Chapter 22 Ppt


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Chapter 22 Ppt

  1. 1. Chapter 22 Descent with Modification<br />By <br />Charith Samarasena<br />
  2. 2. Vocabulary<br />Fossils: the remains or traces of organisms from the past<br />Strata: layers of sediment <br />Paleontology: the study of fossils<br />Catastrophism: the principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different from the present<br />Gradualism: mechanisms of change occur gradually over time<br />Uniformitarianism: mechanisms of change are constant over time<br />Adaptations: characteristics of an organism that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments<br />
  3. 3. Vocab cont’d<br />Natural Selection: the process in which individuals with certain inheritable traits leave more offspring than individuals with other traits<br />Artificial Selection: the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits<br />Homology: similarity of characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry<br />Vestigial Structures: historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors but no use in current organisms<br />Evolutionary Tree: a branching diagram that reflects a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms<br />
  4. 4. Vocab still cont’d<br />Convergent Evolution: the evolution of similar features in independent lineages<br />Analogous: having characteristics that are similar because of convergent evolution, not homology<br />Biogeography: the study of past and present distribution of species<br />Plate Tectonics: theory of how landmasses move along the earth’s crust<br />Endemic: where a species of plant or animal is only found in one particular location<br />Theory: a hypothesis that is supported by evidence and has been tested repeatedly with success<br />
  5. 5. What is Evolution and why is important?<br />Evolution is the process in which species have modifications of certain traits that allow them to adapt to changes in environments<br />It’s important because it helps explain how some species in one location don’t look like other species in another location<br />It’s also explains why current organisms don’t resemble their ancestors<br />
  6. 6. Carolus Linnaeus<br />He developed a two-part system of naming organisms according to genus and species<br />
  7. 7. Georges Cuvier<br />Largely developed the field of paleontology<br />Observed that older layers of strata contain fossils of organisms that are more and more dissimilar to today’s organisms<br />Also came up with the principle of catastrophism<br />
  8. 8. James Hutton<br />Proposed that Earth’s geological features could be explained by gradual mechanisms in the past that still occur today (ex. Continental drift)<br />
  9. 9. Charles Lyell<br />Came up with the principle of uniformitarianism and also thought that this process still occurred today<br />
  10. 10. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck<br />Observed that older to younger fossils lead to living species<br />Hypothesized that structures that are used more frequently than others grow larger and stronger, and the structures that aren’t used deteriorate over time<br />Also hypothesized that organisms could pass on these modifications to offspring<br />Also thought that evolution occurs because organisms have an innate drive to become more and more complex<br />
  11. 11. Charles Darwin<br />Proposed the idea of descent with modification by natural selection<br />Observed this in various finches while exploring the Galapagos Islands<br />
  12. 12. What did Charles Darwin conclude after his voyage on the H.M.S. Beagle?<br />The Five Points of Evolution:<br />1. Organisms produce more offspring than necessary.<br />2. There is a variation in the offspring’s traits.<br />3. Competition among offspring cause many to die out (as do the lack of food and resources).<br />4. Natural Selection favors the traits of the offspring that survive.<br />5. Evolutionary changes in organisms occur over time. <br />
  14. 14. The Fossil Record<br />Fossils of past organisms show that there have been evolutionary changes over time to shape organisms into the forms of today<br />
  15. 15. Homology<br />Homologous and Vestigial structures show similarities of structures in different species <br />
  16. 16. DNA & RNA<br />The genetic code is essentially universal in all organisms; this shows evidence of common ancestry<br />
  17. 17. Biogeography<br />Distribution of organisms allows paleontologists to figure out where fossils will be<br />Also shows similarities of species in different areas<br />