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Six Thousand Years of Bread:  Its Holy and Unholy History Book by H.E. Jacob Presentation by Kaite Zhang Bread is power!!!
Highlights <ul><li>the origins of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>different types of grain—and their effects on world histor...
Origins of Agriculture Theories and Stories
Theories: Origin of Agriculture <ul><li>ants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observed sowing, cultivating, harvesting grain-bearing ...
Invention: the Plow <ul><li>“the grubbing stick” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prehistoric women of the household—garden </li></ul...
Symbolism <ul><li>earth—“Mother Earth” </li></ul><ul><li>first grain—“Father Millet” </li></ul><ul><li>“mother” receives t...
Grain in the Ancient World Egypt Israel Greece Rome
Egypt <ul><li>Nile—gift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surplus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>first developed the method for making bread (...
Israel <ul><li>nomads—did not settle into Israel until after running from Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not good for baking ...
Greece <ul><li>not as fertile as Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>grain = basis for legends and religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dem...
Rome <ul><li>revision of Demeter: Ceres </li></ul><ul><li>reputation of miller/baker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly skilled ...
Jesus Christ <ul><li>“the bread god”—creates bread out of thin air </li></ul><ul><li>known to have made five loaves of bre...
Bread in the Middle Ages After the Fall of Rome
Battle of the Grains <ul><li>wheat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevalent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flavorful </li></ul></ul><ul...
Barbarian Agriculture <ul><li>reluctant to adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>originally nomads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unequa...
“The Miller Was an Evil Man”… <ul><li>mills vs. German water and wind spirits  </li></ul><ul><li>millers did not “belong” ...
…“And the Baker Starved Us” <ul><li>baker was almost as hated as miller </li></ul><ul><li>quality of bread measured qualit...
Influence of the Bleeding Bread <ul><li>holy wafers (the Host) of the church were thought to have been bleeding </li></ul>...
The Peasant <ul><li>long looked down upon + made fun of by burghs and elite </li></ul><ul><li>uneducated (no Latin, no Bib...
Corn The Wheat of the Americas
Corn as a Staple <ul><li>grows much faster than wheat—three months versus eight </li></ul><ul><li>no need for plowing </li...
Corn and the Culture <ul><li>thrived due to corn </li></ul><ul><li>felt that prosperity must be maintained </li></ul><ul><...
Trade <ul><li>corn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traveled to Europe due to Spanish explorers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>became...
Bread is Greater than Cotton <ul><li>Civil War; abolition began with the whites </li></ul><ul><li>bread = food, cotton = t...
America as Wheat Empire <ul><li>marked decline of Russia’s bread </li></ul><ul><li>exported wheat to non-corn-eating Europ...
Bread in the 20 th  Century World War I Rise of the American Peasant  World War II
World War I: Victory to Bread <ul><li>British blockade—starving during the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sufficient grain, ins...
The Party of the Bread <ul><li>a growing industry fueled a surplus of grain </li></ul><ul><li>stock markets (grain markets...
World War II  <ul><li>learned from WWI—rye </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi Germany: agrophiles or agrophobes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Miscellaneous  Bread Technology Impact on the World
Bread Technology <ul><li>the plow </li></ul><ul><li>reaper (1825ish) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus McCormick, Obed Hussey </...
Bread Technology  (cont.) <ul><li>artificial fertilizer (Liebig, 1840ish?)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discovered plants did no...
World Impact <ul><li>motivation for scientific advancements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bi...
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Kaite 6000 Years Of Bread

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Transcript of "Kaite 6000 Years Of Bread"

  1. 1. Six Thousand Years of Bread: Its Holy and Unholy History Book by H.E. Jacob Presentation by Kaite Zhang Bread is power!!!
