Ratios are compared to industry averages. There are 14 to 16 common ratios grouped into 4 types. Dun and Bradstreet and Robert Morris Associates give industry average ratios for hundreds of industries. We will describe the types of ratios and focus on several important financial ratios. Financial Statements 1. Financial statements report a firm’s position at a point in time and on operations over some past period 2. Investors use financial statements to predict future earnings/dividends 3. Management uses financial statements to help anticipate future conditions and as starting point for planning actions that will affect future event Financial ratios 1. Help evaluate a financial statement 2. Facilitate comparison of firms
Uses 1. Managers – to help analyze, control, improve a firm’s operations 2. Credit analysts – to help ascertain a company’s ability to pay its debts 3. Stock analysts – to determine a company’s efficiency, risk and growth potential
Liquidity Ratios: Current Ratio Quick (Acid Test) Ratio Cash Ratio Net Working Capital to Total Assets Leverage Ratios: Total Debt Ratio Debt to Equity Ratio Equity Multiplier Long-term Debt Ratio Times Interest Earned Ratio Cash Coverage Ratio Activity (Turnover) Ratios: Inventory Turnover Days’ Sales in Inventory Receivables Turnover Days’ Sales in Receivables NWC Turnover Fixed Asset Turnover Total Asset Turnover Profitability Ratios: Profit Margin Return on Assets Return on Equity Valuation Ratios: Price to Earnings Market to Book
DuPont Chart and Equation - Tie the Ratios Together Shows how profit margin, asset turnover ratio, and equity multiplier determine ROE Shows how expense control (profit margin), efficient use of assets in production (asset turnover) and capital structure (equity multiplier) affect return on equity. Ties together all aspects of firm - production and financing.
Notice that using more debt (and less equity) to finance assets raises the Equity Multiplier. This has two effects for stockholders. The Equity Multiplier acts as a lever to magnify the effects of ROA on returns for stockholders. If ROA is positive, ROE is a larger positive value, but if ROA is negative ROE is a larger negative. Raising the s magnifying effect also raises the risk for stockholders.
Return on Assets is affected by two areas of operations. The Profit Margin measures the degree to which the firm controls expenses. Since expenses comprise the difference between Sales and Net Income, lowering the expenses taken out of each dollar of sales raises the Profit Margin. At the same time, Return on Assets can be raised by producing sales by using fewer assets. Asset Turnover measures the dollar of sales produced with each dollar invested in assets. This is often thought of as sales volume. Different industries achieve ROA in different ways. Some have low profit margins but high volume, e.g. grocery stores. Others have lower volume but are able to maintain higher profit margins, e.g. car dealerships.
Leverage ratios also include the Interest-coverage Ratio, Fixed coverage Ratio etc, .
In contrast to the leverage ratios discussed on previous slide, the higher the Interest Coverage Ratio (Times-Interest-Earned Ratio), the more credit worthy the firm is, and the easier it will be to obtain credit (loans).
The inventory turnover ratio indicates how fast a firm is selling its inventories
This ratio indicates how well inventory is being managed, which is important because the more times inventory can be turned (i.e., the higher the turnover rate) in a given operating cycle, the greater the profit.
The gross profit margin is the total margin available to cover operating expenses and yield a profit. This ratio indicates how efficiently a business is using its labor and materials in the production process, and shows the percentage of net sales remaining after subtracting cost of goods sold.
The higher the ratio, the better. A high gross profit margin indicates that a firm can make a reasonable profit on sales, as long as it keeps overhead costs under control.