Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Photosynthesis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply
Published

PowerPoint for Photosynthesis

PowerPoint for Photosynthesis

Published in Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
807
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
29
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Photosynthesis
    PART 1:
    Basic Vocabulary & ATP
  • 2. Energy
    Energy – the ability to make something happen
    ENERGY exists in different forms, but can CHANGE from one form to another.
    Some types of energy are:
    Light (solar)
    Electrical
    Chemical
    Infrared (heat)
  • 3. “Solar cells” convert LIGHT (solar) energy into ELECTRICAL energy (electricity).
    Light bulbs convert ELECTRICAL energy back into LIGHT (and heat!) energy.
    This is one way humans store ENERGY for later use.
  • 4. EVERYTHING has some form of energy, or a COMBINATION of different forms of energy.
    A light bulb has LIGHT and HEAT energy to offer.
    Remember: All energy originally comes from the SUN.
    Energy CANNOT be created
    Energy cannot be DESTROYED
    But, energy CAN be transformed
    The energy to power your iPod
    came from the sun, originally.
    Have you thanked your Sun recently???
  • 5. Have you ever used a solar-powered calculator? No matter where you go, as long as you have a light source, the calculator works. You never have to put batteries in it.
    Where does the energy to power the calculator come from? What form (light/heat/chemical/electrical) of energy is this?
    A solar cell transforms this energy into ___________ energy, which powers the electrical circuits of the calculator.
    Do all calculators run on solar energy?
  • 6. Have you ever noticed that your body maintains a constant temperature, usually 98o F?
    This energy, measured by temperature, is HEAT energy.
    Which object has more heat energy, an ice cube or a hot cup of coffee?
    What happens when you put the ice cube into the hot coffee?
    It melted, but why?
    The energy moved from the coffee (area of higher energy) into the ice cube (area of lower energy), giving it enough energy to melt.
    Since energy moves from an area with lots of energy to an area with lower energy, what happens to the air next to your skin on a cold day?
    When you use a wood stove to put energy into your house, what happens to the temperature inside your house?
    Where did the energy come from to heat the stove?
    Where did the energy in the wood come from?
  • 7. The energy in the wood from the last example came from the SUN, originally.
    The wood has lots of trapped CHEMICAL energy.
    Chemical energy is stored in the BONDS between molecules of the wood. These bonds are BROKEN when wood is burnt. When chemical bonds are broken, energy is RELEASED.
    How did the wood transform energy from the sun (light energy) into chemical energy?
    Photosynthesis– making chemical energy from light energy
    Photosynthesis
    Photo – “light” Synthesis – “making”
  • 8. Energy in Organisms
    Just like our appliances, iPods, and light bulbs have energy flowing through them, energy flows through LIVING things!
    Energy to power LIFE originally comes from the SUN, just like all other energy.
    Energy from the sun enters living systems through “producers,” such as autotrophs.
    Autotrophs – make their own food by photosynthesis
    gathers LIGHT energy and stores it as CHEMICAL energy in GLUCOSE.
  • 9. What are examples of autotrophs?
    Plants
    Oak tree
    Grass
    Wheat
    Moss
    Flowers
    Shrubs
    Every other plant you can think of.
    Algae
    Algae are not considered plants – they are unicellular.
    Certain kinds of bacteria
  • 10. Comparing Autotrophs
    Photoautotrophs
    Vs.
    Chemoautotrophs
  • 11. Photoautotrophs
    Convert light energy into chemical energy stored in organic compounds (usually glucose).
    This is PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    Source of energy is the SUN
    Examples: Plants, algae, and other “green things” with photosynthetic pigments (such as chlorophyll).
  • 12. Photoautotrophs
  • 13. Chemoautotrophs
    Use small, inorganic molecules to make larger organic molecules that sustain life
    Eg) CO2, NH3, NO2-, H2, Fe2+
    Usually don’t need sunlight
    Many archaebacteria are chemoautotrophs
    Found deep in ice-core samples in Greenland
    Found in extremely salty conditions
    Found on bottom of ocean in near-boiling water
  • 14.
  • 15. Heterotrophs
    Organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances.
    Heterotrophs extract the energy from food through the process of cellular respiration.
    Cellular respiration produces ATP
    Includes: animals, fungi, some protists, some bacteria
  • 16. Heterotrophs
    Autotrophs
  • 17. ATP
    ATP is Adenosine TriPhosphate.
    Is a nucleotide (but doesn’t form DNA)