  2. 2. Highlights <ul><li>the origins of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>different types of grain—and their effects on world history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Origins of Agriculture Theories and Stories
  4. 4. Theories: Origin of Agriculture <ul><li>ants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observed sowing, cultivating, harvesting grain-bearing grass (Dr. Gideon Lincecum, “father of plants”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fluke </li></ul></ul><ul><li>prehistoric man </li></ul><ul><ul><li>much like the ants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>left seeds in dry spot, dry spot no longer, returning vegetation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Invention: the Plow <ul><li>“the grubbing stick” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prehistoric women of the household—garden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first hoe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>plow: theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stuck in soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxen—could pull forward but not upward </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Symbolism <ul><li>earth—“Mother Earth” </li></ul><ul><li>first grain—“Father Millet” </li></ul><ul><li>“mother” receives the seed of “father” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gods of grain also gods of fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>wind: adultery and thievery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seeds light enough to be blown away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protected by plowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selective breeding </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Grain in the Ancient World Egypt Israel Greece Rome
  8. 8. Egypt <ul><li>Nile—gift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surplus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>first developed the method for making bread (with fermentation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>did not fight decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>giant cone-like ovens made of brick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>culture + economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wages, taxes paid in breads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saved in tombs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Israel <ul><li>nomads—did not settle into Israel until after running from Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not good for baking (no permanence, no time) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>after settling—occupation of bakers </li></ul><ul><li>religious significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>broke bread; symbol of God Jehovah (Canaan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unleavened (un-risen)—reflection of nomadic life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not holy but important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cultural significance: burden of farming </li></ul>
  10. 10. Greece <ul><li>not as fertile as Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>grain = basis for legends and religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demeter: legend with Persephone, Triptolemos, and Hades, explanation for winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empathy: POV from the farmer, miller-girl, and the grain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread Church of Eleusis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>connected to Triptolemos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pray here and receive blessings from Demeter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>politically independent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ celebration of the bread” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Rome <ul><li>revision of Demeter: Ceres </li></ul><ul><li>reputation of miller/baker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly skilled craft; high repute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bakers made to be officials and put in seats of office—Proculus second mayor of Pompeii (no-no) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>downfall of Empire—bread-producing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>burden of farming (one serf vs. one lord)—trading across empire, downfall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>led to self-sufficient areas; dropped all but Egypt </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Jesus Christ <ul><li>“the bread god”—creates bread out of thin air </li></ul><ul><li>known to have made five loaves of bread seem like five hundred </li></ul><ul><ul><li>believed at time due to Egyptian magicians and Assyrian astrologers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more likely to have been powers of suggestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“I am the bread” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bread so important as to be the son of god? God is bread? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cannibalism vs. symbolism </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Bread in the Middle Ages After the Fall of Rome
  14. 14. Battle of the Grains <ul><li>wheat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevalent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flavorful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes from food of the rich to staple food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>rye </li></ul><ul><ul><li>darker, considered less sophisticated in western Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generally the staple of the northern Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>oats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>animal feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rarely eaten, even in times of famine </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Barbarian Agriculture <ul><li>reluctant to adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>originally nomads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unequal distribution of harvest  slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>serf—security for labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>magic chants to wind god (prevalent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“wicked corn mother” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Christianization” of “barbarians” at the hands of monks and “saints” </li></ul>
  16. 16. “The Miller Was an Evil Man”… <ul><li>mills vs. German water and wind spirits </li></ul><ul><li>millers did not “belong” to the town </li></ul><ul><li>millers eventually taken over by government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who owns the land, owns the mill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knocked out of a once-profitable job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forced to steal </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. …“And the Baker Starved Us” <ul><li>baker was almost as hated as miller </li></ul><ul><li>quality of bread measured quality of baker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>did he laugh “when the poor man weeps”? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>along with the miller, the causes of hunger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>began mixing various things—bark, straw, soil—with flour during famine </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Influence of the Bleeding Bread <ul><li>holy wafers (the Host) of the church were thought to have been bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>due to a misprint, thought to have been “pierced” or “stabbed” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews blamed-- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>did not believe in Christ = bread </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pierced bread = crucified Christ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>turned out to be a red mold </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Peasant <ul><li>long looked down upon + made fun of by burghs and elite </li></ul><ul><li>uneducated (no Latin, no Bible, no connection to God) </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther (betrayed peasants) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>translated Bible into vernacular  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>understanding of rights under God  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hope + determination, willing to fight for fairness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>twelve “fundamental and correct chief articles of the peasants” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Corn The Wheat of the Americas
