Body body body


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Body body body

  1. 1. Body Systems David Olivas Matt Garcia Kyle Ingham Danielle Lovato
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The human body consists of many things. </li></ul><ul><li>Each has a different function. </li></ul><ul><li>You’d be amazed by what your body can do. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Skeletal System <ul><li>Bones, ligaments, and tendons make up the skeletal system. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives shape to your body and protects your organs. </li></ul><ul><li>You have about 206 bones in your body. </li></ul><ul><li>When two or more bones come together in joints, cartilage help move the bones smoothly. </li></ul><ul><li>Joints stay connected by ligaments. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Food, your skeleton, & your muscles <ul><li>Calcium: Calcium helps make your bones stronger. To maintain strong bones, you should probably eat foods that are high in calcium. </li></ul><ul><li>Protein: Protein helps build muscles and tissues. To maintain strong and healthy muscles, eat foods with lots of protein. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Axial & Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>AXIAL </li></ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul><ul><li>Ossicles (In the ear) </li></ul><ul><li>Hyoid bone (In the throat) </li></ul><ul><li>Chest </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebral column </li></ul><ul><li>APPENDICULAR </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder girdle </li></ul><ul><li>Arm </li></ul><ul><li>Hand </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic girdle </li></ul><ul><li>Leg </li></ul><ul><li>Foot </li></ul><ul><li>These bones of the skeleton make up the whole human skeleton. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Joints <ul><li>A joint is the location at which two or more bones touch each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrists </li></ul><ul><li>Elbows </li></ul><ul><li>Knees </li></ul><ul><li>All examples of joints. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Disorders that affect the Skeletal System <ul><li>Here’s a list of a few disorders that affect the skeletal system: </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic bone disease </li></ul><ul><li>KFS (Klippel-Feil syndrome) </li></ul><ul><li>Porotic Hyperostosis </li></ul>
  10. 10. Muscular System <ul><li>There are three types of muscle tissue in the muscular system. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles help the body move. </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscles are located inside organs. Like the stomach and the intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscles are only found in the heart. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Muscles & Bones <ul><li>Tendons are what connect muscles to your bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Tendons move your bones to able you to do physical activities and such. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Voluntary & Involuntary Muscles <ul><li>Voluntary: Voluntary muscles are the muscles that you have control over. Like the ones in your arms and legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary: Involuntary muscles are the muscles that you can’t control. The nervous system controls involuntary muscle movements. Like the muscles in your stomach, heart, and intestines. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Digestive System <ul><li>Converts foods into smaller molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food. </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, rectum, and pancreas. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Digestive System Cont. <ul><li>4 Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Protein -> Lean meat, poultry, fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium -> Milk, cheese, leafy vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron -> Meat, dry beans, dry peas. </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc -> Seafood, shellfish, leafy vegetables. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nutrients <ul><li>Protein: Builds and maintains tissues. Helps form important enzymes, hormones, and body fluids. Helps form antibodies to fight infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium: Builds bones and teeth. Helps nerves, muscles, and heart to function properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron: Combines with protein to make hemoglobin. Helps cells use oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc: Helps form enzymes. Promotes growth and development. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mechanical Digestion & Chemical Digestion <ul><li>Mechanical and chemical digestion begin in the mouth where food is chewed. Spit helps break down food. </li></ul><ul><li>The stomach continues to break food down mechanically and chemically through the churning of the stomach and mixing with enzymes. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Enzymes <ul><li>Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down food so that our bodies can absorb it. </li></ul><ul><li>The “breaking down” of the food usually occurs in the mouth, the stomach, the duodenum, and the jejunum. </li></ul><ul><li>Salivary glands , glands in the stomach, the pancreas, and the glands in the small intestines. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Absorption in the Small & Large Intestines <ul><li>The small intestines are adapted to absorb nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Villi absorb nutrients from the food that you eat. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules of undigested fat and fatty acids are absorbed by lymph vessels called lacteals. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything else goes into the large intestines. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Circulatory System <ul><li>Gets blood to places where it needs to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart, blood, and blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary circulation: a “loop” through the lungs where blood is oxygenated. </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic circulation: a “loop” through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Blood Cells <ul><li>Blood is made up of plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells carry oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>White blood cells fight infections & disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets (tiny pieces of cells) help stop bleeding. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Heart <ul><li>The heart is the center of all the body’s action. All of your blood has to pass through it. </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow muscle with 4 chambers. *The top two are atrias. The bottom two are ventricles.* </li></ul>
