Body body body
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Body body body






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    Body body body Body body body Presentation Transcript

    • Body Systems David Olivas Matt Garcia Kyle Ingham Danielle Lovato
    • Introduction
      • The human body consists of many things.
      • Each has a different function.
      • You’d be amazed by what your body can do.
    • Skeletal System
      • Bones, ligaments, and tendons make up the skeletal system.
      • Gives shape to your body and protects your organs.
      • You have about 206 bones in your body.
      • When two or more bones come together in joints, cartilage help move the bones smoothly.
      • Joints stay connected by ligaments.
    • Food, your skeleton, & your muscles
      • Calcium: Calcium helps make your bones stronger. To maintain strong bones, you should probably eat foods that are high in calcium.
      • Protein: Protein helps build muscles and tissues. To maintain strong and healthy muscles, eat foods with lots of protein.
    • Axial & Appendicular Skeleton
      • AXIAL
      • Skull
      • Ossicles (In the ear)
      • Hyoid bone (In the throat)
      • Chest
      • Vertebral column
      • Shoulder girdle
      • Arm
      • Hand
      • Pelvic girdle
      • Leg
      • Foot
      • These bones of the skeleton make up the whole human skeleton.
    • Joints
      • A joint is the location at which two or more bones touch each other.
      • Wrists
      • Elbows
      • Knees
      • All examples of joints.
    • Disorders that affect the Skeletal System
      • Here’s a list of a few disorders that affect the skeletal system:
      • Osteoporosis
      • Metabolic bone disease
      • KFS (Klippel-Feil syndrome)
      • Porotic Hyperostosis
    • Muscular System
      • There are three types of muscle tissue in the muscular system.
      • Skeletal
      • Smooth
      • Cardiac
      • Skeletal
      • Skeletal muscles help the body move.
      • Smooth
      • Smooth muscles are located inside organs. Like the stomach and the intestines
      • Cardiac
      • Cardiac muscles are only found in the heart.
    • Muscles & Bones
      • Tendons are what connect muscles to your bones.
      • Tendons move your bones to able you to do physical activities and such.
    • Voluntary & Involuntary Muscles
      • Voluntary: Voluntary muscles are the muscles that you have control over. Like the ones in your arms and legs.
      • Involuntary: Involuntary muscles are the muscles that you can’t control. The nervous system controls involuntary muscle movements. Like the muscles in your stomach, heart, and intestines.
    • Digestive System
      • Converts foods into smaller molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food.
      • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, rectum, and pancreas.
    • Digestive System Cont.
      • 4 Nutrients
      • Protein -> Lean meat, poultry, fish.
      • Calcium -> Milk, cheese, leafy vegetables.
      • Iron -> Meat, dry beans, dry peas.
      • Zinc -> Seafood, shellfish, leafy vegetables.
    • Nutrients
      • Protein: Builds and maintains tissues. Helps form important enzymes, hormones, and body fluids. Helps form antibodies to fight infection.
      • Calcium: Builds bones and teeth. Helps nerves, muscles, and heart to function properly.
      • Iron: Combines with protein to make hemoglobin. Helps cells use oxygen.
      • Zinc: Helps form enzymes. Promotes growth and development.
    • Mechanical Digestion & Chemical Digestion
      • Mechanical and chemical digestion begin in the mouth where food is chewed. Spit helps break down food.
      • The stomach continues to break food down mechanically and chemically through the churning of the stomach and mixing with enzymes.
    • Enzymes
      • Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down food so that our bodies can absorb it.
      • The “breaking down” of the food usually occurs in the mouth, the stomach, the duodenum, and the jejunum.
      • Salivary glands , glands in the stomach, the pancreas, and the glands in the small intestines.
    • Absorption in the Small & Large Intestines
      • The small intestines are adapted to absorb nutrients.
      • Villi absorb nutrients from the food that you eat.
      • Molecules of undigested fat and fatty acids are absorbed by lymph vessels called lacteals.
      • Everything else goes into the large intestines.
    • Circulatory System
      • Gets blood to places where it needs to be.
      • Heart, blood, and blood vessels.
      • Pulmonary circulation: a “loop” through the lungs where blood is oxygenated.
      • Systematic circulation: a “loop” through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood.
    • Blood Cells
      • Blood is made up of plasma.
      • Red blood cells carry oxygen.
      • White blood cells fight infections & disease.
      • Platelets (tiny pieces of cells) help stop bleeding.
    • The Heart
      • The heart is the center of all the body’s action. All of your blood has to pass through it.
      • Hollow muscle with 4 chambers. *The top two are atrias. The bottom two are ventricles.*
    • Blood
      • Blood always moves through the heart in the same direction. It comes from the veins into the right atrium.
