Gaining ownership or increased control over distributors.
FedEx completed a buyout of Tianjin Datian's domestic express delivery network as part of the $400 million deal, giving it 89 office locations across China to help it compete with UPS , DHL and TNT in the booming Chinese logistic market.
Seeking ownership or increased control of firm’s suppliers.
2007 - Symrise acquires Paris/Madagascar-based Aromatics S.A.S. Symrise, one of the world's leading manufacturers of flavors and fragrances, is continuing to expand its international business activities in the sector of natural raw materials and extracts. “This backward integration in the field of vanilla has successfully proven that it translates into first-class raw materials and a secure supply chain , as well as reliability and traceability for our customers,” said Heinrich Schaper, President Flavor & Nutrition EAME (Europe, Africa, Middle East) at Symrise
Seeking ownership of competitors.
2000: Pfizer, the manufacturer of Viagra, boosted its market cap from $172 billion to $271 billion after acquiring rival Warner-Lambert Co. rising from global No. 20 to No. 4.
2007: Pfizer has entered into an agreement to acquire Coley Pharmaceutical Group, Inc. a publicly-held biopharmaceutical company specializing in vaccine adjuvant technology and a new class of immunomodulatory drug candidates designed to fight cancers, allergy and asthma disorders, and autoimmune diseases.
Increasing market share for present products in present markets through greater marketing efforts.
In the 1960s and early 1970s, PepsiCo was a much more aggressive and innovative company than Coca Cola . When Coke finally woke up-after losing its market leadership--it did a terrific job of advertising, too. And when Pepsi's managers responded by revving up their already aggressive advertising, the result made history. Industry growth has doubled, and both companies' market shares were the highest ever.
Introducing present products in new geographic area or finding new market segments for present products . .
After years of speculation, last June 2007 the iPhone, perhaps the most hyped consumer electronics device ever created, started shipping in the US.
Jobs said Apple plans to bring the iPhone to Europe in the fourth calendar quarter of 2007, and to Asia in 2008.
increasing sales by improving present products or developing new ones.
Nokia is constantly developing newer versions of their cell phones.
Related (Concentric) Diversification
adding new but related products .
Telephone companies and cable firms offer Internet access.
adding new unrelated products or services
Amazon.com originally offered books and CDs. Now its assortment is huge with kitchen sections, auction sections etc
GE makes power plants, locomotives, lightbulbs, and refrigerators; GE manages more credit cards than American Express.
Regroup through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining profit.
In 2002 Club Med kicked off a cost-cutting program expected to save up to $36 million a year by merging regional offices and closing 17 of 120 resorts. "We're shrinking temporarily to face lower demand," says Bourguignon, Club Med CEO
Selling a division or part of an organization.
In 1997 Sara Lee embarked on a major restructuring designed to boost both profits, which had been growing by just 6 percent a year since 1992. Sara Lee aimed to shift from a manufacturing and sales orientation to one focused foremost on marketing the firm's top brands. The company sold off more than 110 manufacturing and distribution facilities over the next two years.
Selling all of a company’s assets.
GM liquidated its Canadian factory that made Camaros and Firebirds.
Means For Achieving Strategies
Joint venture/Partnering – two firms form another org for cooperative purposes. Movielink is a joint venture by five major movie studios aimed at creating an Internet video-on-demand service.
Merger – when two organizations of about equal size unite to form one enterprise. Equitable and PCI Bank merge.
Acquisition – when a large organization purchases a smaller firm. Pfizer acquired Pharmacia for $50 billion.
Why Is It Not Advisable To Pursue Too Many Strategies At Once?
Organizational resources are spread too thin.
All organizations have limited resources. No organization can pursue all the strategies .
No more than a few strategies can be financed, marketed, and managed effectively at the same time.
Some practitioners say only a single strategy should be pursued at a given time by a single organization.
Michael Porter’s Generic Strategies Target Market
Cost Leadership Strategy
Successful cost leaders develop competitive advantage by offering of comparable quality at lower prices than most industry competitors.
Probably most effective in those markets where price is the most important factor (over service, technology, or product characteristics).
Seek to exploit economies of scale and experience by maximizing sales volume
Seeks to distinguish its products and services from competitors
Features what is important & valuable to buyers
Firms must develop strong marketing capabilities and a reputation for quality or uniqueness .