  21. 21. Corn as a Staple <ul><li>grows much faster than wheat—three months versus eight </li></ul><ul><li>no need for plowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern American Native Americans had no plows, only simple spades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Native American people had no history of famine, unlike Europe </li></ul><ul><li>corn taught by Squanto to “the” Pilgrims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed Americans to eat “anything” </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Corn and the Culture <ul><li>thrived due to corn </li></ul><ul><li>felt that prosperity must be maintained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>human sacrifices to goddess of young maize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>handsome youth selected from prisoners of war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>celebrated as king until time of sacrifice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>corpse carried down gracefully </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>had something similar to bread = Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ate baked corn meal and drank human blood as eating their god Vitzilopochtl </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Trade <ul><li>corn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traveled to Europe due to Spanish explorers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>became favorite of southeastern Europe to be made into porridge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>due to discoveries of disease, maize unpopular in France and Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>potato </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at first thought unusual; “roots” edible, berries not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>became staple of northeastern Europe (Ireland) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ireland Potato Famine (potato blight) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Bread is Greater than Cotton <ul><li>Civil War; abolition began with the whites </li></ul><ul><li>bread = food, cotton = textile </li></ul><ul><li>although South had cotton exports and money, did not have enough food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flour cost $120.00 per barrel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>meanwhile, no soldiers went hungry in the North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>barricaded trade </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. America as Wheat Empire <ul><li>marked decline of Russia’s bread </li></ul><ul><li>exported wheat to non-corn-eating Europeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe had poor soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal unrest in England: tarriff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>less success in rice-based Asia, but magic attracted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>supported by railroads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>along which traveled wheat and corn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago: millionaires of railroads </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Bread in the 20 th Century World War I Rise of the American Peasant World War II
  27. 27. World War I: Victory to Bread <ul><li>British blockade—starving during the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sufficient grain, insufficient feed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>railroads inadequate; decayed </li></ul><ul><li>scientific experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“artificial grain” (think…soil + pine bark) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encouraged soldiers to fight on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWI may have possibly ended two years earlier </li></ul><ul><li>America: neutral, “wheat dealers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in control (of bread, in control of life) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Party of the Bread <ul><li>a growing industry fueled a surplus of grain </li></ul><ul><li>stock markets (grain markets) </li></ul><ul><li>gave farmers more power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tremendous influence on both Democrats and Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>finally, the backbone receives their share </li></ul>
  29. 29. World War II <ul><li>learned from WWI—rye </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi Germany: agrophiles or agrophobes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler unfavorable to peasantry; reminds him of self </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ pacte de famine” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>famine used as a weapon of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as Germany power spread, only those who served the Third Reich could eat (plundered food) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Miscellaneous Bread Technology Impact on the World
  31. 31. Bread Technology <ul><li>the plow </li></ul><ul><li>reaper (1825ish) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus McCormick, Obed Hussey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed one man to do the work of many, be it four or twelve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>modern mill (Müller + Sulzberger, 1830) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>could now grind tough North </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Bread Technology (cont.) <ul><li>artificial fertilizer (Liebig, 1840ish?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discovered plants did not need decaying matter; needed inorganic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>artificial fertilizer provided inorganic matter more efficiently than manure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>botany (Mendel, 1860  1900) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced the idea of purposely improving the plant as well as the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mass-production of bread (Ward, p.m. 1930s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ from mill to mouth” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all mechanical </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. World Impact <ul><li>motivation for scientific advancements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biology/chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>basis for religions (Christ) and legends (Demeter) </li></ul><ul><li>bread is power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bread is food/nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>he who controls the bread has the means to become emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hunger fuels the human psyche </li></ul></ul>
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