      • Then, it’s transferred to the right ventricle, which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen.
      • From the lungs, the blood travels to the left atrium.
      • It’s transferred to the left ventricle, which pumps it up through aorta (a large artery) and out to the cells in the rest of the body.
    • Arteries, Veins, & Capillaries
      • Arteries: Blood vessel that moves blood away from the heart.
      • Veins: Blood vessel that returns blood to the heart.
      • Capillaries: Smallest of blood vessels in the human body.
    • Lymphatic System
      • The lymphatic system is a network of vessels carrying lymph or tissue-cleaning fluid, from the tissues into the veins of the circulatory system.
      • The lymphatic system functions along with the circulatory system in absorbing nutrients from the small intestines.
      • The lymphatic system is composed of fine capillaries.
    • Respiratory System
      • The respiratory system brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide.
      • It includes your nose, trachea, and lungs.
    • Air
      • When you inhale, air enters your nose and goes down the trachea.
      • The trachea branches off into two bronchial tubes, which lead to the lungs.
      • Those tubes then branch off into smaller bronchial tubes, which end up in air sacs.
      • Oxygen follows this path and passes through air sacs and blood vessels and enters the blood stream.
      • Carbon dioxide then passes through the lungs and is exhaled.
    • Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
      • Oxygen: When you inhale, oxygen goes down your trachea and enters the lungs. Then, oxygen is passed through air sacs and blood vessels and goes into the blood stream.
      • Carbon Dioxide: At the same time as oxygen is being passed through air sacs and blood vessels, carbon dioxide is released when you exhale.
    • Nervous System
      • The nervous system is one of the most important systems in the body. The nervous system is our body’s control system.
      • It includes your brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
    • Nervous System Cont.
      • The nervous system sends, receives, and processes nerve impulses throughout your body.
      • The nerve impulses tell your muscles and organs what to do.
    • Parts of the Nervous System
      • Central nervous system: Consists of the brain and analyzes information from the sense organs. Which tells your brain about things you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel.
      • Peripheral nervous system: Includes the nerves that branch off from the brain and the spinal cord. Carries the nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
      • Autonomic nervous system: Regulates involuntary actions, like your heartbeat and digestion.
    • Cerebrum, Brain Stem, & Cerebellum
      • Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain. Controls thoughts.
      • Brain Stem: The lower part of the brain that is attached to the spinal cord.
      • Cerebellum: Portion of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscles. The cerebellum operates automatically.
    • Spinal Cord
      • The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nerves that is an extension of the central nervous system from. The spinal cord is enclosed and protected by a bony vertebral column.
      • The spinal cord of a human is about 18 inches long.
    • Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Division
      • Sympathetic: sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system, enteric nervous system, and parasympathetic nervous system. It is always active and becomes more active during stress.
      • * Both are divisions of the autonomic nervous system
      • Parasympathetic: Generally responsible for activities that conserve energy and lower the metabolic rate.
    • Endocrine System
    • Endocrine System
      • The endocrine system involves the release of hormones.
      • The endocrine system regulates metabolism, growth, development, puberty, tissue function, and also plays a part in mood.
    • Endocrine System
      • Major endocrine glands in females and males are: pineal glands, pituitary glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal gland, the ovaries, and the testes.
      • The endocrine system is a lot like the nervous system but the nervous system uses nerves to conduct info. The endocrine systems uses blood vessels.
    • Urinary System
    • Urinary System
      • The urinary system is the organs in your body that work with the digestive system to get rid of the bad waste.
      • They work with your stomach, liver, lungs, and intestines to keep the water and chemicals in your body balanced.
    • Urinary System Cont.
      • The urinary system removes a waste called Urea. Urea is made when food is breaking down into your body to make nutrients. This urea is carried to the kidney.
    • Kidney
      • The kidneys are bean shaped organs about the size of your fist located near your back just below the rib cage.
      • They remove urea through a filter that are known as Nephron.
      • Each Nephron contains ball shaped blood capillaries and also contains real tiny tubes called a renal tube.
      • The Urea combined with water forms the urine when passing through the renal tube and out the kidney .
    • Bladder
      • The bladder comes into place after the kidney has produced urea.
      • This organ is shaped like a balloon and sits in your pelvis.
      • The bladder fills up with urine and lets you know when you need to go. If the urinary system is healthy, then the bladder can hold up to 2 cups. This can hold you off between 2 to 5 hours.
      • Sphincters are muscles in the bladder that keep the urine from leaking.
      • Nerves in your brain tell you when it is time to urinate and the sensation intensifies the longer you wait because your brain intensifies it.