Body Systems David Olivas Matt Garcia Kyle Ingham Danielle Lovato
The human body consists of many things.
Each has a different function.
You’d be amazed by what your body can do.
Bones, ligaments, and tendons make up the skeletal system.
Gives shape to your body and protects your organs.
You have about 206 bones in your body.
When two or more bones come together in joints, cartilage help move the bones smoothly.
Joints stay connected by ligaments.
Food, your skeleton, & your muscles
Calcium: Calcium helps make your bones stronger. To maintain strong bones, you should probably eat foods that are high in calcium.
Protein: Protein helps build muscles and tissues. To maintain strong and healthy muscles, eat foods with lots of protein.
Axial & Appendicular Skeleton
Ossicles (In the ear)
Hyoid bone (In the throat)
These bones of the skeleton make up the whole human skeleton.
A joint is the location at which two or more bones touch each other.
All examples of joints.
Disorders that affect the Skeletal System
Here’s a list of a few disorders that affect the skeletal system:
Metabolic bone disease
KFS (Klippel-Feil syndrome)
There are three types of muscle tissue in the muscular system.
Skeletal muscles help the body move.
Smooth muscles are located inside organs. Like the stomach and the intestines
Cardiac muscles are only found in the heart.
Muscles & Bones
Tendons are what connect muscles to your bones.
Tendons move your bones to able you to do physical activities and such.
Voluntary & Involuntary Muscles
Voluntary: Voluntary muscles are the muscles that you have control over. Like the ones in your arms and legs.
Involuntary: Involuntary muscles are the muscles that you can’t control. The nervous system controls involuntary muscle movements. Like the muscles in your stomach, heart, and intestines.
Converts foods into smaller molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food.
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, rectum, and pancreas.
Digestive System Cont.
Protein -> Lean meat, poultry, fish.
Calcium -> Milk, cheese, leafy vegetables.
Iron -> Meat, dry beans, dry peas.
Zinc -> Seafood, shellfish, leafy vegetables.
Protein: Builds and maintains tissues. Helps form important enzymes, hormones, and body fluids. Helps form antibodies to fight infection.
Calcium: Builds bones and teeth. Helps nerves, muscles, and heart to function properly.
Iron: Combines with protein to make hemoglobin. Helps cells use oxygen.
Zinc: Helps form enzymes. Promotes growth and development.
Mechanical Digestion & Chemical Digestion
Mechanical and chemical digestion begin in the mouth where food is chewed. Spit helps break down food.
The stomach continues to break food down mechanically and chemically through the churning of the stomach and mixing with enzymes.
Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down food so that our bodies can absorb it.
The “breaking down” of the food usually occurs in the mouth, the stomach, the duodenum, and the jejunum.
Salivary glands , glands in the stomach, the pancreas, and the glands in the small intestines.
Absorption in the Small & Large Intestines
The small intestines are adapted to absorb nutrients.
Villi absorb nutrients from the food that you eat.
Molecules of undigested fat and fatty acids are absorbed by lymph vessels called lacteals.
Everything else goes into the large intestines.
Gets blood to places where it needs to be.
Heart, blood, and blood vessels.
Pulmonary circulation: a “loop” through the lungs where blood is oxygenated.
Systematic circulation: a “loop” through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood.
Blood is made up of plasma.
Red blood cells carry oxygen.
White blood cells fight infections & disease.
Platelets (tiny pieces of cells) help stop bleeding.
The heart is the center of all the body’s action. All of your blood has to pass through it.
Hollow muscle with 4 chambers. *The top two are atrias. The bottom two are ventricles.*
Blood always moves through the heart in the same direction. It comes from the veins into the right atrium.
Then, it’s transferred to the right ventricle, which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen.
From the lungs, the blood travels to the left atrium.
It’s transferred to the left ventricle, which pumps it up through aorta (a large artery) and out to the cells in the rest of the body.
Arteries, Veins, & Capillaries
Arteries: Blood vessel that moves blood away from the heart.
Veins: Blood vessel that returns blood to the heart.
Capillaries: Smallest of blood vessels in the human body.
The lymphatic system is a network of vessels carrying lymph or tissue-cleaning fluid, from the tissues into the veins of the circulatory system.
The lymphatic system functions along with the circulatory system in absorbing nutrients from the small intestines.
The lymphatic system is composed of fine capillaries.
The respiratory system brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide.
It includes your nose, trachea, and lungs.
When you inhale, air enters your nose and goes down the trachea.
The trachea branches off into two bronchial tubes, which lead to the lungs.
Those tubes then branch off into smaller bronchial tubes, which end up in air sacs.
Oxygen follows this path and passes through air sacs and blood vessels and enters the blood stream.
Carbon dioxide then passes through the lungs and is exhaled.
Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen: When you inhale, oxygen goes down your trachea and enters the lungs. Then, oxygen is passed through air sacs and blood vessels and goes into the blood stream.
Carbon Dioxide: At the same time as oxygen is being passed through air sacs and blood vessels, carbon dioxide is released when you exhale.
The nervous system is one of the most important systems in the body. The nervous system is our body’s control system.
It includes your brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Nervous System Cont.
The nervous system sends, receives, and processes nerve impulses throughout your body.
The nerve impulses tell your muscles and organs what to do.
Parts of the Nervous System
Central nervous system: Consists of the brain and analyzes information from the sense organs. Which tells your brain about things you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel.
Peripheral nervous system: Includes the nerves that branch off from the brain and the spinal cord. Carries the nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
Autonomic nervous system: Regulates involuntary actions, like your heartbeat and digestion.
Cerebrum, Brain Stem, & Cerebellum
Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain. Controls thoughts.
Brain Stem: The lower part of the brain that is attached to the spinal cord.
Cerebellum: Portion of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscles. The cerebellum operates automatically.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nerves that is an extension of the central nervous system from. The spinal cord is enclosed and protected by a bony vertebral column.
The spinal cord of a human is about 18 inches long.
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Division
Sympathetic: sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system, enteric nervous system, and parasympathetic nervous system. It is always active and becomes more active during stress.
* Both are divisions of the autonomic nervous system
Parasympathetic: Generally responsible for activities that conserve energy and lower the metabolic rate.
The endocrine system involves the release of hormones.
The endocrine system regulates metabolism, growth, development, puberty, tissue function, and also plays a part in mood.
Major endocrine glands in females and males are: pineal glands, pituitary glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal gland, the ovaries, and the testes.
The endocrine system is a lot like the nervous system but the nervous system uses nerves to conduct info. The endocrine systems uses blood vessels.
The urinary system is the organs in your body that work with the digestive system to get rid of the bad waste.
They work with your stomach, liver, lungs, and intestines to keep the water and chemicals in your body balanced.
Urinary System Cont.
The urinary system removes a waste called Urea. Urea is made when food is breaking down into your body to make nutrients. This urea is carried to the kidney.
The kidneys are bean shaped organs about the size of your fist located near your back just below the rib cage.
They remove urea through a filter that are known as Nephron.
Each Nephron contains ball shaped blood capillaries and also contains real tiny tubes called a renal tube.
The Urea combined with water forms the urine when passing through the renal tube and out the kidney .
The bladder comes into place after the kidney has produced urea.
This organ is shaped like a balloon and sits in your pelvis.
The bladder fills up with urine and lets you know when you need to go. If the urinary system is healthy, then the bladder can hold up to 2 cups. This can hold you off between 2 to 5 hours.
Sphincters are muscles in the bladder that keep the urine from leaking.
Nerves in your brain tell you when it is time to urinate and the sensation intensifies the longer you wait because your brain intensifies it.