Chapter 3 Movement Of Substances

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Diffusion, Osmosis and Active Transport

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Chapter 3 Movement Of Substances

  1. 1. Movement in Substances Chapter 3
  2. 2. Diffusion <ul><li>Diffusion is the net movement of particles from a area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (or down a concentration gradient). </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in water and most liquids/gases </li></ul><ul><li>The steeper the diffusion gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs through a permeable membrane. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Examples of Diffusion
  4. 4. Examples of Diffusion Permeable to The molecule
  5. 5. Osmosis <ul><li>Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a solution of higher water potential to a solution of lower water potential, through a partially permeable membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Water potential is a measure of the tendency of water to move from one place to another. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Examples of osmosis
  7. 7. Effect of osmosis <ul><li>A solution with a higher water potential than in normal cells of the body and the blood : hypotonic solution </li></ul><ul><li>A solution with a lower water potential than in normal cells of the body and the blood : hypertonic solution </li></ul><ul><li>A solution that has the same water potential as the normal cells of the body and the blood : isotonic solution </li></ul>
  8. 8. Plant Cells in Hypotonic Solution <ul><li>The cell sap has a lower water potential than the hypotonic solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is drawn into the cell sap via osmosis through the partially permeable membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell enlarges and becomes turgid. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell does not burst due to the presence of cell wall. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Animal Cell in Hypotonic Solution <ul><li>The cytoplasm of the animal cell has a lower water potential than the hypotonic solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is drawn into the cytoplasm via osmosis through the partially permeable membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell swells and bursts. </li></ul><ul><li>It bursts due to the absence of a cell wall. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Plant Cell in Hypertonic Solution <ul><li>The cell sap has a higher water potential than the hypertonic solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Water leaves the cell sap via osmosis through the partially permeable membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>The cytoplasm shrinks away from the cell wall and the cell plasmolyses. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell becomes flaccid. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Animal Cell in Hypertonic Solution <ul><li>The cytoplasm of the animal cell has a higher water potential than the hypertonic solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Water leaves the cell via osmosis through the partially permeable membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell shrinks and little spikes appear on the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell is crenated. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Animal and Plant cell in Isotonic Solution <ul><li>In an isotonic solution, the cell and the solution have the same water potential. </li></ul><ul><li>As there no difference in water potential, there is no net movement of water molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Osmosis does not take place. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Active Transport <ul><li>Active transport is the process in which energy is used to move the partocles of a substances against a concentration gradient. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of glucose and mineral salts in small intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of water and mineral salts in the root hair cell </li></ul></ul>

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