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    • 1. Network Effectiveness: An Interactive Working Session for Packard Foundation Grantees May 27, 2009 Heather Grant [email_address] Diana Scearce [email_address] Paris San Francisco São Paulo Seoul Singapore Tokyo Toronto Zurich Shanghai Palo Alto Johannesburg Beijing Chicago Hong Kong Cambridge Delhi Dubai Los Angeles Madrid Manila Mumbai Munich New York Moscow London This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
    • 2. Network Basics
    • 3. Networks Are Changing the Way the World Works Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 4. Obama Used Networks to Mobilize 13 M Supporters
      • “ One of my fundamental beliefs…is that real change comes from the bottom up. And there’s no more powerful tool for grass-roots organizing than the Internet.”
        • Barack Obama
    • 5. 10K+ Activists Protested Elections in Moldova “… six people, 10 minutes for brainstorming and decision-making, several hours of disseminating information through networks, Facebook, blogs, SMSs and e-mail.” – Natalia Morar, ThinkMoldova
    • 6.
      • “ While newspaper circulation has long been in decline, the latest figures show the drop is accelerating…Weekday circulation declined 7.1% for the six months that ended March 31, compared with the previous year.”
        • New York Times , April 27,2009
      We’re Witnessing the Death of Old Models…
    • 7. … And New Models Are Emerging
    • 8. As a Result, the Way Our Work Gets Done Is Changing
    • 9. Many Nonprofits Need to Find Ways to Leverage Networks Networks are one answer for increasing efficiency and impact
        • Increasing Number of Nonprofits
        • More Competition for Resources
        • Many Nonprofits Not at Scale
        • ( 82% of nonprofits operate on annual budgets of under $1 million)
      Source: “The Non-Profit Sector in Brief,” National Center for Charitable Statistics, 2008.
    • 10. What Do We Mean by Networks?
      • Groups of individuals or organizations
      • Connected around a common purpose
      • Lots of participants
      • Ability to self-organize
      • Fueled by new technologies
      Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 11. Networks Have Been Around for a Long Time…
    • 12. … and new online spaces for building relationships There Are New Technologies for Sharing Content…
    • 13. Advances in the Science of Networks and Complexity Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 14. Combined with Established Practices for Engaging Groups Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 15.
      • “… wikis and other social media tools are engendering a new, networked mindset—a way of working wikily —that is characterized by principles of openness, transparency, decentralized decision-making , and distributed action . "
      • - Working Wikily 2.0
      The Result = “Working Wikily”
    • 16. What Do We Mean by “Working Wikily”?
        • Centralized
        • Firmly controlled
        • Planned
        • Proprietary
        • One-way
        • communication
        • Decentralized
        • Loosely controlled
        • Emergent
        • Public
        • Two-way
        • conversation
      Established Ways of Working Where are you on these continuums? The answer will be different for different situations Working Wikily
    • 17. Working Wikily Can Address Diverse Challenges
        • Isolation
        • Unmet needs
        • Lack of power
        • Duplication and fragmentation of effort
        • Lack of shared knowledge
        • Untapped talent and wisdom
        • Suboptimal impact and challenges with growth
        • Build community
        • Engage people
        • Advocate for policy change
        • Coordinate resources and services
        • Develop and share knowledge
        • Innovate
        • Get to scale
      Working Wikily Potential Problem
    • 18. Build Community 2008: 22,000 Members attending each week 1980: 205 Members
    • 19. Engage People 2008: 400,000 Volunteers in 104 Countries 1985: Single-site Effort in US
    • 20. Advocate for Policy Change 2008: 3.2 Million Members 1998: Email to 100 friends
    • 21. Coordinate Resources and Services Total Loans 2009: $66 million Total Loans 2006: $1 million
    • 22. Develop and Share Knowledge 14 Countries 1,300 Trained Volunteers Interagency Program Integrated Fire Management
    • 23. Innovate “ Open Sourcing Social Solutions” Internal, Proprietary R&D Labs
    • 24. … transforming communities through collaborations to address root causes of poverty and homelessness Source: Jane Wei-Skillern and Kerry Herman, “Habitat for Humanity—Egypt,” Harvard Business School Cases, October 3, 2006. Get to Scale Typical HFH country programs produce 200 houses each year In Egypt, HFH builds 1,000 houses a year, on average - EGYPT-
    • 25.
