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    Presentation2 Presentation2 Presentation Transcript

    • Adjective The adjective is a word added to a noun to distinguish the thing spoken of from other thing of the same class. Kinds of adjectives: A] Attributive adjective: - They are used to express comparison There are three degrees of comparison Positive, Comparative and Superlative.
      • Positive =expresses the simple quality (high).
      • Comparative =expresses a higher degree of the quality and is used when two things are compared
      • (higher than).
      • Superlative = expresses the highest degree of the quality is used when more than two things are compared ( the highest).
    • How to Form the Comparative and Superlative.
      • Add Add
      • er est.
      • more most
      • Change
    • B] Numeral Adjectives:
      • Numeral adjectives are either definite or indefinite.
      • 1. The definite numerals are those which refer to particular number as six , seven, second and tenth.
      • 2. The indefinite numerals are those which refer to number but do not specify how many as , some, few many and several.
    • Adverb
      • Adverb is a word joined to a verb, an adjective, or another adverb to express more quality.
      • Ali writes well.
      • Sami Speaks very correctly
      • Adverb of Number
      • Once , twice , first, thirdly
      • Adverb of time
      • Ago , already, daily, ever , hourly , now ,then
      • Adverb of place
      • Here, there, where, upward, downward , elsewhere .
      • Adverb of manner or quality
      • Well , ill , soft ly , sweet ly
      • Formed from adjectives: by adding( ly )
      • Adverb of quality
      • very, too, enough, much, better.
    • Verb
      • The verb is the word that expresses action.
    • Active
      • Transitive:
      • Expresses action which passes from the agent to an object .
      • Intransitive:
      • Expresses action which doesn’t pass over to an object but is confined to the agent.
    • Kinds of Verbs:
      • Verbs are: Active – Passive
      • The active verb denotes that the subject is doing something:
      • I eat the apple The apple is eaten.
      • I ate the apple The apple was eaten.
      • I am eating the apple The apple is being eaten.
      • I have eaten the apple The apple has been eaten.
      • I had eaten the apple The apple had been eaten.
      • I will eat the apple The apple will be eaten.
    • Tenses of Verbs
      • The tenses of verbs , the time of the action or of the state doing :
      • Tenses of the verb are very important they show the time of actions and their relations to each other .
      • 1] Present Simple Tense :
      • It denotes that the action is going on at the present time or habitually (everyday, always, sometimes )
    • Formation
      • He
      • She s or es
      • It
      • 2] Present Continous Tense
      • (Am /is /are) Verb + ing
      • The denotes that the action is going just now .
      • (now, at this moment ,look, listen)
      • 3] Present Perfect Tense:
      • The denotes that the action has just now been completed
      • (Has /have) + Past participle
      • (since,for)
      • 4] Past simple Tense:
      • It denotes that the action is in the past .
      • 5] Future Simple Tense:
      • It denotes that the action is not yet taken place.
      • (tomorrow,next,the coming)
      • Auxiliary Verb:
      • Verbs that are found to express manner more precisely than done by the simple verb : are , be , do , have , will , may , can , must, many ,might, can ,could.
    • Preposition:
      • Is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show the relation between the things in the sentence.
      • The minister offered a donation to the university.
    • Conjunction
      • Is a word used to join words and clauses
      • I have a pen and a book.
      • Conjunction
      • Coordinative Subordinate
      • Coordinative:
      • It joins words and clauses of independent constructions .My brother and sister have arrived.
      • And, either, or , neither ,nor , for, therefore.
      • Subordinate:
      • It joins words and clauses of dependant constructions:
      • Although, because , if , unless, whether , yet.
    • Interjection
      • Is a word to express some sudden emotion of the mind
      • Principle interjection in use are:
      • Ah, Alas, bravo, ha, hallo, Hark!, hey, ho, O oh, oh deer, shoo.