    Is the cell’s energy currency.
    Chemical energy held in bonds between phosphates
  • 18. ATP
    ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE
    ENERGY
    RELEASED
    ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE
  • 19. ADP
    ATP
    Energy
    Energy
    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    Partially
    charged
    battery
    Fully
    charged
    battery
  • 20. ENERGY
    PART 2:
    PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    Tracking the flow of energy where it enters living things: plants.
  • 21. The site for photosynthesis
    • Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves.
    • 22. The leaves also serve as the site where CO2 and O2 are absorbed and released.
    • 23. Water is absorbed by the roots of the plant
  • PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    Process that converts LIGHT energy into CHEMICAL energy.
    MEMORIZE THE FORMULA!!!
    H2O + CO2 + LIGHT C6H12O6 + O2
    Water Carbon DioxideGlucose Oxygen
  • 24. How does the plant get CO2 and release O2?
    Leaf  plant organ where photosynthesis occurs
    Stomata  small pores underneath the plant leaf where carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse in and out
    Guard Cells  cells that surround stomata that open and close according to water pressure
  • 25. Equipment Used
    The Chloroplast is where photosynthesis occurs in the plant
    The chloroplast has an inner and outer membrane.
    The inner membrane forms disk-shaped structures called thylakoidswhich has chlorophyll embedded in it.
    Thylakoids arranged in stacks called grana
    The space around the thylakoids is the stroma
  • 26. THYLAKOID
    STROMA
  • 27.
  • 28. Pigments
    Pigments (such as CHLOROPHYLL) reflect the colors that they can NOT absorb.
    Ex: a red shirt can absorb orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet but can NOT absorb red so it reflects (and appears) red to your eyes.
    QUESTION: Which color light will be more effective for plant growth?
    Yellow
    Green
    Red
  • 29.
    • There are two types of chlorophyll.
    • 30. Chlorophyll A and Chlorophyll B
    • 31. What color of light is absorbed the most by Chlorophyll b?
    • 32. What color of light is absorbed the most by Chlorophyll a?
    Absorption of Light by
    Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b
    Chlorophyllb
    Chlorophylla
    V
    B
    G
    Y
    O
    R
  • 33. Pigments
    Chlorophyll isn’t the only pigment in plants.
    Accessory pigments - absorb different wavelengths (colors) of light than chlorophyll allowing the plant to absorb more light energy during photosynthesis.
    Carotenoids – appear orange and yellow
    Give the fall leaves their colors
  • 34.
  • 35. Pigments inspire art
  • 36. PHOTOSYNTHESIS: STEP 1
    Step 1 – Light-Dependent Reactions
    Chlorophyll in the thylakoid membrane absorbs photons (light energy), which excites electrons
    Electrons bounce down an “electron transport chain” (ETC)
    ETC – a group of integral membrane proteins that ferry electrons
    As electrons pass through, these proteins pump H+ across the membrane
    Wateris broken to resupply lost electrons
    Byproducts: Oxygen and H+
    H+ gradient powers ATP formation
    Electrons hop off the chain and onto NADP+, forming NADPH.
  • 37. Products of Light Reactions
    ATP and NADPH (high-energy compounds)
    Needed to power the next step
    Oxygen (released into atmosphere)
  • 38. PHOTOSYNTHESIS: STEP 2
    STEP 2 – Dark Reactions aka. Calvin cycle
    Occurs in the stroma
    Does NOT require light
    The ATP and NADPH produced in the light-dependent reactions is used to power the conversion of CO2 into glucose (C6H12O6)
    NADPH converted back into NADP+
    ATP converted back into ADP
    Both NADP+ and ADP go back to the light reactions to get recharged
  • 39. Chloroplast – Overview of Light-Dependent Reactions and Calvin Cycle
  • 40.
  • 41. LIGHT ENERGY
    H2O
  • 42. LIGHT ENERGY
    H2O
    ATP
    NADPH
    O2
  • 43. LIGHT ENERGY
    CO2
    H2O
    CALVIN CYLE/DARK REACTION
    ATP
    NADPH
    O2
  • 44. LIGHT ENERGY
    CO2
    H2O
    NADP+
    ADP
    CALVIN CYLE/DARK REACTION
    ATP
    NADPH
    O2
    C6H12O6 (Glucose)
  • 45. LIGHT ENERGY
    CO2
    H2O
    NADP+
    ADP
    CALVIN CYLE/DARK REACTION
    REACTANTS
    ATP
    NADPH
    O2
    C6H12O6 (Glucose)
  • 46. LIGHT ENERGY
    CO2
    H2O
    NADP+
    ADP
    CALVIN CYLE/DARK REACTION
    REACTANTS
    ATP
    NADPH
    O2
    PRODUCTS
    C6H12O6 (Glucose)
  • 47. Water
    CO2
    Glucose
    O2
    Chloroplast
    Chloroplast
    NADP+
    ADP
    Light-
    Dependent
    Reactions
    Calvin
    Cycle
    ATP
    NADPH
  • 48. Hydrogen
    Ion Movement
    Photosystem II
    ATP synthase
    Inner
    Thylakoid
    Space
    Thylakoid
    Membrane
    Stroma
    Electron
    Transport Chain
    Photosystem I
    ATP Formation