        • Common Challenges Faced by Network Leaders:
        • Communicating the value of networks
        • Designing and catalyzing networks
        • Determining network boundaries
        • Building trust among participants
        • Participant engagement and communications
        • Managing and adapting to evolution and growth
        • Tracking and evaluating impact
        • Letting go of control
      Working Wikily Isn’t Easy… Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 26. Eight Lessons We’re Learning About “Working Wikily”
        • Design your experiments around a problem to solve , not the tools
        • Experiment a lot, invest in understanding what works and what doesn’t, and make only new mistakes
        • Set appropriate expectations for time and effort required
        • Prioritize human elements like trust and fun
        • Understand your position within networks and act on this knowledge
        • Push power to the edges
        • Balance bottom-up and top-down strategies for organizing people and effort
        • Be open and transparent ; share what you are doing and learning as a matter of course
    • 27. Understanding Your Network Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 28. How Are Networks Structured?
    • 29. A Few Helpful Definitions Core Link Node Cluster Periphery Hub
    • 30. Network Structures Can Take Many Forms Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 31. Centralized Decentralized Note: These categories often overlap. Most of the examples fit in to multiple categories.
        • Nonprofit organizations ( without explicit network structure)
        • Membership organizations (Organizations with network component)
        • Nonprofits with explicit network strategy and structure
        • Coalition / Alliance (network of organizations)
        • Networks of networks
        • Ad hoc networks
      Developed from: Plastrik, Taylor, “Net Gains,” (2006); Anklam, “Net Work,” (2007); Krebs, Holley. “Building Smart Communities,” (2006).Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com A Typology of Organizing Structures
    • 32.
      • Good for:
      • Speed of execution, efficiency
      • Quality control, reliability
      • Service-delivery
      • Accountability
      Nonprofits without Explicit Network Structure
    • 33.
      • Good for:
        • Engaging, mobilizing large groups
        • Fundraising
        • Question: Is the nature of membership changing?
      Membership Organizations
    • 34. Nonprofits with Explicit Network Structure (Hub-Spoke)
      • Good for:
        • Coordination of activity
        • Controlled knowledge transfer
        • Resource sharing
    • 35. Nonprofits with Explicit Network Structure (Multi-Hub)
      • Good for:
        • Rapid diffusion of knowledge
        • Rapid mobilization
        • Efficient access to knowledge or local relationships
    • 36. Coalition / Alliance
      • Good for:
        • Complex coordination & co-creation
        • Contained knowledge transfer
        • Organizing around joint goals
    • 37. Networks of Networks—Organizations
      • Good for:
        • Innovation
        • Environment scanning
        • Movement building
        • Resilient & adaptive action
      Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 38. Ad Hoc Networks—Individuals
      • Good for:
        • Connecting people/ info across networks
        • Spontaneous, quick action
        • Aggregating small gifts/ actions
    • 39. Social Network Mapping: A Tool for Visualizing Your Network
    • 40. What’s Possible from Network Mapping?
        • Visualize the network: see connections within the system
        • Make visible network resources, and see flow of resources
        • Spark a conversation among participants
        • Assess the “health” of a network, diagnose
        • Assess change in network over time
    • 41. Network Mapping Can Be Simple and Low-Tech… Source: June Holley
    • 42. … Or More High-Tech
    • 43. Frame the Problem Collect Data Analyze Data Validate & Discuss Results Identify Next Steps Follow up
      • Goal
      • Problem/ Opportunity
      • Hypotheses
      • Who/ Boundaries
      • Relationships/ Flows
      • Demographics
      • Surveys
      • Interviews
      • Focus groups
      • Data mining
      • Specialized network mapping software helps to understand data:
      • Visually (Maps)
      • Quantitatively (Metrics)
      • Preliminary review
      • One-on-one interviews
      • Interactive feedback session
      • Formal presentation
      • Planning
      • Training
      • Organizational Changes
      • Specific interventions
      Framework developed by Roberto Cremonini, Barr Foundation How Is Network Mapping Done?
    • 44. Using Network Maps to Increase Service Coordination
    • 45.
        • Identified community to map; bounded the network
        • Sent out survey to collect data; entered data into software
        • Produced maps with ability to sort by inputs; gathered missing data
        • Analyzed maps to identify network development opportunities
        • Group continues to meet; on-going network coaching
      Process Used to Map the Youth Development Network
    • 46.
      • A map of the different networks shows fairly loose connections
      Maps Were Used to Analyze the Network Government Foundation Non-Profit For-Profit School Unknown Religious Other Network by Organization Type
    • 47. Now, you’re going to map your networks
        • Choose which network you want to focus on
        • Clarify if it is “unbounded” or “bounded”
    • 48. Making Sense of Your Network Structure Directions: Decide what network you want to focus on today. Draw a map of your network. Reflect on the questions below.