  24. 24. Blood <ul><li>Blood always moves through the heart in the same direction. It comes from the veins into the right atrium. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, it’s transferred to the right ventricle, which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>From the lungs, the blood travels to the left atrium. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s transferred to the left ventricle, which pumps it up through aorta (a large artery) and out to the cells in the rest of the body. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Arteries, Veins, & Capillaries <ul><li>Arteries: Blood vessel that moves blood away from the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Veins: Blood vessel that returns blood to the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries: Smallest of blood vessels in the human body. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Lymphatic System <ul><li>The lymphatic system is a network of vessels carrying lymph or tissue-cleaning fluid, from the tissues into the veins of the circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><li>The lymphatic system functions along with the circulatory system in absorbing nutrients from the small intestines. </li></ul><ul><li>The lymphatic system is composed of fine capillaries. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Respiratory System <ul><li>The respiratory system brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes your nose, trachea, and lungs. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Air <ul><li>When you inhale, air enters your nose and goes down the trachea. </li></ul><ul><li>The trachea branches off into two bronchial tubes, which lead to the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Those tubes then branch off into smaller bronchial tubes, which end up in air sacs. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen follows this path and passes through air sacs and blood vessels and enters the blood stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide then passes through the lungs and is exhaled. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>Oxygen: When you inhale, oxygen goes down your trachea and enters the lungs. Then, oxygen is passed through air sacs and blood vessels and goes into the blood stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide: At the same time as oxygen is being passed through air sacs and blood vessels, carbon dioxide is released when you exhale. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Nervous System <ul><li>The nervous system is one of the most important systems in the body. The nervous system is our body’s control system. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes your brain, spinal cord, and nerves. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Nervous System Cont. <ul><li>The nervous system sends, receives, and processes nerve impulses throughout your body. </li></ul><ul><li>The nerve impulses tell your muscles and organs what to do. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Parts of the Nervous System <ul><li>Central nervous system: Consists of the brain and analyzes information from the sense organs. Which tells your brain about things you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel. </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral nervous system: Includes the nerves that branch off from the brain and the spinal cord. Carries the nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system: Regulates involuntary actions, like your heartbeat and digestion. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cerebrum, Brain Stem, & Cerebellum <ul><li>Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain. Controls thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Stem: The lower part of the brain that is attached to the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum: Portion of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscles. The cerebellum operates automatically. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Spinal Cord <ul><li>The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nerves that is an extension of the central nervous system from. The spinal cord is enclosed and protected by a bony vertebral column. </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal cord of a human is about 18 inches long. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>Sympathetic: sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system, enteric nervous system, and parasympathetic nervous system. It is always active and becomes more active during stress. </li></ul><ul><li>* Both are divisions of the autonomic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic: Generally responsible for activities that conserve energy and lower the metabolic rate. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Endocrine System
  39. 39. Endocrine System <ul><li>The endocrine system involves the release of hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>The endocrine system regulates metabolism, growth, development, puberty, tissue function, and also plays a part in mood. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Endocrine System <ul><li>Major endocrine glands in females and males are: pineal glands, pituitary glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal gland, the ovaries, and the testes. </li></ul><ul><li>The endocrine system is a lot like the nervous system but the nervous system uses nerves to conduct info. The endocrine systems uses blood vessels. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Urinary System
  42. 42. Urinary System <ul><li>The urinary system is the organs in your body that work with the digestive system to get rid of the bad waste. </li></ul><ul><li>They work with your stomach, liver, lungs, and intestines to keep the water and chemicals in your body balanced. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Urinary System Cont. <ul><li>The urinary system removes a waste called Urea. Urea is made when food is breaking down into your body to make nutrients. This urea is carried to the kidney. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Kidney <ul><li>The kidneys are bean shaped organs about the size of your fist located near your back just below the rib cage. </li></ul><ul><li>They remove urea through a filter that are known as Nephron. </li></ul><ul><li>Each Nephron contains ball shaped blood capillaries and also contains real tiny tubes called a renal tube. </li></ul><ul><li>The Urea combined with water forms the urine when passing through the renal tube and out the kidney . </li></ul>
  45. 45. Bladder <ul><li>The bladder comes into place after the kidney has produced urea. </li></ul><ul><li>This organ is shaped like a balloon and sits in your pelvis. </li></ul><ul><li>The bladder fills up with urine and lets you know when you need to go. If the urinary system is healthy, then the bladder can hold up to 2 cups. This can hold you off between 2 to 5 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Sphincters are muscles in the bladder that keep the urine from leaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves in your brain tell you when it is time to urinate and the sensation intensifies the longer you wait because your brain intensifies it. </li></ul>