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D N A  Tiling And The  A F M
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D N A Tiling And The A F M

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  • 1. DNA Tiling and the AFM
  • 2. DNA versus DNA Tiling
    • DNA is a nucleic acid formed by a double helix
    • DNA is also made of a negatively charged phosphate backbone, base pairs and bonds between those bases
    • DNA tiling is the analyzing and the engineering of DNA and its structures
    • DNA plasmids are circular double-stranded molecules
    Image Source Not Located
  • 3. DNA Structure Image location URL is http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/DNA.html
  • 4. The AFM
    • The Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM is a scanning probe microscope
    • On the cantilever is a tip that scans back and forth the surface of your sample
    • The microscope gives you enlarged images of the DNA on the sample surface
    Image Sources Not Found
  • 5. Reasons for AFM
    • Advantages:
      • Can create detailed, true 3-D images of surfaces unlike the electron microscope
      • Works in a normal environment with little to no sanitary measures being taken in the environment
    • Disadvantages:
      • Cannot scan a very large surface in comparison to the STM
      • Scans relatively slowly and the tip used to scan is easily breakable
    Image location URL is http://www.imagemet.com/index.php?main=products&sub=examples&id=69
  • 6. Silicon Wafers
    • Silicon is used as a surface for the DNA plasmids to sit on while being analyzed by the AFM
    • For plain imaging on the AFM, Silicon does not have to be used
    • Then why is silicon emphasized?
    Image from www.toyo-adtec.co.jp
  • 7. The Adhesive Monolayer
    • The silane layer on the silicon is negative
    • The phosphate backbone of the DNA plasmid is also negative
    • A molecule known as aminopropyltriethoxysilane, or APTES is used as an adhesive
  • 8. DNA Structures
    • In DNA there are unpaired bases that stick out of the structure
    • They can be used to attach other DNA sticky ends to them, creating a larger structure
    • Other tile-like but more complex DNA structures can be used in nanotechnology
    Image is from the “Nanotechnology and the Double Helix” article by Nadrian C. Seema n
  • 9. Nanotechnology
    • Nanotechnology is the building of structures in the range of nanometers
    • One example of the power of nanotechnology is the image to the right
    Image location URL is http://www.soweirdproductions.com/?cat=18
  • 10. Why DNA Tiling?
    • One main goal is to use DNA as a programmable component with other nanostructures
    • DNA can be used to act as scaffolding to hold molecules in an organized crystalline pattern
    • DNA can be engineered to act as circuitry for computers