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Kaite   6000 Years Of Bread

Kaite 6000 Years Of Bread






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    Kaite   6000 Years Of Bread Kaite 6000 Years Of Bread Presentation Transcript

    • Six Thousand Years of Bread: Its Holy and Unholy History Book by H.E. Jacob Presentation by Kaite Zhang Bread is power!!!
    • Highlights
      • the origins of agriculture
      • different types of grain—and their effects on world history
        • religion
        • politics
        • technology
        • science
        • culture
    • Origins of Agriculture Theories and Stories
    • Theories: Origin of Agriculture
      • ants
        • observed sowing, cultivating, harvesting grain-bearing grass (Dr. Gideon Lincecum, “father of plants”)
        • fluke
      • prehistoric man
        • much like the ants
        • left seeds in dry spot, dry spot no longer, returning vegetation
    • Invention: the Plow
      • “the grubbing stick”
        • prehistoric women of the household—garden
        • first hoe
      • plow: theory
        • stuck in soil
        • oxen—could pull forward but not upward
    • Symbolism
      • earth—“Mother Earth”
      • first grain—“Father Millet”
      • “mother” receives the seed of “father”
        • gods of grain also gods of fertility
      • wind: adultery and thievery
        • seeds light enough to be blown away
        • protected by plowing
        • selective breeding
    • Grain in the Ancient World Egypt Israel Greece Rome
    • Egypt
      • Nile—gift
        • surplus
      • first developed the method for making bread (with fermentation)
        • did not fight decay
        • giant cone-like ovens made of brick
      • culture + economy
        • wages, taxes paid in breads
        • saved in tombs
    • Israel
      • nomads—did not settle into Israel until after running from Egypt
        • not good for baking (no permanence, no time)
      • after settling—occupation of bakers
      • religious significance
        • broke bread; symbol of God Jehovah (Canaan)
        • unleavened (un-risen)—reflection of nomadic life
        • not holy but important
      • cultural significance: burden of farming
    • Greece
      • not as fertile as Egypt
      • grain = basis for legends and religions
        • Demeter: legend with Persephone, Triptolemos, and Hades, explanation for winter
        • empathy: POV from the farmer, miller-girl, and the grain
        • Bread Church of Eleusis
          • connected to Triptolemos
          • pray here and receive blessings from Demeter
          • politically independent
          • “ celebration of the bread”
    • Rome
      • revision of Demeter: Ceres
      • reputation of miller/baker
        • highly skilled craft; high repute
      • politics
        • bakers made to be officials and put in seats of office—Proculus second mayor of Pompeii (no-no)
        • downfall of Empire—bread-producing
          • burden of farming (one serf vs. one lord)—trading across empire, downfall
          • led to self-sufficient areas; dropped all but Egypt
    • Jesus Christ
      • “the bread god”—creates bread out of thin air
      • known to have made five loaves of bread seem like five hundred
        • believed at time due to Egyptian magicians and Assyrian astrologers
        • more likely to have been powers of suggestion
      • “I am the bread”
        • bread so important as to be the son of god? God is bread?
        • cannibalism vs. symbolism
    • Bread in the Middle Ages After the Fall of Rome
    • Battle of the Grains
      • wheat
        • prevalent
        • flavorful
        • changes from food of the rich to staple food
      • rye
        • darker, considered less sophisticated in western Europe
        • generally the staple of the northern Europeans
      • oats
        • animal feed
        • rarely eaten, even in times of famine
    • Barbarian Agriculture
      • reluctant to adapt
        • originally nomads
        • unequal distribution of harvest  slavery
      • slavery
        • serf—security for labor
      • culture
        • magic chants to wind god (prevalent)
        • “wicked corn mother”
      • “Christianization” of “barbarians” at the hands of monks and “saints”
    • “The Miller Was an Evil Man”…
      • mills vs. German water and wind spirits
      • millers did not “belong” to the town
      • millers eventually taken over by government
        • who owns the land, owns the mill
        • knocked out of a once-profitable job
        • forced to steal
    • …“And the Baker Starved Us”
      • baker was almost as hated as miller
      • quality of bread measured quality of baker
        • did he laugh “when the poor man weeps”?
      • along with the miller, the causes of hunger
        • began mixing various things—bark, straw, soil—with flour during famine
    • Influence of the Bleeding Bread