These firms seek overall cost leadership or perceived uniqueness, but they “focus” that advantage on a particular market segment.
segment is big enough to be profitable
segment has good growth potential
Firm has superior ability to serve buyers in segment
ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR STRATEGIC DIRECTION-SETTING
SWOT MATRIX STRENGTHS 1 2 List 3 strengths 4 5 OPPORTUNITIES 1 2 List 3 opportunites 4 5 SO Strategies 1 2 Use strength 3 to take advan- 4 tage of oppor- 5 tunities THREATS 1 2 List 3 threats 4 5 ST Strategies 1 2 Use strengths 3 to avoid 4 threats 5 WT Strategies 1 2 Minimize 3 weaknesses & 4 avoid threats 5 WO Strategies 1 2 Overcome 3 weakness by 4 taking advantage 5 of opportunities WEAKNESSES 1 2 List 3 weaknesses 4 5
SAMPLE SWOT STRENGTHS--S 1. Good editorial quality. 2. High readership ratings. 3. Market leadership. 4. Strong staff loyalty. 5. United Board of Directors OPPORTUNITIES—O 1. Better relations with government. 2. The youth market 3. The lower income markets. 4. Better newspaper technology. 5. Digital advertising. SO STRATEGIES 1. Introduce a new product for the youth market (S1, S2, S3,O1,O2) 2. Introduce a new product for the lower income market (S1,S2,S3, O1,O3) 3. Offer digital advertising services (S3, O4, O5). THREATS--T 1. Television. 2. High newsprint costs. 3. Declining readership. 4. Slowdown in the economy. 5. Internet and on-line publications. ST STRATEGIES 1. Introduce a free print medium. (S1,S2,S3, T1,T4) 2. Introduce a youth website. (S1,S3,T1,T5) WT STRATEGIES 1. Set up regional printing sites (W1, T2). 2. Merge non-revenue earning classifieds products into the main classifieds (W2,T2). WO STRATEGIES 1. Develop a readership program involving employees (W3,W4,O2,O3). 2. Convert non-revenue earning products into a youth publication (W1,W2, O2). WEAKNESSES—W 1. Profit margin squeeze. 2. No. 2 in classifieds. 3. Lack of a shared culture. 4. Complacency. 5. Lack of entrepreneurial spirit
Space Matrix Internal Strategic Position y-axis=fs + es IFE EFE
Space Matrix Example CPM External Strategic Position x-axis=ca + is 5 Forces
SPACE MATRIX Industry Strength -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 Conservative Defensive Competitive Aggressive +1+2+3+4+5+6 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 (+4.6, -3.2) External Strategic Position x-axis=ca(-1.0)+is(5.6)= +4.6 Internal Strategic Position y-axis=es(-5.2)+fs(2.0)= -3.2 The Company is competing fairly well in an unstable environment Financial Strength Environmental Stability Competitive Advantage
THE STRATEGIC POSITION AND ACTION EVALUATION (SPACE) MATRIX CA ES IS FS
BCG MATRIX H M L Relative Market Share H M L 1.0 0.50 0.0 Industry Sales Growth Rate STARS Intensive strategies Integration strategies Diversification strategies QUESTION MARKS Intensive Strategies Divest DOGS Retrenchment Liquidation Divestment CASH COWS Product Development Concentric Diversification Grow Double or Quit Hold/Harvest Divest (Internal Strengths) (Industry Attractiveness )
Used for Portfolio Management.
Relative market share: ratio of a division’s own market share to the market share held by the largest rival firm. Dividing point is usually selected to have only the two-three largest competitors fall in the high market share region.
Industry Growth Rate: Dividing point is typically the GNP’s growth rate.
Draws attention to the cash flow, investment characteristics and needs of the organization’s various divisions.
Pearce & Robinson
INTERNAL-EXTERNAL (IE) MATRIX I IV VII II VIII IX VI III V AVERAGE 2.0-2.99 WEAK 1.0-1.99 STRONG 3.0-4.0 MEDIUM 2.0-2.99 LOW 1.0-1.99 HIGH 3.0-4.0 Grow & Build Harvest & Divest Hold & Maintain TOTAL IFE WEIGHTED SCORES TOTAL EFE WEIGHTED SCORES Intensive Integrative Intensive Integrative Market penetration Prod. devt Market penetration Prod. devt Market penetration Prod. devt Divestment Divestment Divestment Intensive Integrative
SAMPLE INTERNAL-EXTERNAL (IE) MATRIX I IV VII II VIII IX VI III V AVERAGE 2.0-2.99 WEAK 1.0-1.99 STRONG 3.0-4.0 MEDIUM 2.0-2.99 LOW 1.0-1.99 HIGH 3.0-4.0 Intensive Integrative TOTAL IFE WEIGHTED SCORE= 3.2 TOTAL EFE WEIGHTED SCORE = 3.0 ABC
THE GRAND STRATEGY MATRIX
WEAK COMPET I T IVE STRONG COMPET I T IVE RAPID MARKET GROWTH SLOW MARKET GROWTH