      • What type of structure does your network most closely resemble?
      • How did you get to this structure?
      • How’s it working? Does it match your purpose?
      • How might your structure evolve / improve?
      Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 49. Network Diagnosis: Characteristics of Healthy Networks
    • 50. Purpose Participation Strategy and Structure Leadership Communications & Technology Resource Management Assessment
        • Clearly articulated purpose
        • Delivers value/ outcomes to members
        • Trust
        • Diversity
        • High engagement
        • Balance of top-down and bottom-up logic
        • Space for self-organized action
        • Leadership with “network mindset”
        • Distributed leadership
        • Strategic IT
        • Ample shared space: on-line and in-person
        • Ability surface network talent
        • Ability to tap excess capacity
        • Learning-capture
        • Ability to gather and act on feedback
      Governance
        • Governance by a group representative of the network’s diversity
        • Openness
      Helpful Sources: M. Kearns and K. Showalter; J. Holley and V. Krebs; P. Plastrik and M. Taylor; J. W. Skillern; C. Shirky Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Overview
    • 51. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Purpose Purpose
        • Clearly articulated purpose
        • Delivers value / outcomes to members
    • 52. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Participation Participation
        • Trust: strong relationships
        • Diversity: bridging and valuing differences
        • High level of voluntary engagement
    • 53. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Strategy, Structure Strategy and Structure
        • Balance of top-down and bottom-up logic
        • Space for self-organized action
    • 54. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Leadership
        • Leadership with “network mindset” (e.g., opportunity seeking, facilitative, shares responsibility, connector)
        • Distributed leadership
      Leadership “ Oppenheimer [the founder] was eager to help [other potential interactive museums] beg, borrow, and steal his ideas.” Source: Heather McLeod Grant and Leslie R. Crutchfield, “Forces for Good,” (2007).
    • 55. Governance
        • Governance by a group representative of network’s diversity
        • Openness to new ideas and new participation
      Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Governance Administrators 1,648 as of 4/29/09 Bureaucrats 29 active as of 12/22/08 Stewards 37 as of 3/3/09 Arbitration Committee 16 as of 3/21/09 Registered Users 9,540,944 as of 4/29/09
    • 56. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Communications, IT Communications & Technology
        • Strategic IT
        • Ample space: on-line and in-person
      What’s your connection to mountaintop removal?
    • 57. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Communications, IT Communications & Technology
        • Strategic IT
        • Ample shared space: on-line and in-person
    • 58. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Resource Mgt.
        • Ability to surface network talent
        • Ability to tap excess capacity – talent, access, money
      Resource Management
    • 59. Assessment
        • Mechanisms for learning-capture / storytelling
        • Ability to gather and act on feedback
      Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Assessment
    • 60.
      • How healthy is your network?
    • 61. Network Communications
    • 62. Network Leadership and Mindset Heather Grant [email_address] Diana Scearce [email_address] This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
    • 63. Purpose Participation Strategy and Structure Leadership Communications & Technology Resource Management Assessment
        • Clearly articulated purpose
        • Delivers value/ outcomes to members
        • Trust
        • Diversity
        • High engagement
        • Balance of top-down and bottom-up logic
        • Space for self-organized action
        • Leadership with “network mindset”
        • Distributed leadership
        • Strategic IT
        • Ample shared space: on-line and in-person
        • Ability surface network talent
        • Ability to tap excess capacity
        • Learning-capture
        • Ability to gather and act on feedback
      Governance
        • Governance by a group representative of the network’s diversity
        • Openness
      Helpful Sources: M. Kearns and K. Showalter; J. Holley and V. Krebs; P. Plastrik and M. Taylor; J. W. Skillern; C. Shirky Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Overview
    • 64. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Leadership
        • Leadership with “network mindset” (e.g., opportunity seeking, facilitative, shares responsibility, connector)
        • Distributed leadership
      Leadership “ Oppenheimer [the founder] was eager to help [other potential interactive museums] beg, borrow, and steal his ideas.” Source: Heather McLeod Grant and Leslie R. Crutchfield, “Forces for Good,” (2007).
    • 65. The Network Mindset Organization Orientation Network Orientation Mindset Strategy Behaviors Competition Grow the organization Compete for resources Protect knowledge Competitive advantage Hoard talent Collaboration Grow the network Share resources Open source IP Develop competitors Cultivate leadership Source: Forces for Good by Heather McLeod Grant and Leslie R. Crutchfield (2007) Source: Heather McLeod Grant and Leslie R. Crutchfield, “Forces for Good,” (2007).
