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Presentation for ILF/AIME Conference in Nov. 2008

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  1. 1. Literacy Without Walls Removing Barriers by Examining the Research Donna M. Smith Library Media Specialist, IDOE
  2. 2. Home Run Book <ul><li>“ One’s first book, kiss, home run is always the best.” –Jim Trelease </li></ul><ul><li>In 3 studies, elementary school children were asked one question: Was there one book or reading experience that interested you in reading? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Captain Underpants! That book turned me on, because it was funny and was an adventure.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It was the Box Car Children that started me reading, because it was a good book.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Power of Literacy <ul><li>“ The young people of today will need to demonstrate a higher level of literacy because they are inundated with information and data. </li></ul><ul><li>They must be able to discriminate, judge, analyze and evaluate information. If we successfully educate them to function at the powerful literacy level their futures truly will have impossible limits for success. </li></ul><ul><li>--Dr. Eugene White </li></ul>
  4. 4. The preschoolers who had heard more words, and subsequently learned more words orally, were better readers. <ul><li>In the four years prior to kindergarten— </li></ul><ul><li>A child in a professional family accumulates experience with almost 45 million words </li></ul><ul><li>A child in a working-class family – 26 million words </li></ul><ul><li>A child in a welfare family – 13 million words </li></ul><ul><li>Linda Bevilacqua </li></ul><ul><li>Core Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Light Reading? <ul><li>Perhaps the most powerful way of encouraging children to read is to expose them to light reading, a kind of reading that schools pretend does not exist, and a kind of reading that many children, for economic or ideological reasons, are deprived of. I suspect that light reading is the way nearly all of us learned to read. </li></ul><ul><li>--Stephen Krashen </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Case for Comics <ul><li>The texts of comics are linguistically appropriate, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and pictures can help make the texts comprehensible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research shows that comics have no negative effect on language development and school achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Comic book readers do at least as much reading as non-comic book readers, and the most recent research shows that they read more overall, read more books, and have more positive attitude toward reading. </li></ul><ul><li>There is strong evidence from case studies that comics can serve as a conduit to book reading. </li></ul><ul><li>--Stephen Krashen </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>One comic a day = 500,000 words a year. </li></ul><ul><li>(Half of the average yearly reading volume of middle class children) </li></ul><ul><li>--Anderson, Wilson, and Fielding 1988 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Summer Reading <ul><li>Those who read more over the summer made significantly greater gains in reading comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>--Kim 2003 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Clockwork Orange Study <ul><li>Students who read a novel with many unique words actually acquired the meaning of many of those words from context clues alone. </li></ul><ul><li>--Saragi, Nation, & Meister 1978 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Practice makes Perfect!! <ul><li>“ Among all the ways children spend their time, reading books was the best predictor of several measures of reading achievement (reading comprehension, vocabulary, and reading speed), including gains in reading comprehension between second and fifth grade” </li></ul><ul><li>--Stephen Krashen, 1988 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Free Reading Reading for Pleasure <ul><li>Of 150 possible predictors of high reading scores, free reading came in second: Students in schools in which there was more reading of books, magazines, and comics read better. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Postlethwaite and </li></ul><ul><li>Ross, 1996 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Malcolm X <ul><li>“ Not long ago, an English writer telephoned me from London, asking questions. One was, ‘What’s your alma mater?’ I told him, ‘Books’” </li></ul><ul><li>--Malcolm X </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ivey & Broaddus - 2001 <ul><li>They asked 1,765 sixth graders in 23 different schools which reading activities they enjoyed most in their language arts class. The clear winners were free reading time (63%) and the teacher reading aloud (62 %). </li></ul>
  14. 14. What do our 17-Year-Olds Know? <ul><li>Those 17-year-olds who knew more read more: Those who lived in a print-richer environment did better overall on tests of history and literature, and there was a clear relationship between the amount of reported leisure reading and performance on the literature test. </li></ul><ul><li>--Ravitch & Finn, 1987 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Books at Home <ul><li>A print rich environment in the home is related to how much children read; children who read more have more books in the home. </li></ul><ul><li>--Morrow, 1983; Neuman 1986; Greaney & Hegarty 1987; Kim 2003 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bilingual Learners <ul><li>It is true that we “learn to read by reading” – Goodman 1982, Smith 1994b </li></ul><ul><li>The knowledge gained through the first language can make second language input much more comprehensible. –Stephen Krashen </li></ul><ul><li>A pleasure reader in the first language will become a pleasure reader in the second language. – Camiciottoli 2001 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bilingual Learners <ul><li>Teen romances worked for some adult second language acquirers. </li></ul><ul><li>--Cho & Krashen, 1994, 1995a, 1995b </li></ul>
  18. 18. Children Get Much of Their Reading Material from Libraries <ul><li>“There is good agreement in all studies, however, that children get much of their reading material from some kind of library.” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Library Media Centers <ul><li>Students take more books out of school libraries that have more books and stay open longer. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the supply of books by 20% increases the number of books taken out by about 10%, and increasing library hours about 20 percent increases loans by 17 percent in high school libraries and about 3.5 percent in elementary school libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>--Houe & Montmarquette, 1984 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Library Quality Related to Reading Achievement <ul><li>Lance, Welborn, and Hamilton-Pennell (1993) found that money invested in school libraries in Colorado was associated with higher reading scores, even when factors such as poverty and availability of computers were controlled. Lance and his colleagues have replicated these results in Colorado and in several other states, showing that library quality, defined in terms of the number of books in the library and the presence and quality of library staffing, is consistently related to reading achievement. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Visit to a Public Library <ul><li>Second and third grade children who came from print-poor environments and who attended a school with a poor school library were taken to the public library monthly. Each child was allowed to take out ten books, which suddenly produced a substantial classroom library for use during sustained silent reading time and for reading at home. It was clear that the children enjoyed their visit; most reported reading more, that reading was easier, and that they wanted to return to the library. </li></ul><ul><li>--Ramos and Krashen, 1998 </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Children who are read to at school or at home read more and show better literacy development. </li></ul><ul><li>--Lomax, 1976, Neuman, 1986, </li></ul><ul><li>1995 </li></ul>
  23. 23. The best part about series fiction is that it keeps us reading. Once you’re hooked on a series, you can’t wait to go back for more. --J. Marin Younger, Seattle Public Library
  24. 24. Children as Readers <ul><li>Children who are readers will develop at least acceptable levels of literacy. Without a reading habit, children simply do not have a chance. </li></ul><ul><li>--Stephen Krashen, The Power of Reading </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stephen Krashen Concludes… <ul><li>“ Reading is good for you. The research, however, supports a stronger conclusion: Reading is the only way, the only way we become good readers, develop a good writing style, an adequate vocabulary, advanced grammatical competence, and the only way we become good spellers.” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Bibliography <ul><li>Bevilacqua, Linda; President, Core Knowledge Foundation, </li></ul><ul><li>Krashen, Stephen; The Power of Reading , Libraries Unlimited, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>White, Eugene, “The Power of Literacy”, The Indianapolis Star, June 29, 2008. </li></ul>