Blue Team Physics


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Blue Team Physics

  1. 1. Nuclear Physics and Beyond<br />Blue Excelsiors<br />
  2. 2. Lessons To Be Tackled<br />I – Atomic Structure<br />II – The Strong Nuclear Force<br />III – Radioactivity<br /> -Alpha Decay – Beta decay –Gamma Decay<br />IV - Stability<br />V – Half-life<br />VI – Activity<br />VII – Mass defect and Binding Energy<br />VIII – Nuclear Fission<br /> -Nuclear Reactors<br />
  3. 3. IX – Fusion<br />X – Beneficial Uses of Radiation<br /> -Medical Uses -Non-Medical Uses<br />XI – Biological Effects of Radiation<br />XII – Radiation Detection and Protection<br />XIII – Interaction of Matter with Radiation<br />XIV – Special Relativity<br /> -Time Dilation -Length Contraction<br /> -Mass Increase Mass-Energy Equivalence<br />XX – Elementary Particles<br /> -Quarks -Leptons -Field Particles<br />
  4. 4. I – The Atomic Structure<br />-An atom may be viewed like a mini solar system. It is composed of negatively charged particles called electrons orbiting around a positively charged particles called neutrons.<br />
  5. 5. II – The Strong Nuclear Force<br /> -A force that exists to counteract the force of repulsion between the protons in the nucleaus<br /> The strong nuclear force is very important in attaining stability for the nucleus. For a nucleus to be stable it has to have a balance between protons and the force of attraction between nucleons by the strong nuclear force.<br />
  6. 6. III – Radioactivity<br /> -The heat transfers by electromagnetic waves.<br />The types of radiation<br /> -Alpha Decay<br /> -Beta Decay<br /> -Gamma Decay<br />
  7. 7. Alpha Decay<br /> -An alpha particle consist of a positively charged nucleus of the helium atom. It has a charge of +2e and a mass number of 4.<br />Beta Decay<br /> -There are three forms of Beta Decay:<br />*beta-minus *beta-plus *electron capture<br />The atomic number of the parent nucleus increases by 1, while the mass number remains the same.<br />
  8. 8. Gamma Decay<br /> -Gamma Decay involves the release of high-energy electomagnetic waves called gamma rays (y). This happens when nucleus changes from an excited or high energy state to a lower energy state. <br /> In the result, there is no change in the atomic number as well as in the mass number of the parent atom.<br />
  9. 9. IV - Stability<br />
  10. 10. IV – Half-Life<br />-The half-life T1/2 of a radioactive material is the time required for half of the nuclei present to disintegrate. After the first half-time, one-half of the radioactive materials would have disintegrated and one-half remains unchanged. After another half-life, the remaining one-half nuclei disintegrate, and so on.<br />
  11. 11. VI - Activity<br /> -Activity is the number of disintegrations or decays per unit time. Its SI unit is the Becquerel, abbreviated as Bq.<br /> 1 Bq = 1 disintegration/second<br />
  12. 12. VII – Mass Defect and Blinding Energy<br /> -Mass  Defect and Binding Energy Summary Mass defect is the difference between the mass of the atom and the sum of the masses of its constituent parts. <br /> -Binding energy is  the amount of energy that must be supplied to a nucleus  to completely separate its nuclear particles.  Binding energy is the energy equivalent of the mass defect. <br /> -Binding energy can be calculated by multiplying the mass defect by the factor of 931.5 MeV per amu.<br />
  13. 13. VIII & IX– Nuclear Fission and Fusion<br /> Two important nuclear reactions will be considered here. These are fission and fusion. Bother reactions release a large amount of energy because the sum of the masses of the product nuclei is less than the sum of the masses of the product nuclei is less than the sum of the masses of the initial nuclei. Once again, Einstein’s equation, E=mc2, explains that this mass defect is converetd into energy.<br />
  14. 14. Fission<br /> -Is the process in which a large nucleus breaks into two smaller nuclei accompanied by emission of neutrons and a large amount of energy.<br />Fusion<br /> -Is the process in which small nuclei combine form larger nuclei.<br />
  15. 15. Nuclear Reactors<br /> Simply a furnace where energy is generated by controlled fission chain reaction of the fuel.<br />Essential Parts of a Nuclear Reactor<br />a) Fuel – The fuel is placed in metal tubes and placed close to on another<br />b) Moderator – Neutrons produced by the nuclear fission reaction have high energy and are slowed down by a moderator. One common moderator is water.<br />
  16. 16. c) Control rods – Are normally made of boron or cadmium and have the ability to absorb neutrons without fission taking place.<br />d) Coolant – Usually water is used to move the heat away from the fission reactor. Coolant may also acts as moderator.<br /> e) Inner Containment Structure or Shielding – The shielding helps prevent radiation leakage.<br />
  17. 17. X – Beneficial Uses of Radiation<br />Non-Medical Uses<br />Includes cobalt-60 used to preserve food by killing viruses or bacteria that hasten decay. -Radioisotope thermonuclear generator use to power up 24 U.S. spacecrafts.<br />And others for metal shaping, locating leak on pipes, smoke detecting, detecting explosives, and measuring dust and pollutant levels.<br />
  18. 18. XI – Biological Effects of Radiation<br />