      • holy wafers (the Host) of the church were thought to have been bleeding
      • due to a misprint, thought to have been “pierced” or “stabbed”
        • Jews blamed--
          • did not believe in Christ = bread
          • pierced bread = crucified Christ
      • turned out to be a red mold
    • The Peasant
      • long looked down upon + made fun of by burghs and elite
      • uneducated (no Latin, no Bible, no connection to God)
      • Martin Luther (betrayed peasants)
        • translated Bible into vernacular 
          • understanding of rights under God 
          • hope + determination, willing to fight for fairness
            • twelve “fundamental and correct chief articles of the peasants”
    • Corn The Wheat of the Americas
    • Corn as a Staple
      • grows much faster than wheat—three months versus eight
      • no need for plowing
        • Southern American Native Americans had no plows, only simple spades
      • Native American people had no history of famine, unlike Europe
      • corn taught by Squanto to “the” Pilgrims
        • allowed Americans to eat “anything”
    • Corn and the Culture
      • thrived due to corn
      • felt that prosperity must be maintained
        • human sacrifices to goddess of young maize
          • handsome youth selected from prisoners of war
            • celebrated as king until time of sacrifice
            • corpse carried down gracefully
        • had something similar to bread = Christ
          • ate baked corn meal and drank human blood as eating their god Vitzilopochtl
    • Trade
      • corn
        • traveled to Europe due to Spanish explorers
          • became favorite of southeastern Europe to be made into porridge
        • due to discoveries of disease, maize unpopular in France and Italy
      • potato
        • at first thought unusual; “roots” edible, berries not?
        • became staple of northeastern Europe (Ireland)
        • Ireland Potato Famine (potato blight)
    • Bread is Greater than Cotton
      • Civil War; abolition began with the whites
      • bread = food, cotton = textile
      • although South had cotton exports and money, did not have enough food
        • flour cost $120.00 per barrel
      • meanwhile, no soldiers went hungry in the North
        • barricaded trade
    • America as Wheat Empire
      • marked decline of Russia’s bread
      • exported wheat to non-corn-eating Europeans
        • Europe had poor soil
        • internal unrest in England: tarriff
      • less success in rice-based Asia, but magic attracted
        • immigration
      • supported by railroads
        • along which traveled wheat and corn
        • Chicago: millionaires of railroads
    • Bread in the 20 th Century World War I Rise of the American Peasant World War II
    • World War I: Victory to Bread
      • British blockade—starving during the war
        • sufficient grain, insufficient feed
      • railroads inadequate; decayed
      • scientific experiments
        • “artificial grain” (think…soil + pine bark)
        • encouraged soldiers to fight on
      • WWI may have possibly ended two years earlier
      • America: neutral, “wheat dealers”
        • in control (of bread, in control of life)
    • The Party of the Bread
      • a growing industry fueled a surplus of grain
      • stock markets (grain markets)
      • gave farmers more power
        • tremendous influence on both Democrats and Republicans
      • finally, the backbone receives their share
    • World War II
      • learned from WWI—rye
      • Nazi Germany: agrophiles or agrophobes?
        • Hitler unfavorable to peasantry; reminds him of self
      • “ pacte de famine”
        • famine used as a weapon of war
        • as Germany power spread, only those who served the Third Reich could eat (plundered food)
    • Miscellaneous Bread Technology Impact on the World
    • Bread Technology
      • the plow
      • reaper (1825ish)
        • Cyrus McCormick, Obed Hussey
        • allowed one man to do the work of many, be it four or twelve
      • modern mill (Müller + Sulzberger, 1830)
        • could now grind tough North
    • Bread Technology (cont.)
      • artificial fertilizer (Liebig, 1840ish?)
        • discovered plants did not need decaying matter; needed inorganic matter
        • artificial fertilizer provided inorganic matter more efficiently than manure
      • botany (Mendel, 1860  1900)
        • introduced the idea of purposely improving the plant as well as the soil
      • mass-production of bread (Ward, p.m. 1930s)
        • “ from mill to mouth”
        • all mechanical
    • World Impact
      • motivation for scientific advancements
        • technology
        • biology/chemistry
      • basis for religions (Christ) and legends (Demeter)
      • bread is power
        • bread is food/nutrition
        • he who controls the bread has the means to become emperor
        • hunger fuels the human psyche