, they have important scientific and practical uses.
  • RADIOACTIVITY
    • Radioactive isotopes can be used:
        • to determine the ages of rocks and fossils.
        • to treat cancer.
        • to kill bacteria that cause food to spoil.
        • as labels or “tracers” to follow the movement of substances within an organism.
  • Chemical Compounds
    • The same way atoms combine to form elements, elements combine to form compounds .
    • Compounds have different properties than the elements that make them up.
    Water (H 2 0)
  • Ahh… Nirvana
    • All atoms want to have a full outer shell
    • 1 st level = 2 electrons
    • All other shells = 8 electrons
    • As you move to the right of the periodic table, the elements are getting closer to a full outer shell.
  • How do atoms combine?
    • Covalent Bonds
      • Sharing of electrons
    • Ionic Bonds
      • Giving/Taking of electrons
      • Ions – charged atoms
  • IONIC BONDS
        • An atom that loses electrons has a positive charge. 
        • An atom that gains electrons has a negative charge.
        • These positively and negatively charged atoms are known as ions .
  • COVALENT BONDS= SHARING
  • Terms to know
    • Atom
      • Proton, Neutron, Electron
    • Element
    • Atomic Mass
    • Atomic Number
    • Compound
    • Covalent Bond
    • Ionic Bond