East Timor - Developing EconomicsPresentation Transcript
ECONOMIC PRESENTATION EPISODE IV EAST TIMOR
EAST TIMOR: MY ECONOMIC STORY
WHERE DO YOU THINK EAST TIMOR’S POSITION IS IN THE HDI RANKINGS? WHAT IS EAST TIMOR’S PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE ENROLLED INTO EDUCATION? WHAT IS EAST TIMOR’S ADULT LITERACY? WHAT IS EAST TIMOR’S LIFE EXPECTANCY? WHAT IS EAST TIMOR’S HDI VALUE?
SOURCES: ADB. 2007. KEY INDICATORS 2007 . MANILA. ADB. 2008. BASIC STATISTICS 2008. MANILA. UNSD. 2008. MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS DATABASE ONLINE. ‘ THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008’ LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH: 59.7 YEARS (137/177) ADULT LITERACY RATE (AGES 15+) : 50.1% (123/139) COMBINED PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY GROSS ENROLMENT RATIO: 72.0% (93/172) GDP GROWTH (% CHANGE PER YEAR): 7.8 POPULATION USING IMPROVED SANITATION: 36% POPULATION USING AN INMPROVED DRINKING WATER SOURCE: 58% (2004) PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH (% OF GDP): 8.8 POPULATION LIVING BELOW THE NATIONAL POVERTY LINE: 41% (2001) PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION IN URBAN AREAS: 26.5 (2005) ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH RATE: 3.2% (2005–2007) GDP (PPP) 2007 ESTIMATE - TOTAL $2.608 BILLION - PER CAPITA $2,500
WHAT IS EAST TIMOR’S HDI VALUE AND WHERE IS EAST TIMOR’S POSITION IN THE HDI RANKINGS? THE BIG QUESTIONS… EAST TIMOR’S HDI VALUE: 0.514 SO…EAST TIMOR’S POSITION IN THE HDI RANKINGS IS… 150th OUT OF 177 COUNTRIES ON THE REPORT LIST !
BASED ON 2005 READINGS IN ‘THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008’ THE HPI-1 VALUE OF 41.8 FOR EAST TIMOR, RANKS 95 TH AMONG 108 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FOR WHICH THE INDEX HAS BEEN CALCULATED. THE HUMAN POVERTY INDEX FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (HPI-1), FOCUSES ON THE PROPORTION OF PEOPLE BELOW A THRESHOLD LEVEL IN THE SAME DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AS THE HDI. 134. Chile (1) 125. Hungary (1) 164. Estonia (0.2) 173. Iceland (1.4) 108. Barbados (3.0) 7. Cambodia (45) 23. Congo (42) 19. Morocco (47.7) 43. Gambia (20.9) 16. Bangladesh (40.5) 6. Burundi (45) 22. Zambia (42) 18. Mauritania (48.8) 42. Myanmar (21.0) 15. Gambia (40.9) 5. EAST TIMOR (46) 21. EAST TIMOR (42) 17. EAST TIMOR (49.9) 41. EAST TIMOR (21.2) 14. EAST TIMOR(41.8) 4. Yemen (46) 20. Sierra Leone (43) 16. Pakistan (50.1) 40. Haiti (21.4) 13. Zambia (41.8) 3. India (47) 19. Romania (43) 15. Côte d'Ivoire (51.3) 39. Ghana (23.8) 12. Senegal (42.9) 1. Nepal (48) 1. Ethiopia (78) 1. Burkina Faso (76.4) 1. Zimbabwe (57.4) 1. Chad (56.9) Children underweight for age (% ages 0-5) 2004 People without access to an improved water source (%) 2004 Adult illiteracy rate (%ages 15 and older) 2004 Probability of not surviving past age 40 (%) 2004 Human Poverty Index (HPI-1) 2004
WHY ARE ALL THESE FACTS IMPORTANT?
THESE KIND OF MEASUREMENTS ARE INDICATORS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY AND DETERMINES WHAT LEVEL THEY ARE AT AND WILL BE IN THE FUTURE.
HDI IS VERY IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT LOOKS BEYOND A COUNTRY’S GDP TO A BROADER MEANING OF A COUNTRY’S WELL – BEING. IT MEASURES THE AVERAGE PROGRESS OF A COUNTRY IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.
WHAT IS YOUR OPINION ON THOSE FIGURES?
HOWEVER, THERE ARE MAY BE CERTAIN PROBLEMS THAT EAST TIMOR MIGHT FACE WHEN DEVELOPING THEIR COUNTRY. LET'S FIND OUT!
EAST TIMOR’S PLEDGE FOR INDEPENDENCE AND THE PROBLEMS THAT FOLLOWED
WIDESPREAD FEAR AND DESTRUCTION FROM OUTBREACKS OF VIOLENCE IN 2006
THE LARGE POWER STATION PROBLEM
WHAT ARE EAST TIMOR’S DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AND ISSUES WITH EXTERNAL FINANCES, RENALDO?
