D N A Tiling And The A F M

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D N A Tiling And The A F M

  1. 1. DNA Tiling and the AFM
  2. 2. DNA versus DNA Tiling <ul><li>DNA is a nucleic acid formed by a double helix </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is also made of a negatively charged phosphate backbone, base pairs and bonds between those bases </li></ul><ul><li>DNA tiling is the analyzing and the engineering of DNA and its structures </li></ul><ul><li>DNA plasmids are circular double-stranded molecules </li></ul>Image Source Not Located
  3. 3. DNA Structure Image location URL is http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/DNA.html
  4. 4. The AFM <ul><li>The Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM is a scanning probe microscope </li></ul><ul><li>On the cantilever is a tip that scans back and forth the surface of your sample </li></ul><ul><li>The microscope gives you enlarged images of the DNA on the sample surface </li></ul>Image Sources Not Found
  5. 5. Reasons for AFM <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create detailed, true 3-D images of surfaces unlike the electron microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works in a normal environment with little to no sanitary measures being taken in the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot scan a very large surface in comparison to the STM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scans relatively slowly and the tip used to scan is easily breakable </li></ul></ul>Image location URL is http://www.imagemet.com/index.php?main=products&sub=examples&id=69
  6. 6. Silicon Wafers <ul><li>Silicon is used as a surface for the DNA plasmids to sit on while being analyzed by the AFM </li></ul><ul><li>For plain imaging on the AFM, Silicon does not have to be used </li></ul><ul><li>Then why is silicon emphasized? </li></ul>Image from www.toyo-adtec.co.jp
  7. 7. The Adhesive Monolayer <ul><li>The silane layer on the silicon is negative </li></ul><ul><li>The phosphate backbone of the DNA plasmid is also negative </li></ul><ul><li>A molecule known as aminopropyltriethoxysilane, or APTES is used as an adhesive </li></ul>
  8. 8. DNA Structures <ul><li>In DNA there are unpaired bases that stick out of the structure </li></ul><ul><li>They can be used to attach other DNA sticky ends to them, creating a larger structure </li></ul><ul><li>Other tile-like but more complex DNA structures can be used in nanotechnology </li></ul>Image is from the “Nanotechnology and the Double Helix” article by Nadrian C. Seema n
  9. 9. Nanotechnology <ul><li>Nanotechnology is the building of structures in the range of nanometers </li></ul><ul><li>One example of the power of nanotechnology is the image to the right </li></ul>Image location URL is http://www.soweirdproductions.com/?cat=18
  10. 10. Why DNA Tiling? <ul><li>One main goal is to use DNA as a programmable component with other nanostructures </li></ul><ul><li>DNA can be used to act as scaffolding to hold molecules in an organized crystalline pattern </li></ul><ul><li>DNA can be engineered to act as circuitry for computers </li></ul>
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