Self in a Social World Chapter 6
THE SELF <ul><li>Self  = our impressions + thoughts + feelings </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEMA:  A set of beliefs and feelings ab...
PHYSICAL SELF <ul><li>Physical Self:  Ones’ psychological sense of one’s physical being (ex. height, weight, hair color, r...
SOCIAL SELF <ul><li>Social Self:  The social roles one plays— student, worker, husband, mother, citizen, leader,  and etc....
PERSONAL SELF <ul><li>Personal Self:  One’s private, continuous sense of being oneself in the world. Personal Self include...
WHAT’S IN A NAME? <ul><li>Names can influence many things…such as physical attractiveness and assumptions people may place...
SELF-CONCEPT <ul><li>Self-Concept:  Perception of oneself including one’s traits and an evaluation of those traits.  </li>...
IDENTITY STATUSES <ul><li>Identity Achievement:  individuals who have  resolved an identity crisis  and committed to a rel...
IDENTITY STATUSES <ul><li>Identity Moratorium:  individuals who are in the throes of an identity crisis—an intense examina...
DIVERSITY AND IDENTITY <ul><li>Something to reflect on:  </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have found that identity formation ...
Perception of Others <ul><li>Social Perception:  The process by which we form understandings of others in our social envir...
Body Language <ul><li>Body language is an important contributor to forming person schemas and first impressions. Examples:...
Using Body Language <ul><li>Be aware of what other people are telling you with their body language. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay ...
PREJUDICE <ul><li>Prejudice:  The belief that a person or group, on the basis of assumed racial ethnic, sexual, or other f...
Discrimination and Stereotypes <ul><li>Discrimination:  The denial of privileges to a person or group on the basis of prej...
Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination <ul><li>Dissimilarity:  tend to like people who share our attitudes and we tend to...
Attribution Theory <ul><li>Attribution Process:  The process by which people draw conclusions about the factors that influ...
Attribution Theory <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error:  the tendency to assume that others act on the basis of choice o...
Enhancing Self-Esteem
21 day affirmations <ul><li>Extra credit!!! </li></ul>
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Ch 6 Powerpoint

  1. 1. Self in a Social World Chapter 6
  2. 2. THE SELF <ul><li>Self = our impressions + thoughts + feelings </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEMA: A set of beliefs and feelings about something. Examples include stereotypes, prejudices and generalizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of the Self: Physical, Social, and Personal. </li></ul><ul><li>Activity: Now take out a piece of paper and fold it into 4 sections. Write your name in one section. </li></ul>
  3. 3. PHYSICAL SELF <ul><li>Physical Self: Ones’ psychological sense of one’s physical being (ex. height, weight, hair color, race, and physical skill). </li></ul><ul><li>How is it linked to self-esteem? </li></ul><ul><li>Our adjustment to traits that are mostly permanent , such as height, sex & race, is closely linked to self-acceptance/esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>However, other traits such as weight, fitness and hair style can be modified. </li></ul><ul><li>What are your “Physical Self” traits? </li></ul>
  4. 4. SOCIAL SELF <ul><li>Social Self: The social roles one plays— student, worker, husband, mother, citizen, leader, and etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and masks are adaptive responses to the social situation. </li></ul><ul><li>However, when our entire lives are played behind masks, it may be difficult to discover true inner selves. </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the social roles you play? </li></ul>
  5. 5. PERSONAL SELF <ul><li>Personal Self: One’s private, continuous sense of being oneself in the world. Personal Self includes values, ethics, your name, self-concept, self-esteem and the ideal-self </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics: Standards for behavior. A system of beliefs from which one derives standards for behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of your values and ethics? </li></ul><ul><li>Now write your name or a name you identify with in the last section of your paper. </li></ul>
  6. 6. WHAT’S IN A NAME? <ul><li>Names can influence many things…such as physical attractiveness and assumptions people may place on us. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknames can reflect our attitudes towards ourselves…(ex. Robert versus Bob versus Bobby). </li></ul>
  7. 7. SELF-CONCEPT <ul><li>Self-Concept: Perception of oneself including one’s traits and an evaluation of those traits. </li></ul><ul><li>The self-concept includes one’s self-esteem and one’s ideal self . </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem: Self-approval. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One’s self-respect or favorable opinion of oneself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-esteem is neither fixed nor unchangeable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Though relatively stable over time, self-esteem can fluctuate, for better or worse. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideal self: One’s perception of what one “ought” to be and do. Also called the self-ideal. </li></ul>