East Timor also has a large and potentially lucrative coffee AND SANDALWOOD industry, which sells organic coffee to numerous Fair Trade retailers and on the open market Education rightly seen as a priority for sustained self sufficiency
LITERACY TRAINING FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES, ESPECIALLY WOMAN
MEDIA TRAINING, ESPECIALLY COMMUNITY RADIO AND THE PRINT MEDIA
STRENGTHENING EAST TIMORESE COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS
SUPPORT FOR UNIVERSITY OF TIMOR LORO SA’S LIBRARY
LABOUR RIGHTS AND CAPACITY BUILDING TRAINING FOR TRADE UNIONS
Union Aid Abroad- Australian People for Health, Education and Development Abroad (APHEDA) maintains an office in Dili, staffed by both Australian and Timorese personnel, which oversees an extensive program of community development, capacity building and training, including:
Key strategies of Union Aid Abroad-APHEDA in East Timor 2005-2008
Developing local partnerships, particularly in the areas of vocational education, labour rights, agriculture, status of women, health and media.
Advocacy and support for community based development work in health, agriculture, women's issues, labour and media.
Securing ongoing funding for programs.
Creating links and exchanges between local partners and relevant Australian and international organisations.
Facilitating support networks and capacity building for local partners.
Strengthening human rights in the workplace through the local trade union movement, the KSTL (peak union body).
EAST TIMOR AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT P rivate foreign investment is extremely minimal in East Timor, and the reason for that is a total lack of certainty of titles.
The Asian Development Bank is a multilateral development bank owned by 67 members, 48 from the region and 19 from other parts of the world. ADB’s main instruments for helping its developing member countries are policy dialogue, loans, equity investments, guarantees, grants, and technical assistance (TA) EAST TIMOR JOINED THE ADB IN 2002. I n April 2008, East Timor announced its short-term top six national priorities. ADB support focuses on priority area 4: Employment and Income Generation, particularly infrastructure development and private sector development. LOANS (2007) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE = $15 MILLION GRANTS = $6 MILLION TOTAL = $21 MILLION
East Timorese government leaders have joined grassroots activists in repeatedly stating that the country should not mortgage its future by incurring debt. Because the World Bank technically cannot give loans to non-self-governing territories, borrowing money has not yet been a possibility.
But if the wealthy countries of the Global North do not commit enough support to carry East Timor through the initial years of its independence, the likelihood of the East Timorese government being coerced into taking out such loans will increase dramatically.
The U.S. (and other industrialized countries) should go beyond this sweet-sounding rhetoric by guaranteeing "structural adjustment"-free grants to East Timor, thus avoiding the cycle of debt and poverty to which too many countries have been condemned.
I BELIEVE THAT EAST TIMOR WILL IMPROVE ECONOMICALLY IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS. FOR THEM TO ECONOMICALLY GROW, THEY NEED TO PUSH TOWRDS INDUSTRIALISATION. AND I’M BASING THIS THEORY ON NO KNOWLEDGE OF EAST TIMOR AT ALL. I’M VERY HOPEFUL THAT EAST TIMOR WILL GROW, BUT THEY NEED TO BECOME LESS MONOCULTURAL ON THE AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY. …GIGGITY. EAST TIMOR WILL NEED TO DEVISE PLANS TO ATTRACT MORE FOREIGN INVESTORS IF THEY ARE TO HAVE A VENTALATION RESPIRATOR FOR MY CHOCOLATE RAIN.
WHAT IS YOUR OPINION? “ We all acknowledge the tremendous challenges facing this young nation. The recent attempts on the lives of the President and Prime Minister were a terrible reminder of how fragile security and stability can be. That the Government was able to respond so quickly and calmly and maintain order was hugely impressive and creates confidence going forward” said Mr. Nigel Roberts, World Bank Country Director Pacific Islands, PNG and Timor-Leste. “ A country such as Timor-Leste is confronted with many immediate concerns from the obvious security and stability to employment, health, improving social services and providing opportunity and hope for the nation’s youth. We at the World Bank want to work with the Government to set achievable short-term goals and long-term strategies to ensure the people of Timor-Leste get a dividend on their long struggle for independence” said Mr. Nigel Roberts, World Bank Country Director Pacific Islands, PNG and Timor-Leste.
THE SUMMARY It has made significant progress since independence but faces many of the challenges common to post-conflict states, including high levels of poverty, political instability, weak public and private sector capacity, poor infrastructure, and limited economic opportunities. East Timor is ranked as a lower-middle-income economy, ranked 150 th on the HDI Report Because of recent violent outbreaks during 1999 and 2006, this has damaged the country’s economic development Main industry is agriculture; is expanding into industrialisation but needs monetary support Has obtained aid from various organisations but needs to attract more foreign investors
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