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Chapter 3 Movement Of Substances
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Chapter 3 Movement Of Substances

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Diffusion, Osmosis and Active Transport

Diffusion, Osmosis and Active Transport

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  • 1. Movement in Substances Chapter 3
  • 2. Diffusion
    • Diffusion is the net movement of particles from a area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (or down a concentration gradient).
    • Occurs in water and most liquids/gases
    • The steeper the diffusion gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion.
    • Occurs through a permeable membrane.
  • 3. Examples of Diffusion
  • 4. Examples of Diffusion Permeable to The molecule
  • 5. Osmosis
    • Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a solution of higher water potential to a solution of lower water potential, through a partially permeable membrane.
    • Water potential is a measure of the tendency of water to move from one place to another.
  • 6. Examples of osmosis
  • 7. Effect of osmosis
    • A solution with a higher water potential than in normal cells of the body and the blood : hypotonic solution
    • A solution with a lower water potential than in normal cells of the body and the blood : hypertonic solution
    • A solution that has the same water potential as the normal cells of the body and the blood : isotonic solution
  • 8. Plant Cells in Hypotonic Solution
    • The cell sap has a lower water potential than the hypotonic solution.
    • Water is drawn into the cell sap via osmosis through the partially permeable membrane.
    • The cell enlarges and becomes turgid.
    • The cell does not burst due to the presence of cell wall.
  • 9. Animal Cell in Hypotonic Solution
    • The cytoplasm of the animal cell has a lower water potential than the hypotonic solution.
    • Water is drawn into the cytoplasm via osmosis through the partially permeable membrane.
    • The cell swells and bursts.
    • It bursts due to the absence of a cell wall.
  • 10. Plant Cell in Hypertonic Solution
    • The cell sap has a higher water potential than the hypertonic solution.
    • Water leaves the cell sap via osmosis through the partially permeable membrane.
    • The cytoplasm shrinks away from the cell wall and the cell plasmolyses.
    • The cell becomes flaccid.
  • 11. Animal Cell in Hypertonic Solution
    • The cytoplasm of the animal cell has a higher water potential than the hypertonic solution.
    • Water leaves the cell via osmosis through the partially permeable membrane.
    • The cell shrinks and little spikes appear on the cell.
    • The cell is crenated.
  • 12. Animal and Plant cell in Isotonic Solution
    • In an isotonic solution, the cell and the solution have the same water potential.
    • As there no difference in water potential, there is no net movement of water molecules.
    • Osmosis does not take place.
  • 13. Active Transport
    • Active transport is the process in which energy is used to move the partocles of a substances against a concentration gradient.
    • Examples
      • Absorption of glucose and mineral salts in small intestine
      • Absorption of water and mineral salts in the root hair cell

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