    • 66. Network Leadership Roles Source: Building the Field of Dreams by Stephanie Lowell (2007) Source: Peter Plastrik and Madeleine Taylor, “Net Gains: a Handbook for Network Builders Seeking Social Change.” (2006) Organizer Funder Facilitator Weaver Coach Steward
        • Establishes purpose and value propositions
        • Establishes first links to participants
        • Provides initial resources for organizing the network
        • Helps network participants negotiate collective action plans
        • Works to increase connections among participants
        • May focus on growing the network by connecting to new participants
        • Advises organizers, weavers, facilitators, and coordinators
        • Informally helps to build the network without a formal role
      Coordinator
        • Helps participants to undertake collective action
        • Ensures flow of information and other resources
      Network Leadership could be one person doing many things, or many people each doing one thing.
    • 67. Tasks of Network Leadership: What Network Leaders Do Building and Developing the Network Allocating Resources Communicating Managing Technology Connecting Members Catalyzing Action Capacity Building/ Coaching Building Consensus Facilitating Process Helpful Sources: Peter Plastrik and Madeleine Taylor, “Net Gains: a Handbook for Network Builders Seeking Social Change.” (2006) and June Holley, “Network Weaver Checklist,” (2006).
    • 68.
      • People oriented / natural connector
      • Comfortable with ambiguity
      • Humility / low ego
      • Systems thinking / see patterns
      • Ability to identify talents in others
      • Skilled at group processes /
      • facilitation (good listening)
      • Conflict resolution skills
      • Comfort with technology
      • Adaptive
      • Seeks opportunity to share and
      • spread responsibility
      Competencies of Network Leadership Source: Building the Field of Dreams by Stephanie Lowell (2007)
    • 69.
        • Challenges Faced by Individuals / Network Leaders:
        • Unlearning past behaviors and frameworks (organizational mindset)
        • Letting go of control
        • Managing time and network expectations
        • Setting boundaries around work
        • Dealing with information overload
        • Learning and leveraging new technologies
        • Measuring your success
      Working Wikily Isn’t Easy… Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 70.
        • What did you learn? Where did score yourself hi/ low?
        • What are your priority goals for development?
        • What are three tangible things you can do to strengthen your network leadership?
        • What would help you achieve these goals?
        • Is there a correlation between network / leadership diagnostics?
      Network Weaver Checklist Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 71. Strengthening Your Network
    • 72. Purpose Participation Strategy and Structure Leadership Communications & Technology Resource Management Assessment
        • Clearly articulated purpose
        • Delivers value/ outcomes to members
        • Trust
        • Diversity
        • High engagement
        • Balance of top-down and bottom-up logic
        • Space for self-organized action
        • Leadership with “network mindset”
        • Distributed leadership
        • Strategic IT
        • Ample shared space: on-line and in-person
        • Ability surface network talent
        • Ability to tap excess capacity
        • Learning-capture
        • Ability to gather and act on feedback
      Governance
        • Governance by a group representative of the network’s diversity
        • Openness
      Helpful Sources: M. Kearns and K. Showalter; J. Holley and V. Krebs; P. Plastrik and M. Taylor; J. W. Skillern; C. Shirky Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Overview
    • 73. How Networks Progress and Evolve Source: Valdis Krebs and June Holley, “Building Smart Communities through Network Weaving,” (2006). Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com. 1. 2. 3. 4. Multi-Hub Small World Core Periphery Hub and Spoke Scattered Clusters
    • 74. A Few Strategies for Strengthening Your Network Nurture quality connections so projects can be high risk & high impact Bridge difference . Connect people and ideas that normally don’t go together Support overlapping projects or collaborations , many very small, initiated by many Map the network in order to visualize structure , diagnose strengths and weaknesses, and identify strategies for growing the network Grow and engage periphery to bring in new resources and innovation Source: Adapted from June Holley, www.networkweaving.com . Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
    • 75. The Green and Healthy Building Network: 2005 Source: Barr Foundation “Green and Healthy Building Network Case Study” by Beth Tener, Al Neirenberg, Bruce Hoppe
    • 76. The Green and Healthy Building Network: 2007 Source: Barr Foundation “Green and Healthy Building Network Case Study” by Beth Tener, Al Neirenberg, Bruce Hoppe
    • 77. Appendix
    • 78. 250K Individuals Used Networks to Coordinate Protests
      • “ Ordinary folks are using the power of the Internet to organize. In the old days, organizing large groups of people required an organization. Now people can coordinate themselves.”
        • Wall Street Journal , April 15, 2009