  8. 8. IDENTITY STATUSES <ul><li>Identity Achievement: individuals who have resolved an identity crisis and committed to a relatively stable set of beliefs or a course of action. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Foreclosure: individuals who have adopted a commitment to a set of beliefs or a course of action without undergoing an identity crisis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often, they have adopted the views of their parents without seriously questioning them. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. IDENTITY STATUSES <ul><li>Identity Moratorium: individuals who are in the throes of an identity crisis—an intense examination of alternatives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who feels that they are either in this status or have been in this status? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identity Diffusion: individuals who have neither arrived at a commitment as to who they are and what they stand for nor experienced a crisis. </li></ul>
  10. 10. DIVERSITY AND IDENTITY <ul><li>Something to reflect on: </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have found that identity formation is often more complicated for adolescents from ethnic minority groups. These adolescents may be faced with two sets of cultural values: those of their ethnic group and those of the dominant culture. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Perception of Others <ul><li>Social Perception: The process by which we form understandings of others in our social environment, based on observations of how others act and information we receive. </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy Effect: The tendency to evaluate others in terms of first impressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Recency Effect: The tendency to evaluate others in terms of the most recent impression. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Body Language <ul><li>Body language is an important contributor to forming person schemas and first impressions. Examples: eye contact patterns, body posture, touching, gazing and staring. </li></ul><ul><li>Body language does vary by culture. The same gesture may have a different meaning in one culture than it does in another. For example, people in Bulgaria shake their heads up and down to signal “no”. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Using Body Language <ul><li>Be aware of what other people are telling you with their body language. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to your own body language as a way of helping to make the desired impressions on other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to your own body language as a way of learning about yourself. </li></ul>
  14. 14. PREJUDICE <ul><li>Prejudice: The belief that a person or group, on the basis of assumed racial ethnic, sexual, or other features will possess negative characteristics or perform inadequately. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of prejudice include sexism, racism, classism and ageism. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Discrimination and Stereotypes <ul><li>Discrimination: The denial of privileges to a person or group on the basis of prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes: Fixed, conventional ideas about a group that can lead us to process information about members of the group in a biased fashion. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination <ul><li>Dissimilarity: tend to like people who share our attitudes and we tend to assume that people of different races have different attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Conflict: People of different races and religions often compete for jobs, giving rise to feelings of prejudice. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning: Children often acquire some of their attitudes by observing other people, especially their parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing: Prejudices serve as cognitive schemes, filters through which people see the social world. It is easier to attend to and remember instances of behavior that fit with our prejudices. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Categorization: People tend to divide their social world into “us” and “them.” People tend to view others in their group more favorably than those out of their group. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Attribution Theory <ul><li>Attribution Process: The process by which people draw conclusions about the factors that influence behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Dispositional Attribution: Ascribe a person’s behavior to internal factors, such as personality traits and free will. </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Attributions : Attribute a person’s actions to external factors, such as the social pressure found in a situation. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Attribution Theory <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error: the tendency to assume that others act on the basis of choice or will, even when there is evidence suggestive of the importance of their situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Actor-Observer Effect: The tendency to attribute our own behavior to external, situational factors but to attribute the behavior of others to internal, dispositional factors such as choice or will. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Serving Bias : The tendency to view one’s successes as stemming from internal factors and one’s failures as stemming from external factors. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Enhancing Self-Esteem
  20. 20. 21 day affirmations <ul><li>Extra credit!!! </li></ul>

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